FCA 3: Text features, Synthesis of Information
The History of Halloween
Halloween is not exactly a typical holiday. Other holidays, like Christmas and Shavuot, celebrate an event.
Halloween celebrates a lot of things, including the lives of people who aren't with us anymore. The history
of Halloween is not entirely a clear one. Here's how (we think) it started:
Many hundreds of years ago, a people called the Celts lived in Europe and on the British Isles. The Celts
believed that the souls of the dead visited Earth on the last day of October. They had a festival in honor of
these souls of the dead, and they called it Samhain. In time, the Roman Empire conquered the Celts and
took over some of their beliefs as well. This included Samhain. The Romans combined it with their own
festivals. And since the Roman Empire spread across a great part of the known world, the idea that the
souls of the dead visited Earth on the last day of October spread far and wide. Many ideas from the
Roman days still survive in the United States and in other Western countries. Halloween is one of them.
But how did we get the name Halloween?
In the 8th Century, the Catholic Church declared November 1 to be All Saints' Day. The church calendar
had a number of days honoring saints already. November 1 was picked to be the day to honor all saints
who didn't already have a day named in their honor. And the mass that the Catholic Church celebrated on
November 1 was called Allhallowmas. This meant "mass of all the hallowed [saintly people.]" It was
commonly called "All Hallows' Day." And somewhere along the line, the night before became known as
Allhallowe'en, which was short for "evening before All Hallows' Day." It was then shortened to what we
now call it, Halloween.
One last question: Why do people dress up as ghosts, goblins, vampires, and other scary creatures? The
people who started all this Halloween business many years ago believed that if they appeared scary, they
would scare away the spirits of the dead who were roaming the earth on All Hallows' Eve. These people
also carried food to the edge of town and left it there, hoping the spirits would eat that food and not come
raid the village.
The History of the Jack-O Lantern
Jack, it seems, was a bad man. He kept all his money to himself. He wouldn't help people for all of his life.
When Jack died, he wasn't allowed into Heaven because he was such a miser: a person who wouldn't
share his money.
It seems that Jack also had played tricks on the Devil, who wouldn't let him into hell, either. Jack was
stuck. He had to walk the earth, holding a lantern, until Judgment Day.
This is the story that has been handed down to us by the Irish people who came to America in the 1800s.
They carved their turnips into the face of "Jack-of-the-lantern" to remind themselves what happened to
people who were misers. And in the fall, pumpkins are much easier to find than turnips. So that's why
Americans today carve their pumpkins into jack-o-lanterns.
o 1,000-100 B.C.: The Celts celebrate Samhain on November 1st, painting faces on gourds and their own
faces to scare away spirits
o 600 A.D.: Pope Boniface IV designates November 1st All Saints' Day
o 800 A.D.: Pope Gregory III declares that villagers may dress in costume as saints, and young men must
go door to door to beg for food for the poor
o 1500s: Samhain and All Saints' Day become All Hallows' Day, the night before, All Hallows' Evening,
Hallow Evening, or Hallowe'en
o 1840s: The Irish Potato Famine brings Irish Catholics to America, along with their Halloween traditions.
Due to the abundance of pumpkins, they carve them into jack o'lanterns instead of turnips
o 1870: Halloween becomes a popular holiday, along with the idea of "tricking," an excuse to cause
o 1912: The Dennison Manufacturing Co. of Framingham, Massachusetts publishes Halloween "Bogie"
books that include party and decoration ideas and Halloween costume patterns
o 1921: Anoka, Minnesota becomes the first American city to officially sanction a citywide Halloween
o 1923:New York begins citywide Halloween celebrations
o Present: Halloween is a 2.5 billion dollar industry
Questions: Answer in full sentences please.
1. Based on the first 2 paragraphs of the essay, 7. What research question would a student be
why would the author include the given map? looking to answer through reading this article?
2. What does the darker portion of the map a. Why do we give out candy on
b. Why do we dress up on Halloween?
3. Summarize, in your own words, what the main c. How have Halloween traditions
idea of the section titled “The History of the changed over the years?
Jack-O Lantern” is about. d. How did the Jack-O-Lantern get its
4. According to the information across all three
texts, what can we infer about the popularity
of Halloween in the future, and why? 8. What would be the best caption for the picture
in the “Jack-O-Lantern” section?
5. What text structure does the “Timeline”
section follow? a. A traditional American Jack-O-
6. What group of people are responsible for b. The face of “Jack” carved into a turnip
bringing Halloween to America? c. A scary Jack-O-Lantern
a. Celts c. Irish d. Jack-O-Lanterns through the years
b. Romans d. Samhain