The Expansion of American Industry - DOC by a574181


									                        The Expansion of American Industry
                                   Chapter 14
A Technological Revolution
Pages 407-414

Bellringer: Phonograph, telegraph, telephone… which is the most important? Why?

Changes in Daily Life
    1. Daily Life in 1865
             Indoor electric lighting or refrigeration did not exit.
             Ice blocks were sawed out of ponds, packed in sawdust and stored in icehouses.
             Mail took 10 days to three weeks to reach from East Coast to Midwest to the West.
                News from Europe to the frontier took months.
    2. Daily Life in 1900
             The post-Civil War years saw tremendous growth in new ideas and inventions.
             The Patent and Trademark office issued 36,000 patents between 1790 and 1860.
             Between 1860 and 1890 500,000 patents were issued for inventions such as the
                typewriter, sewing machine and phonograph.
             European investors and American business leaders began to invest heavily in new
             By 1900 Americans’ standard of living was among the highest in the world as was the
                nation’s industrial productivity.
Railroads Improve Transportation
    1. The Transcontinental Railroad
             The transcontinental railroad was the key event in the great improvement of the rail
                business after the Civil War. (Extending coast to coast)
             Government involvement was vital.
             The federal government awarded huge loans and land grants to two private companies.
             The Central Pacific Railroad began moving eastward out of Sacramento.
             The Union Pacific Railroad began work toward the west in Omaha.
             Most of the workers were immigrants: Irish or Chinese
             After seven years, On May 10, 1869, the final golden spike was hammer in Promontory
                Point, Utah.
    2. Rail Problems and Solutions
             By 1870 railroads could carry goods and passengers from coast to coast.
             Steel rails replaced iron rails, and track gauges and signals became standard.
             In 1869 George Westinghouse developed more effective air brakes.
             In 1887 Granville Woods patented a telegraph system for communicating with moving
    3. Rail Roads and Time Zones
             In the 1800s most towns set their clocks independently according to solar time.
             In 1883 the railroads adopted a national system of time zones to improve scheduling.
             By the end of the century, some 190,00 miles of rails linked businesses and their
             Shipping costs dropped enormously.
             In 1865 shipping a barrel of flour from Chicago to New York cost $3.45. In 1895 it cost
                68 cents.
Advances in Communications
    1. The Telegraph
             Samuel F.B. Morse perfected and took out a patent on the telegraph.
             Morse devised a code of short and long electrical impulses to represent the letters of the
             He sent his first message in 1844.
             In 1870 Western Union had more than 100,000 miles of wire, over which some 9 million
                 telegraph messages were transmitted.
             By 1900 the company owned more than 900,000 miles of wire and was sending roughly
                 63 million telegraph messages a year.
    2. The Telephone
             Alexander Graham Bell of Scotland patented the “talking telegraph” on March 7, 1876.
                 He had just turned 29.
             The first commercial telephone exchange began serving 21 customers on January 28,
                 1878, in New Haven, Connecticut.
             That same year President Rutherford B. Hayes had a telephone installed at the White
             By 1900, 1.5 million telephones were in use.
Electric Power
    1. Edison, A Master of Invention
             Born in 1847, Edison grew up tinkering with electricity.
             Edison’s favorite invention, the phonograph, recorded sounds on metal foil wrapped
                 around a rotating cylinder.
             His goal was to develop affordable, in home lighting to replace oil lamps and gaslights.
             Starting around 1879, Edison and his fellow inventors tried different ways to produce
                 light within a sealed glass bulb.
             In 1880 they finally found a workable filament made of bamboo fiber.
             Other inventors later improved upon Edison’s work. (Ex. Lewis Latimer)
             Edison developed the idea of a central power station.
             By 1890, power stations across the country provided electricity for lamps, fans, printing
                 presses, and many other newly invented appliances.
    2. Westinghouse and Alternating Current
             Direct current was expensive to generate and could travel only a mile or two.
             1n 1885 George Westinghouse began to experiment with alternating current, which could
                 be produced and transmitted more cheaply and efficiently.
             Westinghouse also used a device called a transformer to boost power levels at a station so
                 that electricity could be sent over long distances.
             These aspects of Westinghouse’s system made home use of electricity practical.
             By the early 1890’s, investors had used Edison’s and Westinghouse’s ideas and
                 inventions to create two companies, General Electric and Westinghouse Electric.
             By 1890 nearly 3000 power stations were lighting some 2 million light bulbs across the
    3. Electricity’s Impact on Daily Life
             Electricity made the refrigerator possible, transformed the world of work and created new
             The electric sewing machine, first made in 1889, led to the rapid growth of the ready-
                 made clothing industry.
             Rural areas would still go without electricity for many decades.
Turning Point: The Bessemer Process
             In 1856 Henry Bessemer received the first patent for the Bessemer process.
             Steel had long been produced by melting iron, adding carbon, and removing impurities.
             The Bessemer process made it much easier and cheaper to remove the impurities.
             Steel is lighter, stronger, and more flexible than iron.
             The Bessemer process made possible the mass production of steel.
    1.   The Brooklyn Bridge
              The only way to travel between Brooklyn and Manhattan was by ferry across the East
              John A. Roebling, a German immigrant designed a suspension Bridge with thick steel
                 cables suspended from high towers to hold up the main span.
              Arching 1,595 feet above the river, this bridge would be the longest in the world.
              Disasters plagued this massive project. Roebling died, his son then in charge was
                 disabled with “the bends”. Explosions, fires, and dishonest dealings by a greedy steel-
                 cable contractor also occurred.
    2.   A symbol of American Success
              The Brooklyn Bridge was completed and opened on May 24, 1883.
              Its inventive genius and hard work stood plainly visible for all the world to see.

The Growth of Big Business
Pages 414-418

Bellringer: Describe a “mom and pop” business. Write a definition of “big business”. Explain how the
two are different.

Robber Barons or Captains of Industry?
Andrew Carnegie
    1. Captain of the Steel Industry
    2. Carnegie the Philanthropist
Social Darwinism
Gaining a Competitive Edge
    1. Monopolies and Cartels
    2. The Standard Oil Trust
    3. Methods of Industrial Control
Effects on American Society

Industrialization and Workers
Pages 419-422

Bellringer: Refer to the circle graph on page 420. What obstacles to employment did women industrial
workers face?

The Growing Work Force
Working Families
Factory Work
    1. Increasing Efficiency
    2. A Strict Work Environment
Working Women and Children

The Great Strikes
Pages 423-428

Bellringer: Refer to the graphs on page 426. What were the major reasons for work stoppages in the late

Gulf Between Rich and Poor
    1. Early Labor Unions
    2. The Knights of Labor
    3. The American Federation of Labor
    4. The Wobblies
     5. Reaction of Empolyers
The Rise of Labor Unions
The Railroad Strike of 1877
     1. Haymarket, 1886
     2. Homestead, 1892
     3. Pullman, 1894
Strikes Bock the Nation

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