ws213 neuroanatomy syllabus by VRX8nK


									                        PACIFIC COLLEGE OF ORIENTAL MEDICINE

Anatomy & Physiology 3: Neuroanatomy                                     Gene Desepoli, LMT, CSCS, D.C.
WS213 Course No. 115 -3 Units                                        
Fall 2010                                                                                 516-317-9874

  Anatomy & Physiology 1 (Bones & Muscles)
  Anatomy & Physiology 2 (Organ systems)

  This course provides massages students with an introduction to the anatomy, physiology, and
  pathology of the nervous system and an understanding of how this knowledge applies to massage
  practice. Content includes: organization and function of the nervous system, including
  neurotransmitters and nerve impulse transmission; the brain and spinal cord; cranial nerves; the
  sensory nervous system; control of posture and movement and the autonomic nervous system.
  Special neurology topics for massage therapists will be discussed, including: myofascial trigger
  point pain and dysfunction, the craniosacral system and mechanisms of indirect myofascial
  release; respiration and the ANS; social neurology and empathy, and cardiac neurology.

  At the end of the course, a successful student will be able to identify and understand the following
  objectives with a moderate level of comprehension:

  1. Benefits of clinical research of massage therapy as health maintaining and healing
  2. Benefits of massage therapy incorporation in major and being adjusted presently health care
  3. Effects of massage on the nervous system functioning and repair.
  4. Basic anatomy and physiology of the nervous system and its major controlling functions for
      maintenance of homeostasis within human organism.
  5. Basic cellular organization and communication mechanisms within the nervous system and
      between nervous system and human organism as a whole.
  6. Major and fundamental functions of different parts of the brain, including meninges, corpus
      callosum, tentorium cerebri and tentorium cerebelli, cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem,
      cerebellum, basal ganglia and limbic system; cerebro-vascular fluid and blood circulation.
  7. Major sensory and motor pathways/ tracts connecting the brain, spinal cord and somatic/
      visceral structures and functions within the human organism.
  8. Gross and cross-sectional anatomy of the spinal cord; anatomy of the spinal nerves and
      peripheral nerve plexi, cranial nerves and their major functions.
  9. Major muscles of the human body and their innervation by major terminal/ peripheral nerves.
  10. Types of spinal reflexes and their clinical significance.
  11. General and special senses, including types of sensory receptors, modalities of sensation as
      proprioception, pain, mechanisms of referred pain, phantom pain, smell, taste, vision,
      gestation, hearing, and equilibrium.
  12. Anatomy and major actions of autonomic nervous system and its divisions: sympathetic
      versus parasympathetic actions.

Anatomy & Physiology 3: Neuroanatomy                                    Gene Desepoli, LMT, CSCS, D.C.
WS213 Course No. 115 -3 Units                                       
Fall 2010                                                                                516-317-9874

  Anatomy and Physiology for the Manual Therapies by Andrew Kuntzman and Gerard Tortora.

  Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank Netter, 3rd Edition, Novartis, East Hanover, NJ.

  Lectures, based on PowerPoint demonstrations, followed by class discussions and testing,
  including self-assessment and class assessment of required objectives per each topic.

  Detailed comprehension of the information presented.

  This class is deepens understanding of, and enhances perception of, the body’s response to touch,
  in general, and the accuracy and effectiveness of specific practical manual therapy techniques.

  Attendance - 75% required                                               Overall Grade
  Weekly quizzes (6-8 total; lowest grade will be dropped)                    30%
  Midterm                                                                     30%
  Final comprehensive Examination                                             30%
  Projects/class participation                                                10%

  A=94-100        A-=90-93        B+=87-89      B=84-86            B-=80-83
  C+=77-79        C=70-76         F=69 or lower I=Incomplete

  Any missed exams must be made up within 1 week.
  Failure to do so may result in a 0 grade.

  Regular attendance is a requirement for getting the most from your education. Students must
  attend 75% of the hours scheduled for any given academic course or a grade of “F” is assigned
  and the course must be retaken at normal tuition rates. Faculty may establish attendance
  requirements in excess of 75% with the approval of the Academic Dean. Clinical courses and
  some academic courses required 100% attendance.


Anatomy & Physiology 3: Neuroanatomy                                       Gene Desepoli, LMT, CSCS, D.C.
WS213 Course No. 115 -3 Units                                          
Fall 2010                                                                                   516-317-9874

  The faculty of Pacific College has adopted the following description of letter grades to
  supplement the numerical descriptions in the catalog:

  A means outstanding achievement. The student has met more than 90% of the course objectives.
  An A grade is only available for the highest, exemplary accomplishments.
  B means average performance. Student has met at least 80% of the course objectives. The
  student may need some remedial work in order to fully meet the course objectives. Because all
  course objectives are important in this curriculum, some remediation, either by focused
  independent study or tutorial, is recommended before proceeding to advanced courses.
  C is below average and is awarded for marginally satisfactory performance. Student may
  proceed in courses for which the course is a prerequisite but remediation is strongly
  recommended. C should be considered a warning grade. It is the college's observation that C
  students are at risk of failure on comprehensive and state licenser exams.

  Pluses and minuses, with the exception of A+ and C-, may now be used to differentiate between
  letter grades and are calculated in student GPAs. A+ is not used because the college is on a 4.0
  standard with A equal to 4.0. An A is reserved for the highest standards of accomplishment. C-
  is not used because C is the minimum passing grade in the program, therefore, less than a C
  indicates a failure to achieve a passing grade and should be awarded an F.

  There will be no make up quizzes. Makeup of a missed examination is subject to approval by the
  faculty member involved. Make-up fees are applicable. Faculty is under no obligation to excuse
  a student from an exam and may assign a failing or lower grade to a missed exam. Students must
  notify the instructor, at least 72 hours prior, that they will miss an exam and the reason. If
  excused, midterm and final exams must be made up within one week of the exam date. The
  Administration office may administer these exams. (PCOM Catalog Part 2, pg 19)

  Any student seeking authorization for an “I” must first present a written petition to the Academic
  Dean. It is the responsibility of the student to bring pertinent information to the instructor and the
  Dean and to reach an agreement on the means by which the remaining course requirements will
  be satisfied. An incomplete shall not be assigned when the only way a student can make up the
  work would be to attend a major portion of the course when the class is next offered. An ”I” may
  not be assigned when the student’s GPA is less that 70%. A student receiving an “I” must make
  up the specified deficiency and receive a grade by the end of the second week of the next
  semester, or the “I” automatically becomes an “F” on the first day of the third week of the term
  and the course must be retaken at normal tuition rates. There are no extensions to this policy. It
  is the student’s responsibility to ascertain that the instructor has delivered the final grade change
  to the administration before the third week of the term begins.


Anatomy & Physiology 3: Neuroanatomy                                   Gene Desepoli, LMT, CSCS, D.C.
WS213 Course No. 115 -3 Units                                      
Fall 2010                                                                               516-317-9874

  Class Topics / Suggested Reading Assignments
     1. Introduction to the Nervous System: organization overview. Basic characteristics of
         nervous tissue. Neurons and their classification, based on function. Neuroglia and its
         classification. The myelin within the central and peripheral nervous system. Impulse
         transmission. Membrane potentials. Types of participating electrolytes and channels.
         Major principles of action potential, summation of impulses, types of neurons, based on
         velocity. Saltatory versus continuous conduction of impulses.

      2. The synapse. Synapse types, neurotransmitters and electrolytes, important for synaptic
         transmission of impulses. Synapses in learning and memory. Pathways and circuits.
         Degeneration and regeneration of neurons..

      3. Anatomy of the brain: overview. The cranium and cranial meninges. The falx and
         tentorium cerebri and tentorium cerebelli. Cerebrum and cerebellum: major structures
         and functions. Mapping the cortex: sensory and motor areas. White matter versus gray
         matter. Connections with the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

      4. Major parts of the brainstem: the midbrain, the pons and medulla oblongata. Reticular
         formation and RAS and basal ganglia. The venous sinuses of the brain and arterial blood
         supply (the Circle of Willis). The distribution of body parts within the cerebrum: the

      5. The Diencephalon: Thalamus, Epithalamus, Subthalamus their respective functions,
         Hypothalamus as a center of homeostasis. Connections of the hypothalamus with the
         pituitary gland. Relationship of the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral endocrine

      6. Cranial nerves: corresponding names, numbers, and major functions. Origin and basic
         knowledge of pathways. Cranial reflexes. Special senses.

      7. Midterm Examination

      8. The spinal cord overview: Gross- and cross-sectional anatomy. Spinal meninges. Gray
         and white matter distribution and their major significance. Horns, columns, dorsal root
         ganglia. Roots of the spinal and peripheral nerves.

      9. Overview of movement control. Motor pathways: pyramidal and extra-pyramidal tracts.
         Upper and lower motor neurons. Sensory pathways: first, second and third order sensory
         neurons. The cerebellum and movement coordination.

      10. Relationship between spinal nerves and peripheral nerve networks. Cervical and brachial
          plexi with their terminal peripheral nerves. Major peripheral nerves, their pathways and
          functions within two discussed networks/ plexi. Endangerment points and areas of
          potential entrapment.

Anatomy & Physiology 3: Neuroanatomy                                     Gene Desepoli, LMT, CSCS, D.C.
WS213 Course No. 115 -3 Units                                        
Fall 2010                                                                                 516-317-9874

         Lumbar and lumbo-sacral (sacral) plexi/ spinal nerve networks. Tracing their pathways.
         Areas and points of endangerment and potential entrapment. Dermatomes and myotomes.
         Principle of referred pain. Somatovisceral-viscerosomato referred pain patterns.
         Myofasical trigger point pain and dysfunction.

     11. Spinal reflexes: reflex arc, types of spinal reflexes: stretch-, tendon-, flexor-withdrawal
         reflexes. Clinical applications of spinal reflexes. Muscle tension and relaxation.
         Reciprocal inhibition. Muscle spindle work. Golgi tendon work. The autonomic nervous
         system: overview. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions. Similarities and major
         structural and functional differences. Role in homeostasis and stress-defense functions.
         Respiration, the ANS, and bioenergetic regulation of emotions.

     12. Overview of Pain. Pain perception. Different types of pain (dermatomal, myotomal,
         scleratomal). Overview of myofascial trigger points and theory (re: pain). Discussion of
         different qualities of pain and significance of each.

     13. Social neurology. The mirror neuron system as the biological basis of empathy. Levels
         of empathy in social cognition and relevance to massage practice. Cardiac neurology.
         Importance of clinical research in Massage Therapy. Evidence of effectiveness.
         Integration with modern and Oriental medicine for health preservation and healing:

     14. Comprehensive Final examination

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