# aerothirdqb

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```					                                          2 Marks Questions with Answers
1.    Define
(a) Principal axis
(b) Neutral axis and give an expression to determine them.
(a) If the two axes about which the product of inertia is found, are such, that the
product of inertia becomes zero, the two axes are then called principal axes.
Ixy = 0

The product of inertia is zero.


I xy  xydA  o

(b)In a beam subjected to bending the line of zero stress; a transverse section of the longitudinal
plane, or neutral surface, which passes through the centre of area of the section.

I             
tan        uu
tan  
 I vv         

Where  =The angle of the straight line passing through the centroid G of the section, which is
inclined with UU.

2. Explain how unsymmetrical bending is developed in a beam?
(i) The section is symmetrical like I section, rectangular section, circular section, but he load-line is
inclined to both the principal axes.
(ii) The section itself is unsymmetrical like angle section or a channel section and load line is along
any centroidal axis.
3. Write down the expression for orientation of neutral axis of beam with unsymmetrical cross
section in z-x plane and subjected to bending moments Mx and Mz.

M I M I
tan α     z xx x xz
M I M I
x zz y xz
4. Bending of a symmetric section subject to a skew load will be (symmetric / un-symmetric )
Explain.

Ans. Un symmetric.

When the trace of the plane of the applied moment does not coincide with any of the principal
axes of inertia then this type of bending is called un-symmetrical or non-uni-planar bending.

5. In unsymmetrical bending, the neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross section.
(True/false).

Ans.; True.

6. A rectangular cross section is subject to a skew load. Mark the neutral axis and sketch the
bending stress distribution.
Bending stress at A = Tensile

Bending stress at B = Same at A, but compressive

7. Explain anyone method to obtain the bending stress due to unsymmetrical bending.
Principal axis method
M l u M ll u
b    I VV 
I UU

M sin  .u        M cos  .v
                 
I VV              I UU

 v cos      u sin  
  
         
 I UU        I vv 

8. When does unsymmetrical bending takes place?

a. The section is symmetrical like I section, rectangular section, circular section, but he load-
line is inclined to both the principal axes.
b. The section itself is unsymmetrical like angle section or a channel section and load line is
along any centroidal axis.

9. A beam bends about its neutral axis for both symmetrical and unsymmetrical bending. (True/
False)
Ans.: True.

10. What is unsymmetrical bending?
If the load line on a beam does not coincide with one of the principal axes of the section, the
bending takes place in a plane different from the plane of principal axis. This type of bending is
known as unsymmetrical bending.

11. What is symmetrical section?
The size and shape of the object is same to the left or right or both sides of the axis, the section is
known as symmetrical section.

12. What is principal planes and principal stresses.
There are always three mutually perpendicular planes along which the stresses at a certain point (in a
body) can be resolved completely into stresses normal to these planes. These planes which pass
through the point in such a manner that the resultant stress across them is totally a normal stress are
known as principal planes and normal stresses across these planes are termed as principal
stresses.

9. What is a beam?
(i)     A bar which is loaded transversely.
(ii)    Rolled or extruded sections of certain profiles. e.g I-beam

10. What is a column?
A vertical pillar or shaft of cast iron, forged steel, steel plate in box section, stone timber etc., used
11. What is strut?
Any light structural member or long column which sustains an axial compressive load. Failure occurs
by bending before the material reaches its ultimate compressive stress.
12. What is stress?
When a body is acted upon by same load or external force, it undergoes deformation [(i.e)
Change in shape or dimensions], which increases gradually. The internal resistance which the body
offers to meet with the load is called stress.
13. Classify stress.
(a) Simple or direct stress
(i)      Tension
(ii)     Compression
(iii)    Shear
(b) Indirect stress
(i)      Bending
(ii)     Torsion
(c) Combined stress
Any possible combination of above types.
14. What is symmetrical section?
The size and shape of the object is same to the left or right or both sides of the axis, the section is
known as symmetrical section.

15. State structure.

Structure is composed of several bars or rods jointed together in a particular
fashion.
Members under tension is called tie.
Members under compression is called strut.
16. Differentiate beams and columns
.

Beam                                           Column

1. Horizontal member                           1. Vertical member

17. Differentiate Truss and frame

Truss                                              Frame

Truss is defined as number of members riveted Frame is defined as number of members
together to carry the horizontal, vertical and welded together to carry the horizontal,

18. Differentiate the perfect and imperfect frames?

Sl.No.   Perfect frame                             Imperfect frame
1.        Perfect frame have sufficient frame Imperfect frame have less or more members
or enough members to carry the to carry the load than the required numbers.
It does not satisfy the formula n= 2j-3.
Eg. Square frame
n=4, j=4
n=2j-3
It satisfies the formula n= 2j-3.   4=2x4-3,
2.
4≠5

Eg. Triangular frame.
3.        n=3, j=3
n=2j-3
3=2x3-3,

3=3

19. Differentiate the deficient frame and redundant frame?

Sl.No.    Deficient frame                         Redundant frame

1.        If the number of members are less       If the number of members are more than the
than the required of members.           required number of members.

n < 2j-3                                n > 2j-3

20. Define plane truss and space truss. Give some examples.
A plane truss is a two dimension truss structure composed of number of bars hinged together to
form a rigid frame work, all the members are lie in one plane. Eg.: Roof truss in industries.

A space truss is a three dimension truss structure composed of number of bars hinged together
to form a rigid frame work, all the members are lie in different plane. Eg.: Transmission line towers,
crane parts.

25. What are the methods used to analyze the plane & space frames?

     Analytical method
1. Method of joints
2. Method of sections (method of moments)
3. Tension co-efficient method.
     Graphical met
26. Give relation between the number of members and joints in a truss and explain its uses.

n=2j-3, where n= number of members, j= number of joints. This relation is used to find the type
of the frames. Perfect frame is only solved by method of joints.

27. What are the hints to be followed while analyzing a cantilever truss using method of joints?

  There is no need to find the support reactions.
  The analysis is to be started from the free end where there is a maximum of two unknown
forces, using the condition of equilibrium Σ Fx = 0 and Σ Fy =0.
 All the members are assumed to be tensile.
 Consider tensile forces as positive and compressive as negative.
 The force convention is, upward force assigns positive sign and downward force assigns negative
sign.
28. What are assumptions made in the analysis of a truss?

1. In a frame or truss all the joints will be pin jointed.

2. All the loads will be acting at the joints only.

3. The self-weight of the members of the truss is neglected. Only the live load is
considered.
4. The frame is a perfect one

29. What are the types of framed structures? Explain each type?
(1)Efficient or perfect structure:
A structure is said to be perfect. It satisfies the equations
n=2j-3
n=no of member
j=no of joints
(2) Deficient or imperfect structure:

A structure is said to be deficient, when
n<2j-3

(3) Redundant frame:

If a structure is said to be redundant, when
n > 2j-3
30. What is cantilever truss? What is simply supported truss?

If anyone of the member of the truss is fixed and the other end is free, it is called a cantilever
truss. There is no reaction force at the fixed end.

31. What are the conditions of equilibrium used in the method of joints? Why?

The conditions of equilibrium used in the method of joints are, Σ Fx = 0,

Σ Fy =0. One of the assumptions is all the joints are pin jointed, there is no moment. The equilibrium
condition Σ Mx =0 is not used.

32. Explain with examples the statically determinate structures.

If the structure can be analyzed and the reactions at the support can be determined by using the
equations of static equilibrium such as Σ Fx = 0, Σ Fy =0 and Σ Mx =0, then it is called as a statically
determinate structure. Example: Simply supported beam, pin jointed truss nor frame.

33. Differentiate the statically determinate structures and statically determinate structures.
Sl.No. Statically determinate structures         Statically indeterminate structures
1.       Conditions of equilibrium are            Conditions of equilibrium are insufficient to
sufficient to analyze the structure      analyze the structure.

2.       Bending moment and shear force is Bending moment and shear force is dependent
independent of material and cross of material and independent of cross sectional
sectional area.                   area.

3.       No stresses are caused due to            Stresses are caused due to temperature change
temperature change and lack of fit.      and lack of fit.

34. Where are truss type structures found in an aircraft?

Fuselage, Bi-plane, Tri-plane      and wing etc.,

35. Define neutral axis?

Neutral axis is defined as the line of intersection of the neutral layer with the transverse section.
Then the stress will be compressive at any point above the neutral axis and tensile below the neutral
axis.

6 Marks Questions

1.State and prove Parallel axis theorem.

2. Derive the equation for principal moment of inertia for unsymmetrical section about both axes. If Ixx,
Iyy are M.I about the centroidal axes and Ixy is product of inertia.

3.Explain the process to be followed while analyzing a truss using method of joints.

4.Determine the normal stress at locations A and G (Refer Fig.) for the following
Vx = 1.2 kN acting through the shear centre.
Vx applied 0.8 m away from the indicated cross-section.

5.Find the maximum bending stress of the T section of flange dimension 120 cm X 8 cm and the web
dimension 80cm X 8 cm subjected to Mx = 30 KNm.

6. An 80 mm X 80 mm X 10 mm angle section is used as a simply supported beam over a span of 2.4 m. It
carries a vertical load of 400N. Calculate Maximum bending stress and the position of the neutral axis.
Take G = 200 GPa.

7. Find the bending stresses of the angle section of bottom flange dimension 15cm X 1cm and the web
dimension 1 cm X 15 cm subjected to Mx = 20 KNm amd My = 15 KNm.

8. Find the principal moment of inertia and the direction of the principal axis of the L section of flange
dimension 12mm X 2mm and web dimension 2 mm X 20 m

10 Marks Questions

1.Compute the bending stresses at A, B, C and D of the section shown in Fig. The section is subjected to
loads Mx = 10 KNm and My = 3 KNm. Lumped areas at A, B, C and D are 2 cm2 , 3 cm2 , 4 cm2 and 4 cm2
respectively centroidal axes are x and y.
2. Refer Fig. The section is subject to a 8 kNm bending moment in the x-z plane and a 10 kNm bending
moment in the y-z plane. Determine the bending stresses in all the corner points, indicating whether
they are tensile or compressive.

3.A cantilever beam of length 2m is subjected to a load of 16KN at its free end and the cross section of
the beam is shown in fig. Compute the maximum tensile stress.
4. For the section shown in Fig. compute the bending stresses at the points A, B and C. All dimensions
are in mm and thickness is constant through out and equals 15 mm.
5. Determine the principal angles and principal moment of inertia for the section shown in figure.

6. Determine the forces in the members of the truss indicated in the fig.
7. A symmetric Z section of flange dimensions 40 mm X 3 mm and the web dimension 3 mm X 80
mm. It is subjected to moment Mx =1000 Nm and My = 500 Nm. Compute the maximum
bending stress.

8. Fig. shows a truss of 8m span and loaded as shown. Find out the forces in all the members of the
truss using method of joints.

-----------------------------
QUESTION BANK

AE1302-AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES-II

UNIT-I

PART-A

1. In unsymmetrical bending, the neutral axis passes thro the centriod of the cross-section.
(True/False).
2. A rectangular cross-section is subjected to a skew load. Mark the neutral axis and sketch
the bending stress distribution.
3. When does unsymmetrical bending takes place.
4. A beam bends about its neutral axis for both symmetrical and unsymmetrical bending.
(True/False).
5. Explain unsymmetrical bending with examples.
6. Define neutral axis and give expression to determine it.
7. Define principle axis of a section and give an expression to determine it.
8. Draw bending stress variation across the depth for (a) Rectangular section (b) I-section.
9. Distinguish between symmetric and unsymmetric bending.
10. What do you understand by unsymmetrical bending? Explain a method to find the stress
in an unsymmetrical bending
11. Explain the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis in bending of beams.
12. Bending of a symmetric section subjected to a skew load will be
(symmetric/Unsymmetric).Explain.

PART-B

1. Determine the normal stress at location A and G(refer fig.1)for the following cases
(i)    Vx=1.2 kN acting through shear center.
(ii)   Vy=1.2 kN acting through shear center.

Vx and Vy are applied0.8 m away from the indicated cross-section.

2. (i)Derive and obtain an expression for the bending stress in an unsymmetrical
section subjected to bending, using the generalized ‘k’ method (10)
(ii) Explain the neutral axis method of bending stress determination mhen an
arbitrary section is subjected to bending moments Mx and My. (6)
3. The section shown in fig.2 is subjected to bending moment Mx=30kNm.determine
the bending stress at the corner points A, B, C and D.

4. A Z- section with 12 cm x 3 cm flanges and 20 cm x 3 cm web is subjected to Mx=10
kN-m and My=10 kN-m . Determine the maximum bending stress.
5. A box beam with 50 cm length is subjected to loads Px=8kN and Py=25kN as shown
in fig.3. The stringer area is 3 cm2 each. Find the maximum bending stress.

6. obtain the bending stress values at the points A,B,C and D for the section shown in
fig.4.Compute the stresses using moment values with respect to x and y axis and the
principle axis.

7. Compute the load on the lumped flanges due to bending of the section shown in
fig.5.Assume the web do not take part in bending. Compute the loads using moment
values with respect to x and y axis and principle axis.

8. A beam section shown in fig.6.has four stringers. Area of the stringers A, B, C and D
are 6.25, 3.125, 4.5 and 6sq.cm respectively. Find the stresses in all the four
stringers of the section due to Mx=50kNm and My=-20kNm where x and y are the
centriodal axes. Assume that webs and walls are ineffective in bending.

9. Refer fig.7.The section is subjected to an 8 kNm bending moment in the x-z plane
and a 10 kNm bending in the y-z plane. Determine the bending stresses in all the
corner points, indicating whether they are tensile or compressive.

10. Determine the bending stresses in the stringer of the section shown in fig.8 .E1=
70GPa , E2=210GPa and E3=100GPa.stringer areas are 2 cm2

11. A C-section beam of length 50 cm is subjected to loads Px=100N .the C-section
dimensions are (i) Flanges- 25 cm x3 cm (ii)web 30cm x 3cm.
UNIT-II

PART-A

1. Shear flow can be defined for both thin and thick walled section (true/false)
2. Sketch the shear flow distribution when a thin walled L-section is subjected to a vertical
3. Define shear center and elastic axis.
4. Define shear flow .How the shear stress is obtained from the shear flow?
5. Indicate the shear center for channel section and angle section.
6. Draw shear flow diagram for I section and Channel section.

PART-B

1. Derive and obtain an expression for shear flow due to bending in the case of an arbitrary
thin walled open section subjected to bending. How to modify the results you obtained
for the case of closed section.
2. Plot the shear flow and locate the shear center for the section shown in fig.9.
3. Plot the shear flow and locate the shear center for the section shown in fig.10.
4. Find the shear flow for the section shown in fig.11.The Area of the each stringer =6
cm2.the loads are Sx=10kN and Sy=50kN through the shear center .Also find the Shear
center
5. Find the shear center of the section shown in fig.12.Area a=b=4 cm2 and c=d=2 cm2
6. Find the shear flow distribution and locate the shear center for the section shown in
fig.13.Each of the stringers has an area of 4 cm2 and the section subjected to vertical
shear of 50 kN.
7. Find the shear flow distribution in a thin walled Z-section, whose thickness is‘t’,
height’h’. Flange width ‘h/2’ and subjected to vertical shear load through shear center.

8. (i) Show that the sum of the moment of inertia about any two orthogonal axes is
invariant with respect to any other two orthogonal axes.        (6)
(ii)Obtain the shear flow distribution and shear center location for the section in
fig.14.When it is subjected to a shear load of 5 kN.          (10)

9. Determine the shear center location for the section shown in fig.15. All the webs are
ineffective in bending.
10. Locate the shear center for the section shown in fog.16.Plot the shear stress distribution
when a vertical shear load of 1.2kNacts through the shear center.
SRIN IVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE

PERAMBALUR

BRANCH -AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

AE 1304-CONTROL ENGINEERING (B.Tech - V SEM)

UNIT –I : INTRODUCTION

1)    What is control system?
2)    What are the two major types of control systems?
3)    Define open loop system.
4)    Define closed loop system.
5)    What are the components of control system?
6)    Name the two types of electrical analogous of mechanical systems.
7)    What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational systems?
8)    What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational systems?
9)    Define transfer function.
10)   Define linear system.
11)   Define time invariant system.
12)   What are the basic elements of thermal system model?
13)   What are the basic elements of pneumatic system model?
14)   What are the basic elements of Hydraulic system model?
15)   Define thermal resistance & thermal capacitance.
16)   Define pneumatic resistance & pneumatic capacitance.
17)   Define hydraulic resistance & hydraulic capacitance.
18)   Write the Force balance equation of ideal mass, ideal dash pot and ideal spring.
19)   Write the Force balance equation of ideal mass, ideal dash pot and ideal spring.
20)   Write the Force balance equation of ideal rotational mass, ideal rotational dash pot and
ideal rotational spring.
21)   Write the analogous electrical elements in force-voltage analogy for the elements of
mechanical translational systems.
22)   Write the analogous electrical elements in force-current analogy for the elements of
mechanical translational systems.
23)   What is gyro?
24)   What are the basic types of gyros?
25)   List out the applications of gyros.
26)   List out the applications of following control system components (1) potentiometer. (2)
synchros (3) servo motor (4) stepper motor (5) tacho generator (6) modulator (7) gear
train (8) demodulator.
UNIT –II : OPEN LOOP &CLOSED LOOP SYSTEMS:

1) Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems.
2) What is feed back? What are the different types of feedbacks employed in control
systems?
3) Why is negative feedback invariably preferred in closed loops/
4) What are the characteristics of negative feedback?
5) What is the effect of positive feedback on stability?
6) State the principles of homogeneity and principle of superposition.
7) What is block diagram?
8) What are the basic components of block diagram?
9) Mention the basic rules in block diagram reduction techniques.
10) Write the rule for eliminating negative feedback in block diagram reduction.
11) What is signal flow graph?
12) What is transmittance?
13) What are the basic properties of signal flow graph?
14) Write Mason’s gain formula.
15) Define non- touching loops.

UNIT –III : CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:

1) Write the Laplace transform of the following inputs (1) Unit impulse (2) Unit step (3) t
(4) e -at (5) t n (6) sin wt (7) cos wt (8) e –at cos wt (9) e –at sin wt
2) What is time response?
3) What is transient response? What is steady state response?
4) Define step signal.
5) Define ramp signal.
6) Define parabolic signal.
7) Define impulse signal.
8) Define pole & zero.
9) Define order and type of a system.
10) List out the time domain specifications.
11) Define delay time, rise time, peak time and settling time.
12) What is steady state error?
13) What are static error constants?
14) Define positional error constant, velocity error constant and acceleration error constant.
15) Sketch the time response of second order under damped systems.
16) What will be the nature of unit step response of second order system for different kinds
of inputs?
UNIT –IV :CONCEPT OF STABILITY:

1)    What is meant by frequency response?
2)    What are the advantages of frequency response analysis?
3)    What are frequency domain specifications?
4)    Define resonant peak.
5)    What is resonant frequency?
6)    Define bandwidth.
7)    What is cut off rate?
8)    Define gain margin.
9)    Define phase margin.
10)   Define phase and gain cross over frequencies.
11)   What is Bode plot?
12)   Define corner frequency.
13)   What are the advantages of Bode plot?
14)   Define BIBO stability.
15)   What are the requirements of BIBO response?
16)   What is Impulse response?
17)   What is characteristic equation?
18)   Explain how the roots of characteristic equations are specified for stability.
19)   What are the necessary conditions for stability?
20)   What is Routh stability criterion?
21)   What is limitedly stable system?
22)   What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for stability?
23)   What is root locus?
24)   How will you determine the root locus on the real axis?
25)   How will you find the gain ‘K” of a point on root locus?
26)   What are asymptotes? How will you find the angle of asymptotes?
27)   What is centroid? How will you calculate it?
28)   Define break in point.
29)   Define break away point.
30)   What is dominant pole?
UNIT –V :SAMPLED DATA SYSTEMS:

1)    What is meant by sampling?
2)    What is sampled data control system?
3)    What is the effect of sampling on system stability?
4)    Explain when the control system is called sampled control system?
5)    Draw the block diagram of sampled data control system.
6)    What is a digital controller?
7)    List out the differences between discrete time system and continuous time system.
8)    Write down the advantages and disadvantages of sampled data control system.
9)    Compare analog and digital controller.
10)   What are the advantages of digital controller?
11)   What are hold circuits?
12)   What are the effects of sampling time on system stability?
13)   Explain the terms sampling and sampler.
14)   What is periodic sampling?
15)   State Shannon’s sampling theorem.
16)   What is meant by quantization?
17)   Differentiate zero ordered and first ordered hold circuits.
18)   What are singular points? How are they classified?
19)   List out the different kinds of digital controllers.
20)   What is a digital PID controller? List out its uses.
SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

Environmental Science and Engineering

UNIT-I

1. State the significance and scope of environmental education?

Importance/Significance of the Environmental Studies:
Environmental studies
     is concerned with the importance of wild life and its protection
     explains the significant role of biodiversity in establishing ecological balance
     deals with different types of ecosystems, biotic and abiotic factors and their role in the
significance and sustenance of ecosystems.
     gives information relating to population explosion, growth and development, impact of
population growth on the resource consumption and national economy.
     Explains the significance of forests and their products in the human routine and in
country's economy.
     Gives information about water conservation, watershed management.

2. What is deforestation?

The destruction of forest resources by many natural or man-made activities is called
deforestation.

3. What is soil erosion?
The detachment and movement of topsoil by the action of wind and flowing water.

4. What do you mean by overgrazing?
Overgrazing is grazing by livestock or wildlife to the point where the grass cover is depleted,
leaving bare, unprotected patches of soil.
5. List the important causes of water conflicts?

   Severe water shortages
   construction of a dam.
   the use of shared rivers
   Fishing
   Pollution

Land degradation refers to loss of fertility or productive capacity of the soil.

7. What do you mean by desertification?
Desertification is a slow process of land degradation that leads to desert formation.

8. What are land slides?
Rapid down ward movement of a mass of rock,earth or artificial fill or plant debris on a
slope is called land slide.

9. What are renewable and non renewable energy resources?
Renewable energy resources are those natural resources which are in exhaustible and can be
used to produce energy again and again.

Non renewable energy resources are those natural resources which are exhaustible and cannot
be replaced once they are used.

10. State the role and responsibility of an individual in the prevention of pollution?

   Plant trees, shrubs, and groundcover on your property to benefit the
environment.
   If you are on a septic tank system, prevent leakage by making sure it is
regularly inspected and properly maintained.
   Avoid the usage of two wheelers or four wheelers, instead use public
transport systems like bus or train.
   Use bicycle or travel by foot while going to near by places
UNIT-II

1. Define eco system?
An ecosystem can be defined as an area with in the natural environment consisting of
community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging
materials between them.

2. Define food chain and food web?
Food chain is defined as the sequence of organisms directly dependent on one          another
for food in an eco system.

Food web is defined as an interconnection of many food chains in an ecosystem.

3. What is ecological succession?
The gradual process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive
replacement of one community by another in a definite order until a stable community is
established over a period of time.

4. What is ecological pyramid?
A pyramid-shaped diagram representing quantitatively the numbers of organisms, energy
relationships, and biomass of an ecosystem;

5. What is bio diversity?
'Biodiversity' is defined as the variety of all biological life such as plants, animals, and
microorganisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they live in.

6. Define genetic diversity and species diversity?
Genetic diversity refers to bio diversity due to genetic variation with in each species.

Species diversity refers to the variety of different types of living things on earth.

7. What do you mean by hot spots of bio diversity?
Hot spots are the areas that are extremely rich in bio-diversity, have high level of endemism
and are under constant threat of species extinctions and habitat destruction.

8. What is red data book?
Red Data Book is a book that provides data on population status of the endangered species
of plants and animals.

9. What are endemic species?
Endemic species are those species of plants & animals which are found exclusively in a
particular area and not anywhere else.

10. What are endangered species?
Endangered species are those species of plants & animals which are present in such
small numbers that it is at risk of extinction.

11. What is flora and fauna?

All forms of plant life that live in a particular geographic region at a particular time in history is
called flora.

All animal life that lives in a particular geographic region at a particular time in history is called
fauna.

12. Give few examples of endangered and endemic species of india?

Endemic species

1 INDIAN DARTER or SNAKE –BIRD
2. LITTLE CORMORANT
Endangered species

1. Lion
2. Tiger

UNIT-III
1. Define environmental pollution?

Lowering of the quality of environment caused by natural and human activities is called
environmental pollution.

2. What is air pollution?
The contamination of the air with dust, fumes, gas, mist, odor, smoke, or vapor which
causes harmful effects on living organisms is called air pollution.

3. What do you understand by the term smog?
Smog is mixture of smoke and fog containing particulates.

4. Define photo chemical smog?
Smog produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxides with hydrocarbons in the presence of
ultraviolet light from the sun is called photo chemical smog.

5. Define water pollution?
Water pollution is defined as any physical,chemical or biological change in quality of water
which causes harmful effects on living organisms.

6. Define marine pollution?
Addition of harmful chemical substances and waste materials to ocean that makes it
harmful to aquatic life is called marine pollution.

7. Define thermal pollution or heat pollution?
Addition of excess of undesirable heat to water that makes it harmful to aquatic life is
called thermal pollution.

8. Define C.O.D& B.O.D?
C.O.D—Chemical Oxygen Demand

B.O.D—Biochemical Oxygen Demand
The amount of oxygen in water consumed for chemical oxidation of pollutants is    called
C.O.D

The amount of oxygen taken up by microorganisms that decompose organic waste matter
in water is called B.OD

9. What is soil pollution?
The contamination of soil by chemical or other waste materials resulting in the reduction
of its fertility is called soil pollution.

10. What is incineration?
It is a treatment technology involving destruction of waste by controlled burning at high
temperatures.

11. What is composting?
Composting is a process in which biodegradable materials are broken down by micro-
organisms in the presence of oxygen. The stable granular decayed material obtained in this
process is called compost. It is used as a fertilizer or soil additive.

12. Differentiate recycling from reusing?
Recycling involves collecting used and waste materials from waste streams and using those
materials to manufacture new products.

Reusing involves using a product more than once in its original form.

15. What is disaster management?

Disaster management is the process of preparing, supporting, and
rebuilding society when natural or human-made disasters occur.

16. Define earth quake?

Shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement
along a fault plane or from volcanic activity is called earth quake.
17. Define Tsunami?

Tsunami is a series of large seismic sea waves that can cause major destruction in coastal
regions.

18. What are particulates?

Particulates are dispersed solid or liquid particles of microscopic size in gas media.

19. What is Noise pollution?

The unwanted, unpleasant or disagreeable sound of high decibels which causes harmful
effect on human health is called noise pollution.

20. What is eutrophication?

The process by which body of water, commonly a lake or pond is enriched by nutrients
which leads to excessive plant growth and oxygen depletion.

21. Define flood and cyclone?

Flood is the rising of a body of water and it’s overflowing onto normally dry land

A cyclone is an area of low pressure in the centre and high pressure outside.

22. What are primary and secondary air pollutants?

Primary air pollutants are those which are emitted directly to the atmosphere

Example: Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of sulphur (SOX) and Oxides of nitrogen ( NOX ) etc

Secondary air pollutants are those which are produced in the air by the interaction among
two or more primary air pollutants or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents.
Example: Ozone, photochemical smog etc.

23. Define pollutant?

Any substance which causes lowering the quality of environment is called pollutant.

24. What is meant by point and non point pollution?

Pollution from a single identifiable source such as a factory or a sewage-treatment plant is
called point pollution

Pollution that does not come from a single, identifiable source is called non-point
pollution.

25. What are the various sources of radioactive pollution or nuclear pollution?

   Cosmic rays from outer space
   Emissions from radioactive materials on the earth’s crust
   Mining and processing of radioactive ores
   Use of radioactive isotopes in medical ,industrial and research applications
   Use of radioactive materials in nuclear weapons.

26. Define solid waste?

Solid waste is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic
waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality
within a given area.

27. What is hazardous waste?

A substance, such as nuclear waste or an industrial byproduct, which is potentially
damaging to the environment and harmful to humans and other living organisms, is called
hazardous waste.

28. Classify air pollutants with suitable examples?
Air pollutants can be classified in to two types namely primary and secondary air
pollutants.

Primary air pollutants are those which are emitted directly to the atmosphere.

Example: Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of sulphur (SOX) and Oxides of nitrogen ( NOX ) etc

Secondary air pollutants are those which are produced in the air by the interaction among
two or more primary air pollutants or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents.

Example: Ozone, photochemical smog etc.

29. Write any two examples for water conflicts?

1. Conflict between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for Kaveri river

2. Conflict between Kerala and Tamil Nadu for Mullaiperiyar dam

Unit –IV

1. Define sustainable development?

The development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.

2. Define Acid rain?

Rain containing relatively high concentrations of acids produced by sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
dioxide, and other such gases that result from the combustion of fossil fuels and from
certain industrial processes.

3. Define Green house effect?

The phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the
presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane
that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the
earth's surface.

4. What are Green house gases?

Any of the atmospheric gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect are called Green
house gases. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO2),
and water vapor.

5. What is global warming?

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth which causes more
changes on the climate.

6. What is ozone hole or ozone layer depletion?

Ozone hole is an area of the upper atmosphere where the ozone layer is absent or has
become unusually thin.

7. What is rain water harvesting?

Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from
rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments.

8. What is watershed management?

Watershed management is the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and
projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions

9.What is environmental ethics?

Environmental ethics is the ethical realtionship between human beings and the
environment in which they live.

Unit –V
1. Define population explosion?

A rapid increase in the size of a population caused by a sudden decrease in death rate or
an increase in birth rate is called population explosion.

2. What is value education?

Value education is an education which teaches:

 How to live life well?
 How to find happiness?
 How to make others happy?
 How to behave and communicate with others?
 How to manage all kinds of people as well as happenings?
 How to grow and succeed in the right manner?
3. Write the expansion for HIV and AIDS?

HIV- Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus

AIDS- Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome

4. What is doubling time?

The doubling time is the period of time required for a given population to double in size.

5. What are the objectives of family welfare programmes?

     To increase the female literacy rate.
     To enhance child survival through universal immunization.
     To reduce the birth rate

6. What do you mean by human rights?

Human rights are those basic rights which are essential for the development of human
personality such as right to life, liberty, property and security of an individual.
Question Bank (16 and 8 marks)

UNIT-I

1. a) Explain in detail the causes, effects and control measures of Deforestation

b) Discuss the problems of fertilizers and pesticides of modern agriculture

2. a) Discuss the effects of dams on forests and tribal people

b) Discuss the various types of land degradation with its causes and solutions.

3. Write short notes on causes effects and control measures of soil erosion

4. Write short notes on environmental impacts of mining

5. Write short notes on renewable energy resources

UNIT-II

1. Explain in detail the structure and component of an eco system.
2. Explain the characteristic features and functions of forest eco system and
aquatic eco system
3. Explain the characteristic features and functions of Grassland eco system and
Desert eco system
4. Write short notes on food chain and food web
5. Write short notes on ecological succession and ecological pyramids
6. Write short notes on i)Genetic diversity
ii) Species diversity
iii) Ecosystem diversity
7. Write short notes on threats to bio diversity
8. Write short notes on hotspots of biodiversity
9. Discuss India’s mega-diverse biodiversity
10. a)Explain the In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity
b) Discuss the values of Bio-diversity

UNIT-III

1. Explain in detail the causes and effects of air and water pollution

2. Explain in detail the causes and effects of marine and noise pollution

3. Write short notes on (i) Bhopal gas tragedy and (ii) Chernobyl disaster
4. Write short notes on Disaster management

5. What is an earth quake? Enumerate its effects. What measures should be

taken to mitigate this disaster?

6. Explain in detail the causes, effects and control measures of NOISE and

THERMAL pollution.

7. Explain in detail the process of solid waste management

UNIT-IV

1. What is sustainable development? Discuss in brief the concept of sustainable

development.

2. What are waste lands? Name and discuss the various methods of waste land

reclamation.

3. Write notes on (i) Global warming

(ii)Ozone layer depletion
(iii)Acid rain
4. Write notes on Water shed management

5. What is rain water harvesting? Name and discuss in brief the types of rain Water

harvesting.

6. Write note on salient features of Environmental protection act and wild life

protection act

7. Discuss the salient features of Forest act

8. Write note on salient features of water act and air act

UNIT-V

1. Explain the term population explosion. Enumerate its effects.

2. What is value education? Discuss the concept of value education.
3. Discuss in detail the role of Information technology in environmental

management and human health.

4. Explain the activities of family welfare programme.

5. Discuss the problems, diagnosis and control of AIDS.

6. Write a note on women and child welfare.

SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE

AERONAUTICAL DEPARTMENT

FLIGHT DYNAMICS

Two mark questions

1) What is the need to define and give the values at standard sea level condition?

2) Distinguish between the troposphere and stratosphere.

3) Define geometric and geo potential altitudes. Give the relation between g at the          absolute
altitude (ha) in terms of earth surface gravity (g0) and geometric altitude (hg) and the radius of
earth (r).

4) Derive from first principle the variation of pressure (dp) in ISA with respect to variation of
geometric altitude (dhg).

5) Define the term a) pressure altitude b) temperature altitude c) density altitude.

6) What are the factors which decide the flying path of an airplane as a rigid body?

7) Why the airplane is considered as a dynamic system in six degrees of freedom? What are the
conditions to be satisfied for equilibrium along a straight un- accelerated flight path?

8) What is plane of symmetry of airplane and define symmetric an asymmetric degrees of
freedom?

9) What will decide the lateral (asymmetric) degrees of freedom and define directional stability
and dihedral effect?

10) Define compressibility of fluids and what decides the speed of propagation of small pressure
waves in fluids?

11) How the sound travels in gases and gives the expression for the speed of sound

12) What are the power plants used in airplanes? Which power plant is most efficient for subsonic
airplanes?

13) Write down the major difference between the turboprop and turbojet engines in generating the
propulsive power.
14) What are the condition for minimum drag and minimum power required for an airplane?
Mention them drag coefficient also.

15) What causes induced drag?

16) Define skin friction drag and pressure drag.

17) What are the conditions required for maximum drag and minimum drag?

18) Explain the significance of load factor.

19) Plot the variation of power available (PA) with flight speed (V) for a propeller

20) How load factor (L/W) is related to bank angle?

21) Define servicing and absolute ceiling.

22) What is the compressibility speed correction of airplane and how Vcorr is related to true
speed?

23) How the speed correction (Vcorr) due to compressibility effect is related to incompressible
speed (v) when speed, altitude, t/c ratio and CL increases.

24) Define range and endurance of an airplane.

25) For turbojet driven airplane at what V/VL/Dmax , min or max occurs? Also for the turbo
propeller driven airplane at what V/VlDmax R/Cmaxor R/Smin occurs?

26) Draw TR and V graph of turbojet airplane and indicate Vmax and Vmaxr?

28) What are the conditions for maximum endurance of a jet powered airplane?

29) What is the condition for Rmin for turning an airplane in level flight? Also give the time (t) for
360 turn in terms of v and tan?

30) What is meant by dihedral effect?

31) Define power of lateral or aileron control.

32) What are the basic requirements that are to be fulfilled by the lateral control system?

33) What is meant by aileron reversal speed?

34) What are the advantages of sideslip?

35) How the total direction stability contributions of parts of airplane are made more stabilizing?

36) What is the requirement of directional control –rudder?

37) What are the flight conditions or maneuvers that produce unbalance yawing moment those are
to be overcome by a rudder?
38) Define rudder power and how it is related to directional stability of airplane.

39) What is adverse yaw effects and how it is controlled by rudder?

40) How rudder power is estimated?

41) Why the rudder is designed to suit one engine in operative condition.

42) How the floating rudder affects the directional stability?

43) What is the criterion to keep the directional stability with the stick free above certain limit or
not to lose much?

44) What is the relation for the greatest of pedal force with respect to sideslip and give its
accepted value?

45) What is meant by rudder lock?

46) How to avoid rudder lock?

47) What is the concern of the designer to keep the pedal force required within suitable
practicable values?

48) Why the study on dynamic characteristics of the airplane is necessary?

49) What way the dynamic stability analysis of the airplane helps the design of control system
and the pilot who operates it?

50) What are the four different modes of motion of a dynamic system when responding to a
disturbance from an equilibrium position?

51) What are the six degrees of motion of a dynamic system and how it s formed for the airplane?

52) How the true acceleration and moment of momentum of airplane with respect to fixed axes in
space are generated?

53) What are the different ways the moving airplane axis system can be fixed with reference to
the airplane?

54) What are the equations of longitudinal motion with free control?

55) What are the different modes and stability criterion of dynamic longitudinal motion whose
governing equation is a fourth degree quadratic?

56) How the stability of dynamic motion can be judged using the coefficients of the fourth order

57) Briefly explain the stability derivatives clp and cnr?

58) What are the characteristic modes of stick-fixed longitudinal motion of airplane?

59) What is proposing mode of dynamic mode?

60) How many degrees of freedom are there for lateral dynamic motion and what are they?

61) Define spiral divergence in dynamic stability?
62) Define Dutch roll and its effects?

63) What is meant by snaking?

65) Briefly explain about spinning of an aircraft?

66) How to get out of spin smoothly?

67) State two basic requirements of aircraft control surface?

68) Distinguish between stability and controllability?

69) What is the need for aerodynamic balancing?

70) Explain the term stability derivatives?
PART – B

1. Derive an expression for variation of pressure in the “STRATOSPHERE” region.

2. Obtain the values of pressure, density and temperature at 5 km in ISA.

3. Derive the expression for drag polar and explain it with a neat plot.

4. Draw the power required and power available curve for a jet engine and piston engine and state

5. Derive the two equations given below and represent it graphically

D = AV2 + B/V2 ; P = AV3 + B/V

6. An aircraft weighing 25 kN has a wing area of 80 m2 and its drag coefficient is      CD = 0.016
+ 0.04 CL2, calculate the minimum thrust required for straight and level flight, and the
corresponding true air speed. At sea level and at 10 km (ρ= 0.58kg/m3). Calculate also the
minimum power required and the corresponding true air speeds at the above conditions.

7. Explain the significance of V-n diagram.

8. Obtain the expression for turn radius and turn rate for pull up and pushover     maneuver.

9. Derive the expression for wing contribution to static longitudinal stability, and offer your

10. A wing body model is tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. The lift is found to be zero at a
geometric angle of attack α = -1.5°. At α = 5° the C L is measured as 0.52, the moment
coefficient about the CG are measured as -0.01 and 0.05 for α = 1 and 7.88° respectively.
The C.G. is located at 0.35 C. Calculate the location of the aerodynamic centre and the value
CM.

11. What do you mean by stick fixed and stick free longitudinal static stability?

13. What is aerodynamic balancing? Explain.

14. Describe Dihedral effect and aileron reversal.

16. Write short notes on:

(i)   One Engine Inoperative condition
(ii)  Spin recovery
(iii) Rudder lock (iv) Slip stream rotation of nose mounted propellers

17. (i) "The statically stable aircraft may be dynamically stable or unstable. Similarly dynamically
stable aircraft may be statically stable or unstable". Are both statements true? Justify.

(ii) Discuss various stability derivatives relevant to lateral dynamics.

18. Write short notes on:

(i)     Autorotation
(ii)    Dutch roll
(iii)   Spiral divergence

19. Show that for a propeller driven airplane the maximum rate of climb is given by
1
R       pP 2         K  W  2 1.155
                         
 C  max  W          C DO  S  L / D max

20. Show that elevator angle for trim is given by:

21. Based on the strip theory derive an expression for Aileron control power?

22. A jet aircraft with a wing loading 2.4 kN/m2 and mass of 4500 kg has a maximum thrust of 30
kN at sea level. If the drag co efficient at a speed of 450 km/hr is 0.04. What will be the
maximum possible climb and the greatest climb angle?
23. Derive an expression for maximum propeller load factor and minimum turn radius

24. Sketch an airplane in landing phase and obtain expressions for the approach distance, flare
distance and ground roll.

25. An airplane is flying straight and level at a speed V which is ‘n’ timer the minimum power

P     3  n4
speed Vmp. Show that              
Pmin     4n
3
C2
26. In straight and level show that the minimum value of the ratio L is given by
CD

3
      4
1 3 
4  kC 1 
 D0 3 
      

27. For an aircraft in straight and level flight at a speed of ‘M’ derive the minimum drag speed.
Dm in    2   1 
Show that D                m  2  where D is drag of the aircraft.
2          m 

28. An airplane in straight and level flight, show that the velocity corresponding to minimum
power condition is 0.76 timer the velocity corresponding to minimum thrust required
condition

29. What are the various requirement of rudder?

30. Explain
(i) Rudder lock and Dorsal fin.

(ii) Rudder fixed directional static stability.

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