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					               AUTOMATION

             Text Chapter 16 (page 418)




                    Copyright Catherine M.
06/11/2012                  Burns            1
                 Automation

 defn: when a machine assumes a task
  normally done by a human
 Case example at start of Chapter 16
 works well, but failures can be more
  devastating when they occur
 failure severity is related to how humans
  interact with automation

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             Case Ch16: Automation
                  Complacency
 Flying on autopilot
 1 engine loses power and autopilot compensates
  correctly
 Engine continues to lose power and autopilot fails
 Plane suddenly rolls and falls 30 000ft
 Pilots had not detected the gradual engine failure
  and autopilot compensation
 Automation complacency


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              Multiple Control Loops


      Pilot           Autopilot                      Plane




    Awareness of autopilot actions
    Awareness of plane actions

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             2002: Automation Mistrust

 DH-1 cargo plane and Russian Tupolov
 Both with TCAS systems
 Collision route
 ATC order to russian plane to descend
 TCAS order to climb
 Russian plane descends and collides with the cargo
  plane
 Mistrust of automation

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              Reasons for Automation

 highly dangerous or tasks that humans can’t
  perform
        teleoperation, hazardous materials, calculation,
         automation for people with disabilities
 difficult or unpleasant tasks
        repetitive assembly, long flight control
 extend human capabilities
        aid memory, reduce workload
 technically possible

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                Classes of Automation

 Information acquisition
        Warning systems, filters, spell checkers
 Information integration
        Pattern recognizers, predictors, expert systems
 Action selection
        Advice on course of action (e.g. TCAS)
 Action execution and control
        Autopilots, cruise control, manufacturing robots

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             Levels of Automation

 No automation
 Automation makes suggestions
 Automation selects an alternative
 Automation carries out action with approval
 Automation gives human time to interrupt action
 Automation performs action and then informs
  human
 Human has no veto power or is not informed

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                         Reliability

 perceived reliability is the key issue
 factors influencing p.r:
        when equipment does fail
        when people program it wrong (the dumb and
         dutiful effect)
        when the automation is poorly understood and
         correct automated actions surprise the operator


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             Trust in Automation

 what is trust?
 trust should be matched to reliability
 human trust in automation is sometimes too
  low, sometimes too high
 mistrust of good automation is a problem
 overtrust of unreliable automation is a
  problem

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             Automation Complacency

 the overtrust situation
 operators cease monitoring the system, or monitor
  less vigilantly
        Detection: operator is slower to detect a real failure
        Situation awareness: decreased awareness of system state
        Skill loss: reduced ability to intervene when needed,
         “deskilling”



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             Human Centered Automation

 Keeps the operator informed (display design)
 Keeps the operator trained (allows automation
  levels that maintain skills)
 Keeps the operator “in the loop” (maintains
  operator involvement)
 Is designed at the right level (slide 10)
 Is adaptive (allows the operator to determine the
  level needed)

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             Current Issues in Automation

 Ecological Interfaces and supervisory control
  of process control systems
 Human-robot/agent collaboration
 Control with delays (e.g. Mars robots)
 Control of highly autonomous groups



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             Homer!




             Copyright Catherine M.
06/11/2012           Burns            15
             Homer 1




             Copyright Catherine M.
06/11/2012           Burns            16
             Good use of automation

 Highly dangerous task that Homer can’t
  perform
 Example of high level automation –
  automation perceives, makes decision, takes
  action, informs human




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 Auto-driver perceived as reliable
 Trust in auto-driver
 Possible issue of skill loss




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 Perceived reliability of automation very high
 Moving towards overtrust
        Operator taking abnormal risks with automation




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 Overtrust of automation




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 Automation can reduce job satisfaction




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