TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the research problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research question
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Conceptual and operational definition
1.9 Limitations of the study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Source of literature
2.2 Review of literature
2.3 Theoretical framework
2.4 Summary of literature review
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Analysis data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT
4.1 Data analysis
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION FOR
5.2 Recommendation for further studies
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The background of this study looks into the role played by the radio as a
medium in the political mobilization of women in Nigeria.
There are other communication channels like television, interpersonal
(rituals and festivals, gongs, drums), newspapers and magazines; these
are channels of information dissemination. But in view of how effective
these channels could be used in performing the role of mobilizing
women through out the nation into participating in politics, its credibility
is given to radio in getting political message to its target audience
Even though the newspaper and magazines for their non- transient
features would have helped, it is found difficult these days to be
affordable by average Nigerians and women in their own situation finds
it more difficult to spend their income in buying newspapers or
magazines in order to get information in this economic crunch situation
in the country today.
Hence, radio is used as their resort for information acquisition.
Also, the television due to its high cost is not easily affordable by every
family, and for the traditional communication, since these targeted
audience (women generally) some of which are from urban areas, it is
found difficult or ineffective to disseminate information to them. This is
because they have socially developed too. Hence they can tune to their
various transistor radio sets for information.
Obiakalusi Lynda et al (1991) in their research work stated that
Nigerians political independence in 1960 had raised hopes of many that
the nation was being set towards achieving a free and democratic
society. In such a democratic society, it is expected that the press such as
radio in particular should be the market place of political thought. The
radio therefore, should exist mainly to serve the information need of the
citizenry in politics.
Akpan (1985) mass communication in Nigeria: book of reading (Nwuneli)
say that the public is entitled to all facts in a political situation and that on
the basis of these facts, it can make its decisions. However, these woman
being to revert to political interest.
Again warren, Kendall (1985: 1990) position that radio for its social role
as a mobilization channel made American listens to feel the brutal
impact of Hitler’s demands against the background of hysterical orator
and frenzied nazi crowd reaction. They (American) were graved when
they heard morrow described war preparation in London, relieved when
kilter born predicted that chamberlain and Hitler found a peace solution
at Munich. However, it was radio that brought to them this scene of
personal participation in what they realized was the world’s crisis not
The mass media generally performed broad social functions to the
audience and these functions are entertainment, information and
education. Therefore, the radio playing the same function, in terms of
providing messages to its listeners while it is entertaining them thereby
reminding its targeted audience (women).
Radio as an information channel has continued to wax stronger as
a medium of the people. Just like kristie person, executive director of the
Cape Town, south Africa- based free play foundation posit that, radio is
the one tool that the greatest potential to reach the most people.
Again, as an information channel, it informs its audience about
politics and enables them participate in political programmes or
Also, for its educational function, the F R C N in 1998 mapped
out a programme time spooned by Mrs. Florence ejoor (chair person
Abia state family support programme) to educated the woman not to stay
away from the ongoing terminated in that year (1998), but rather to came
out enmasse to complete with their male counterparts towards making
them achieve their objectives of the programmes.
Mr. fidelis Ejiolo of ESBS, a comment writes states that radio, as
one of the electronic media has remained one of the greatest legacies of
post independence in Nigeria. Its uses an impact on public
administration, political enlightment and general development have
made it an indispensable tool for the information management and mass
He also posit that from the inception of radio in Nigeria, more
than 45 years ago, it was obvious that government had on dear vision of
establishing more radio station in different arts of the country basically
for information purposes. This according to Mr. Ejielo is crystallizing
into policy objective aimed positively at influencing social values by
improving and strengthening the social, cultural, political and economic
fabrics of the nation. The establishment of radio stations becomes, as it
was the embodiment of the nations strategy and political awareness. As a
matter of fact, the strategy was anchored on information dissemination
and galvanizing the opinions in support of w omen towards political
enlightenment and objectives.
Apparently, development should not be seized from being
mentioned while discussing politics. According to Nwosu 1985, he says
that development and politics are so intertwined that one cannot talk
about or deal with one with the other, especially in a developing country
Hawing observed the above statement; it is rarely difficult to
distinguish between politics and development especially as it relates to
Radio could be seen as a more possible agent of social and
political mobilizing in the country than television especially in
mobilizing women towards participating in politics. For instance, Mrs.
Evenly chukwu a barrister in an interview with the researcher discloses
that she got motivated from the various political messages she hears
from the radio and felt that with these messages she could challenge the
male counterparts. She also said that the woman who came to vote for
her during the main election got mobilized
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Nigeria gained independence since 1960, although the ruling
colonial government dictated pre independence politics the Nigeria man
did not want to be left out in the art of governance. The activities of the
women folk not in the same scale as of the men were nonetheless not
Oyegbola (1986) in her address to the intra parliamentary union
meeting. The role of women in Nigeria politics rightly points out the
Aba women Riot of 1929 and the activities of few other women which
contributed to the eventual handing over of power to the people, will
always be remembered as some of the pioneer landmarks of the journey
to political independence by this great nation.
However, a lot of write-ups are prejudiced while others are geared
towards educating the society especially, African society, where it is
frequently alleged that women are relegated to the background of the
needs integrate. Well in all facets of life to enhance their social, political
and economic development.
Obviously, it should be universally acknowledged that a woman is
the most useful product of the creator’s skill. There is a “maxim” which
says that, “behind every successful man there is a woman” for instance,
there were some powerful woman who were the wheel on which their
men rode to success, fame and acclaim. For example, the case of Lincoln
and his wife who literally dragged him to the highest political seat, the
United States presidency. Satellite (march 6, 1982) “ own through the
ages, there have been examples of powerful women. The biblical Esther
was a powerful, beloved of her husband who was also to redeem her
people Israelites from slavery and oppression. The queen of Sheba gave
birth to many nations. Cleopatra was a queen who through her Armour
and political inclination nearly brought down the entire Roman Nation.
Cleopatra was a queen who through her Armour and political inclination
nearly brought down the entire Roman Nation. Queen Elizabeth l of
England was one of that nation, more capable and popular ruler.
Back to Africa, Queen Amina of Zaria, a formidable woman,
achieved many spectacular seats, ruling a vast kingdom and is still
fondly remembered as a capable strategist and rule. Although in
traditional African context woman were seen to be playing a second
fiddle role by the male counterparts especially in Nigeria politics. It is
widely held that woman are under privileged in traditional Africa
culture, but pre-colonial politics in Nigeria represents a dual sex role, in
other words, woman should stand alongside their male counterparts to
find solutions to problems of prime national intersects. For instance,
under the 1979 constitution, law prohibits indiscrimination of any kind
women and very citizen male or female of eligible age can vote and be
voted for. However, this is contrast to what the situation was in the past.
In recent years in Nigeria, women also engage themselves in some
development projects. An example is the “Better life for rural women”
championed by Mrs. Maryam Babangida and “Family support
programmer” by Mrs. Maryam Abacha (Nationally).
Women also partake in petty trading association some of them
bind themselves together in socioeconomic bodies or trade groups like
“women cooperatives” to carter for the need of their common
occupations and objectives this, collectively make substantial
contribution to the social development of their immediate areas of
operation and influence.
Another good example was the “National council of women
society”, which was aimed at assisting women in towns and villages in
their important role as nation builders. These organizations to mention
but a few have strived to mobilize and sensitize women folk on the need
of modern politics.
Also, the 1995 Beijing conferences help by women of raious
categories from different countries, was also a forum to mobilize women
towards their rights to compete4 with the male counterparts in politics
participation. Apparently, the federal government has created ministry of
women so that Nigeria women would be mobilized in participating in
According to Agee Agult Emery (1998:45) radio with its peculiar
characteristics is being present everywhere, the mail carrier walks a
route with a transistor radio fastened to the mail bag, the crowd on the
beach listens to good music through the portable radio they carry
alongside them on the beach, the carpenter on roof nails shingles in time
to rock beat. Hence, these women at their various places be it market, the
office or shops, tune on their transistor sets and pay particular attention
to political messages.
There are some who in one way or the other participated in the
past national or star like Adetoun Ogunseye, Mrs. Ebun Oyegbola, Mrs.
Janet Mokely, political advice to the Anambra state chief Executive
(1982) chief Mrs. Uche Ofia Nwuli, legal luminary, Dr. Helen
Having looked into records or listened to various national women
who had participated in one time or the other in Nigeria politics and
seeing how decreasingly the women post in the Nigeria political
positions are being occupied by their male counterparts, the questions
which could be drawn here are.
Will women in the state after being exposed to radio political
messages gear more interest towards participating in the national
Could their exposure to radio political massages activate them
towards holding political post?
Could their exposure to radio political message expose them to
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study will focus on the credibility of radio in
the dissemination of political news and socio-political tool for
mobilizing women to participate in national politics.
Also, the study will see the journalist as the product of the study.
The Nigeria society with its various facets, traditions, belies, mages,
goals, constraints must inevitably influence and de-influence upon by the
journalist. He helps to shape the size and direction of what is
communicated to the different publics.
This role has its implication for the constant barrage of charges of
bias, prejudice, partisanship, untruthfulness, and especially sycophancy
level against radio and its staff.
Also, in discussing credibility in radio reports, the researcher will
consider both messages credibility and source credibility. Radio
credibility here is referred to as the ability of the radio news reports to be
believed and accepted by their target audience (women). In relation to
source credibility, the researcher will be interested in knowing whether
the source of the news has any influence on the credibility rating of the
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since the inception of Nigerian politics women have been
relegated to the background.
However, women raising shoulders in the areas of socio-economic
development in the country, competing with their male counterparts,
why then should their active role in politics be relegated?
Anyway, researches have been carried out in other spheres in
politics issues, but there has never been any that carried out research on
how effective the radio as a mobilization fool could be used to mobilize
women generally towards their participating actively in today’s national
One of such theoretical statement will focus on whether women in
Nigeria form opinion on politics, following their exposure to radio news.
Again, on the effect of radio exposure on political attitude change
on theoretical statement the researcher will consider the role of
interpersonal communication in relation to women selective perception
Furthermore, the study will help the government in making policy
or radio use in a political situation among women.
Finally, the study will also contribute to our political and socio-
cultural development through an empirical linkage of credibility and
sycophancy in Nigerian’s environment. It6 will again enlighten our mind
on the use of radio for socio-cultural integration of the women through
fair political new management in the radio.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Is the radio the major source of political information for women?
ii. How do women react to political news from the radio: Do they
depend on interpersonal communication?
iii. Judging the exposure of political news on women, its impact on
women how does it affect their opinion formation.
iv. What is the women’s rate of response to physical news emanating
from the radio?
v. Do radio news mobilize women. Do they think reporters are
sycophants to the government?
vi. Is the transistor radio more popular among women when
compared to other types?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. H1 Women get most of their political information from radio.
H0 Women do not get most of their political information from radio.
2. H2 Women tend to believe radio political news only after interpersonal
3.H3 Exposure to radio political news will likely respond or result to
political opinion formation.
4. H4 There is tending for women radio listeners not to respond to radio
Political news due to non-objectivity in the news.
H0 Women radio listeners are likely to respond to radio political
To perception of objectivity in the news.
5. H5 Women generally believe political news on radio because of
Sycophancy of the news reports of the government.
H0 Minority of the women does not believe political news on radio
because of perceived sycophancy of the news report.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1 women get most of their political information from radio.
H0 women do not get most of their political information from radio.
H2 women tend to believe radio political news only after
H0 women are not likely to believe radio political news from the radio
even without interpersonal communication.
H3 Exposure to radio political news will likely respond or result to
political opinion formation.
H0 women exposure to radio political news may likely not respond to
political opinion formation.
H4 there is tendency for women radio listeners to respond to political
news due to perception of objectivity in the news.
H0 there is tendency for women radio listeners not respond to radio
political news due to non-objectivity in the news.
H5 women generally believe political news on radio because of
perceived sycophancy of the news reports of the government.
H0 minority of the women does not believe political news on radio
because of perceived sycophancy of the news report.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this study the variables and concepts that constitute the study have
to be clearly defined conceptionally and operationally.
However, the conceptual definition of variable, while the operational
definitions involve the working definitions for the study.
1. Message Acceptance: Someone’s favour reception of message.
2. Radio Exposure: An individual’s acess to the radio and its message
3. Radio Mobilization: The act of influencing someone by radio
programmers and news.
4. Participation: The act of someone taking part in something (political).
5. Politics: The act of someone taking part in leadership of a town, state
or in general, public affairs.
6. Media Sycophancy: Supporting the government activities by the
7. Opinion Formation: Stated emotion of political idea after listening to
particular radio political information.
8. Interpersonal Communication: Act of mouthpiece or face to face
9. Radio Accessibility: The act of someone being able to have a
transistor set and turning the radio transistor set before news (political
A. Message Acceptance: Self- willingness reception of a
particular news content.
B. Radio Exposure: The total periods to radio political message in
mobilization of women.
C. Radio Mobilization: Stated motivation to radio political news
message on women.
D. Participation: The totality of women who are engaged in active
E. Politics: The number of officers or activities that women can
contest for in the election.
F. Media Sycophancy: Stated women views of radio news
reporters as distorting political news to favour the government.
G. Interpersonal Communication: Number of discussion with
friends, lovers and family of political news heard from the
radio on mobilization of women in politics.
H. Opinion Formation: Stated arousal of a political news,
listening to a particular news on mobilization of women in
This research work assumes that radio political information have
been tale-guided and manipulated by the government and influential
political woman that stake in the radio operators. In this regard the
saying that he who pays the piper dictates the tune is assumed to be
obvious political news management. Also, the media agents setting
theory is likewise portrayed.
Furthermore, it is assumed that the government used the newsmen
and radio editors to influence these women attributes towards politics
through their repetitive radio political message appeal in order to make
sure that the message appeal correspondent with what the sponsor
Besides the study assumes that the researchers target audience
listens to radio political news.
Finally, there are literates and semi-literate women, this is
because, if they are illiterates they will not understand news broadcast in
English except when it is broadcast (aired) in vernacular.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is focused on the mobilization and participation of
women in political news on radio.
The study will focus on such aspect as the rate of usages of ride.
This is because according to various researchers made by some
researchers mass communication, it is observed that an averages of about
60 - 70 % of the women that listens to radio. Also, the study will
associate some effective theories of the mass media.
Another aspect of exclusive interest in this study is pure political
news. The study will however, be interested in political programmers.
Finally, the researcher presumes that the scientific nature of her
samples and the standard of her measuring instrument (questionnaire)
will help her to generalize the large population.
PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will
like to order/buy our complete written material(s).
Remember that our websites are www.careerslight.com or
and our official phone numbers are 08169533305, 08158646653,
08126773402. Save our website in your phone or write it down.
HOW TO BUY OR RECEIVE COMPLETE PROJECT
After paying the appropriate amount into our bank Account, send the
following information to 08169533305 or firstname.lastname@example.org
(1) Your project topics
(2) Your Email Address
(3) Depositor’s Name
(4) Teller Number
(5) Bank Location
(6) Amount Paid
We will send complete project materials (Chapter One to Five which
also include: Abstract, Proposal, References, Questionnaires, etc) to
your email immediately we confirm your payment.
You will receive your materials within 1- 5 hours the same day you
made the payment. Guaranteed
Please, we DON’T accept MTN, Glo or any other Card. All payment
should be made through our bank account or in person.
Visit careerslight.com/account to view our bank accounts
Call 08169533305, 08158646653, 08126773402 to send Bank Account to you.
Visit careerslight.com/contact to view our office contact address.
HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD
As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online
businesses in Nigeria.
But on this site, we have provided “table of content” and “Chapter One” of all
our project topics and materials in order to proof that we have the complete
That you see this chapter one shows that this material is available. We removed
Chapter Two to Chapter five from this material. We will send Complete
material (Chapter One to Chapter Five) to your Email immediately after
Visit this website: careerslight.com to see more than 10,000
Project Topics/Materials and 40 Departments
Please, BEFORE YOU ORDER make sure your
topic or related topic is on this website. We only
provide already written materials for Topics on
Please, DO NOT PAY/ORDER IF YOU TOPIC OR
RELATED TOPIC IS NOT ON THIS SITE.
Please, if you are satisfied with our services/materials,
tell your friends about us.
Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-
TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your
project. Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to
develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is
CHEATING. If you must copy word-to-word, please do not order/buy
That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy
ALTERNATIVE WAY OF COLLECTING MATERIALS
Please if you can’t afford to order this material, there is an alternative. Visit
your school library and borrow a research material. But it will also cost you
little amount of money for Photocopy.
For any other inquiries, call 08169533305, 08158646653, 08126773402. Please
DO NOT send SMS for inquiries. God bless you.