POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

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POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY Powered By Docstoc
					POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS

Theocracy –
•an independent country in which the
government is controlled by one or more
religious leaders
•Iran
TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS
Democracy -
 •rule by the people
  •United States
Oligarchy –
   •rule by an elite group of people,
      typically the wealthy
    •United States???
TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS

Monarchy –

 •Institutional rule over a state by the head
 of a hereditary family

 •United Kingdom
  TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS

Dictatorship –
   •oppressive, anti-democratic form of
   government in which the leader is often
   backed by the military
   •Iraq, Cuba
   POLITICAL DEFINITIONS
Nation -
   •a group of people who possess common
   cultural traits
  •Kurdistan
State -
    •a political entity that possesses
    sovereignty over an area delimited by
    internationally recognized boundaries
    •Mexico
  POLITICAL DEFINITIONS
City-state -
 •fort or central city with its immediately
 surrounding territory, usually encased
 by a wall
Nation-state -
 •a political unit that contains one principal
 national group that gives it its identity and
 defines its territory
  •United Kingdom
    RISE OF NATION-STATES
1. in response to the rise of nationalist political
      philosophies during the 18th century
2. humans want to be close to those of similar
      background
3. necessary and logical component of the
      transition from feudalism to capitalism
 4. logical accompaniment of economic growth
       based on expanding technologies
 5. arose from the collapse of local communities
       and the need for effective communication
       within a large unit
     GROWTH THEORIES

Wallerstein’s World Systems

 •World is divided into three spheres:
      core
         semi periphery

                   periphery
    GROWTH THEORIES
   RATZEL’S SEVEN LAWS OF
      SPATIAL GROWTH

1. Size will increase as culture
   develops
2. Growth of a state is subsequent
to other manifestations of the
growth of the people
    GROWTH THEORIES
 RATZEL’S SEVEN LAWS OF
    SPATIAL GROWTH

3. Growth from a process of
  annexing smaller members
4. boundaries are peripheral
organs that take part in all
transformations of the state
     GROWTH THEORIES
RATZEL’S SEVEN LAWS OF
   SPATIAL GROWTH
5. as state grows, it will strive to
occupy some politically valuable
locations
6. initial stimulus for growth is
external
7. tendency to grow continually
increases in intensity
     GROWTH THEORIES

Deutsch’s Stages

1. transition from subsistence to
exchange economy

2. increased mobility leading to
formation of core areas
    GROWTH THEORIES
Deutsch’s Stages

3. development of urban centers
4. growth of a network of
communications
5. spatial concentration of capital
    GROWTH THEORIES

Deutsch’s Stages

6. increasing group identity

7. rise of national identity

8. creation of state
INFLUENCE OF ETHNICITY
Ethnic homogeneity of countries
 vary, but the extent of a state’s
 cultural diversity often
 influences its political stability
INFLUENCE OF ETHNICITY
Ethnic diversity can be a strong
 centrifugal force – leading to
 civil disorder, international
 conflict, unspeakable human
 rights abuses
 Yugoslavia
         BOUNDARIES
I. Generic Boundaries

 •identified on the basis of their
 inherent characteristics
•natural or physical,
ethnographic or cultural,
historical, geometric
          BOUNDARIES
I. Generic Boundaries:
   •Natural boundary
    follows a river or mountain
    range
  arguments over mineral and
  usage rights, bridge construction
  and maintenance, territory lost
  as a result of course changes
  over time
        BOUNDARIES

• Ethnographic boundary
 Cultural differences mark
 separation

 Partition of India

				
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posted:11/6/2012
language:English
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