World War II Paths to War Pg. 591-595 I. The German Path to War A. Hitler believed that Germany could build a great civilization. 1. Needed more land 2. Wanted to expand east into the Soviet Union 3. Use for German settlements 4. Slavic people would be slaves B. Hitler wanted to revise the unfair provisions of the Treaty of Versailles 1. At first, he used peaceful means. C. March of 1935 1. created a new air force 2. began a military draft The German Path to War D. France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned Hitler’s moves 1. Great Depression prevented World powers from taking action 2. Hitler convinced Western states would not stop him from breaking Treaty of Versailles provisions. E. March, 1936 1. Hitler invaded Rhineland 2. France wouldn’t oppose Hitler without British support. 3. Great Britain saw no need for military response. 4. Beginning of the policy of appeasement Hitler and Nazi Party The German Path to War F. Hitler gained new allies 1. Benito Mussolini, Fascist leader of Italy A. 1935, invaded Ethiopia supported by German troops 2. 1936, Italy and Germany sent troops to Spain to support Gen. Franco 3. 1936, Hitler and Mussolini become allies, formed the Rome-Berlin Axis 4. Germany signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan forming an alliance against communism German & Italian Expansion (1935-1939) The German Path to War G. 1937, Germany is now a very powerful nation 1. Hitler’s goal in 1938 was Anschluss, or union with Austria, his native land. 2. Austrians forced to put Austrian Nazis in charge of government 3. New government invite German troops into Austria to “help” maintain order 4. Hitler annexed Austria to Germany The German Path to War H. 1938, Hitler demanded Sudetenland in NW Czechoslovakia be given to Germany 1. The British, French, Italian, and German representatives meet in Munich 2. Britain, France, and Italy gave in to all of Hitler’s demands (appeasement) 3. German troops allowed into Czechoslovakia The German Path to War I. After Munich Conference, British PM, Neville Chamberlain said, “Peace for our time.” 1. He believed Hitler’s promise of no more demands. J. Hitler was even more convinced that France and Great Britain would not fight. 1. March 1939, Hitler invaded Western Czechoslovakia and took control 2. In East Czechoslovakia (Slovakia) he made it a Nazi puppet state The German Path to War K. France and Great Britain began to react. 1. Great Britain will protect Poland if Hitler invaded. 2. France and Britain began negotiation. 1. France & Great Britain need Soviet Union to contain the Nazis. L. Hitler was afraid of France/GB/Soviet Union alliance. 1. August 1939, Germany and Soviet Union signed Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. A. Stalin gets E. Poland and Baltic states. B. Hitler would eventually break the pact. C. Hitler could now invade Poland without fear. M. Sept. 1 1939, Germany invaded Poland. N. Sept. 3 1939, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. II. The Japanese Path to War A. September 1931 1. Japanese soldiers seized Manchuria 2. Japanese said Chinese attacked them. A. Japanese faked the attack by disguising themselves as Chinese soldiers. 3. League of Nations investigated and condemned the attack A. Japan withdrew from the league. The Japanese Path to War B. mid-1930s, militants gained control of Japanese politics. 1. U. S. opposed takeover of Manchuria, but did nothing to stop it. 2. Chiang Kai-shek tried to avoid a war with Japan A. Concerned about Chinese Communist threat B. Appeased Japan by allowing them to occupy parts of Northern China. C. Japan moved steadily southward 3. December 1936, Chiang formed a united front against the Japanese. A. July 1937, the Chinese and Japanese clashed south of Beijing. B. Japanese seized the capital of Nanjing. C. Chiang Kai-shek refused to surrender and moved the capital. The Japanese Path to War C.Japanese military leaders established New Order in E. Asia. 1. New Order=Japan, Manchuria, and China 2. Japan wanted to modernize E. Asia and lead it to prosperity The Japanese Path to War 3. Planned to seize Soviet Siberia. 4. Became friends with Nazi Germany. 5. As friends, could defeat the Soviet Union and divide its resources. D. Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact forced the Japanese to rethink their goals. The Japanese Path to War E. Japanese needed natural resources 1. Looked at Southeast Asia for resources 2. They risked strong response from European colonial powers and the U.S. F. Japan took the risk The Japanese Path to War G. 1940, Japan demanded right to exploit economic resources in French Indochina. 1. The US imposing economic sanctions (restrictions on trade that are intended to enforce international law,) unless Japan withdrew to its borders of 1931. H. Japan badly needed oil and scrap iron from the United States. 1. The economic sanctions were a very real threat. I. Japan decided to launch a surprise attack on the U.S. and the European colonies in SE Asia.
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