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					CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

             ELO H
     CONDUCT ACTIONS AT THE
       RELEASE POINT (RP)




                              144
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

      COMPLETE RELEASE POINT
            ACTIVITIES
   Coordinate RP security
   Coordinate medical support for ambulatory
    patients
   Report arrival and status to higher headquarters
   Coordinate disposition of KIAs
   Direct off-loading of cargo
   Coordinate maintenance or disposal of damaged vehicles
   Coordinate issue of ammunition and supplies



                                                       145
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
      COMPLETE RELEASE POINT
            ACTIVITIES
             (Continued)
     Coordinate mess and billeting
     Submit convoy commander’s report to higher HQ
     Prepare order and briefing for return convoy
     Direct upload of return trip cargo
     Debrief the S2 element




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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

             ELO I
   DESCRIBE THE PURPOSE AND
   FUNCTION OF A GUN TRUCK




               “The Eve of Destruction”
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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

        VIET NAM GUN TRUCKS




                  “Iron Butterfly”



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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

       VIET NAM GUN TRUCKS




                “The Untouchable”


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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

       VIET NAM GUN TRUCKS




                  “The Piece Maker”



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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

         LESSONS LEARNED IN
              VIET NAM
 Strict adherence to regulations sometimes impeded success
 Engine noise caused delays in recognizing attacks
 Gun trucks were excessively heavy
 Limited ammunition equals limited effectiveness
 Drivers are best defended by other drivers
 Gun trucks should be highly visible and intimidating
 In ambush, the enemy would target gun trucks
  (specifically the drivers) first
 Gun trucks did not have an adverse effect on a trans unit’s
  mission capability

                                                         151
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

          LESSONS LEARNED IN
             VIET NAM, cont.
  Ideal gun truck armor was a double layer of steel plate
  Sandbags had to be maintained
  Trucks loaded with the hulks of APCs were too heavy
   and unbalanced
  The box type gun truck was best
  Gun trucks generally had four crew members
  The M-2 .50 caliber machine gun was the best weapon




                                        “The Outlaw”

                                                             152
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

          LESSONS LEARNED IN
             VIET NAM, cont.
   Gun shields were heavy and restricted observation
   Shotguns, M-79 grenade launchers, and M-60 machine
    guns were highly effective secondary weapons
   Intercom link between members of a gun truck crew
    was critical
   The ideal ratio of gun trucks to task vehicles = 1:10
   Gun trucks were well-suited to serve as convoy
    control vehicles
   In an ambush, gun trucks were deployed into the
    kill zone for a quick and violent response
   The area immediately surrounding the gun truck is
    dead space
                                                        153
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

      GUN TRUCK FUNCTIONS
    Ambush deterrence
    Ambush defense
    Control vehicles
    Forward security element (FSE)
    Rear security
    Perimeter security during halts
    Evacuation of wounded from the kill zone
    Security for disabled vehicles


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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

              ELO J
       IDENTIFY GUN TRUCK
           CREW DUTIES




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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

       TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
           (All Crew Members)
    Qualification on all weapons to be employed
    Troop Leading Procedures, Standing Operating
     Procedures, and reporting requirements
    All battle drills
    Target identification and engagement
    Latest enemy TTPs
    Convoy control and movement techniques
    Safety and risk assessment
    Rules of Engagement (ROE)
    First aid

                                                    156
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

      GUN TRUCK SECTION LEADER
           (Convoy Preparation)

  Organizes crews and issues OPORD
  Briefs gun truck section
  Conducts pre-combat checks (PCC)
  Conducts pre-combat inspections
   (PCI)
  Conducts section rehearsals
  Participates in convoy rehearsals




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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

      GUN TRUCK SECTION LEADER/
             COMMANDER
            (Convoy execution)
 Crosses start point (SP) on time
 Maintains position in convoy
 Controls gun trucks
 Maintains discipline and adheres to SOP
 Maintains convoy security
 Identifies threat and returns fire aggressively
 Identifies and fires on enemy FO (indirect fire)
 Quickly assesses situation and reports to convoy commander
 In convoy commander’s absence, acts aggressively

                                                       158
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

      GUN TRUCK SECTION LEADER/
             COMMANDER
              (At the halt)
    AS FSE, selects halt locations that ensure security
    Positions gun trucks for maximum security
    Conducts consolidation and reorganization
    Submits SITREP/SALUTE report




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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

               ELO K
         HARDEN GUN TRUCKS




                 “Highland Raiders”

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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

          HARDEN THE VEHICLE
    Basic hardening
    Commercial kits
    Ideal armor (?) double layer of steel plate
    Box configuration
    Doors and floorboard
    Windows/windshield
    Readily accessible
    Field expedient




                                                   161
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

          ARM THE GUN TRUCK
      Determine weapons assets required
      Determine assets available
      Coordinate with higher HQ to obtain shortfalls
      Determine how weapons will be mounted
        • Ring mounts
        • Pedestal mounts
        • Gun shields
        • Location
        • Supplemental weapons and pyrotechnics
        • Training




                                                        162
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

              ELO L
        EMPLOY GUN TRUCKS




                  “Little Respect”
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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

          BASIC EMPLOYMENT
   Aggressive, yet controlled and disciplined posture
   Functional communications systems
   Minimum of two gun trucks per convoy; three or more
    with convoys greater than ten vehicles
   Gun Truck 1 responsibilities
   Gun Truck 2 responsibilities
   Gun Truck 3 responsibilities




                                                      164
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY


   MANEUVER RESPONSIBILITIES
   Deter ambush through intimidation
   Disperse crowds blocking the road
   Scan and identify RPG gunners
   Secure intersections and block civilian traffic
   Provide security at halts, rally points, disabled vehicle,
    and CASEVAC halts
   On IED attack, repel follow-on attacks
   Maneuver to block civilian vehicles attempting to
    infiltrate the convoy



                                                            165
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

   FORWARD SECURITY ELEMENT
             (FSE)
    Clear route, identify IEDs, check choke points,
     provide show of force
    If two or three gun trucks in the convoy, stay in line
     of sight of the convoy, no more than 1 to 2 km
    If four or more gun trucks, two gun trucks may
     scout ahead, no more than 3 km
    Never deploy one gun truck alone as an FSE
    Maintain communication with convoy at all times
    Travel in overwatch formation


                                                              166
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

                               SECURE OVERPASS

             4                             Direction of Travel

    After convoy passes,
    gun trucks assume
    their original positions
    in the convoy
                                                                 1
                                                         Gun Truck #1
                                                         clears overpass




           3
 After Gun Truck #1
 clears overpass and
 before convoy arrives,                                 2
 Gun Truck #2 assumes                           Gun Truck #2
 position on other side                         provides overwatch
 of overpass                                    while Gun Truck #1
                                                clears overpass            167
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

         RETURNING FIRE FROM OVERPASS
                           Direction of Travel
           Gun Truck

        Civilian Vehicle
        Friendly Fire                  Gun Truck #1 moves up the
                                       on ramp to engage the enemy
         Enemy Fire




Gun Truck #2 flanks the                 BEWARE OF
enemy from the other
side of the ramp                        FRATRICIDE!
                                                              168
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

   NEGOTIATE TRAFFIC CIRCLE




                                           Direction
                                              of
                                            Traffic



          Task Vehicle   Gun Truck   Civilian Vehicle
                                                        169
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

     NEGOTIATE ON/OFF RAMP

                        Task Vehicle

                        Gun Truck
                        Civilian Vehicle




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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

        AMBUSH PROCEDURES
    Gun trucks forward of kill zone maintain
     security for the forward element unless
     called back
    Gun trucks in kill zone return fire to
     neutralize the threat
    Gun trucks to rear of kill zone (except the
     last vehicle) move forward to engage the
     enemy and neutralize the threat


                                                   171
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

          AMBUSH PROCEDURES
             (CONTINUED)
   Rear gun truck remains with trail element
    unless called forward by convoy commander
   All gun trucks prepare to move, on order, to
    engage the enemy
   Gun trucks continue to engage the enemy until
    threat is neutralized or the kill zone is cleared
   Gun trucks provide security during
    consolidation and reorganization

                                                    172
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY


                  SUMMARY




             “I got this jacket at Wal-mart…”



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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

                    SUMMARY

   Characteristics of the threat
   Hardening vehicles
   Convoy briefing
   Convoy execution
   Forms of attack
   IED attack




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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY

                 SUMMARY
                  (Continued)

   Consolidation and reorganization
   Release Point Activities
   Gun trucks
   Gun truck crew duties
   Hardening and arming gun trucks
   Gun truck employment




                                       175

				
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