Expanding the Political Spectrum

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Expanding the Political Spectrum Powered By Docstoc
					    What is Political Socialization?

   What do we do when we “socialize?”
   How are people affected by those
    they socialize with?
   How would we be affected
    “politically” by those we socialize
    Political Socialization - process by which parents and others
    teach children about values, beliefs and attitudes of political

Agents or Influencing Factors of Political Socialization

    Family
    Religious Institutions
    Community – rural v. urban, North v. South, etc.
    Race and Ethnicity
    Social Class
    Level of Education
    Media
    Teachers
    Peer Group
    National Identity
    Gender
        The Political Spectrum

   Where do you stand?
         What is a Continuum?
   A person’s views on the issues help
    determine where they fall on the
    political spectrum.
   The labels used on the spectrum are
    not pure categories, but they make
    up a continuum, or value line, and
    citizens and politicians fall
    somewhere on that line depending
    on what they believe.
Factors That Determine Placement
   Two major factors shape political views.
   The first is how much change a person is
    willing to have within their society and
   The second deals with how much
    government involvement in the economy a
    person calls for.
   Others also bring in the question of how
    much freedom from government authority
    a leader is willing to give the people.
                 Political Spectrum
   Radicals – These individuals on the extreme left favor basic
    change accomplished through any means, even revolution.

   Liberals – These individuals favor peaceful reforms.

   Conservatives – These individuals prefer to leave things as they

   Reactionaries – These Individuals on the extreme right favor a
    return to things as they were in some earlier, and presumably
    better, time.

    *          *                     *             *
The Political Spectrum
 Liberals are on the left side of the political
  spectrum and tend to favor progress and
 Conservatives are on the right side of the
  political spectrum and tend to favor tradition
  and limiting change.
 Moderates are in the middle and tend to
  have views that are between these two
  positions, perhaps with some views on one
  end of the spectrum and other views on the
  other end of the spectrum, dependent on the
 There  are limitations to the one-line
  spectrum when determining political
  ideology for an individual.
 In reality, there are two spectrums:
  Economic Spectrum
 Because there are really two spectrums,
 many “ideology surveys” label a significant
 portion of those who take the test as
 moderate because they are measuring
 standards from both spectrums, yet trying to
 place it on one spectrum.
   Social and political liberals        Social and political
    favor limited government              conservatives favor broad
    regulation of individual              government regulation of
    behavior.                             individual behavior
   Examples:                            Examples:
     Favor protection of offensive       Oppose   protection of
      language.                            offensive language.
     Oppose censorship of film,          Favor regulation of film,
      music, etc.                          music, etc.
     Pro-choice abortion stance.         Pro-life abortion stance.
     Oppose government                   Favor government-facilitated
      sponsored religious activity.        religious activity, particularly
     Favor protection of                  in school.
      homosexual rights.                  Oppose protection of
     Favor affirmative action             homosexual rights.
      programs.                           Oppose affirmative action

       Extreme: Anarchy               Extreme: Fascism, Theocracy
   Economic liberals favor broad      Economic conservatives favor
    government involvement in           limited government
    economic policymaking and           involvement in economic
    regulation of business.             policymaking and regulation
     Favor higher taxes,               of business.
      particularly progressive            Favor lower taxes,
      (based on income level).             particularly regressive (flat
     Programs assisting the poor          tax, sales taxes).
      such as Medicaid and Head           Fewer programs with the
      Start.                               goal of redistributing income
     Redistribution of income             (private charitable
      (welfare; social security).          assistance; invest own
                                           money for retirement).
     Anti-trust legislation.
                                          Oppose government
     Sympathize with labor in             regulation of market
      Labor-Management issues.             choices.
                                          Sympathize with business in
                                           Labor-Management issues.

    Extreme: Socialism, Communism   Extreme: Laissez-Faire, Monopoly
 If you are like many Americans, you may tend to
  be more conservative on some issues and more
  liberal on others.
 The limitation of one spectrum is that this
  circumstance will generally place you in the
  middle, which is not necessarily an accurate
  reflection of your ideology.
 Remember, all of this discussion takes place with
  a base understanding and consensus on the social
  contract and modern “liberal” political thought.
 People on every point on the spectrum generally
  want what is best for the country—they just
  differ on how to achieve it.

          Conservative      Totalitarian

           Libertarian        Liberal

Freedom           Economic Issues          Control
 Liberal                Conservative
Support for greater     Support for less
  government              government
  control/regulation      control/regulation
  in economic matters     in economic matters
  and less government     and greater
  control/regulation      government
  of individual           control/regulation
  matters.                of individual
 Libertarian             matters.
Support for minimal      Totalitarian
  government control    Support for complete
  of both economic        government control
  and social issues       of economic and
                          social issues
 Favor loose             Favor strict
  construction – a         construction – a
  broad interpretation     narrow
 Constitutional           interpretation
  interpretation may      Constitutional
  change as modern         interpretation should
  society evolves          remain constant
 What are our             through the years
  standards today?        What did the
                           founders mean?

          Liberal              Conservative
 Favorchange over            tradition over
                         Favor
 status quo              change

          Liberal             Conservative

  Rightsof the          Rightsof the
  Individual are more     community are more
  important               important
Voter A: “I worked my       Voter B: “I really don’t
way up from poverty to      care what other people do
become the successful       in their free time, as long
business owner I am         as they don’t bother me.
today. I get frustrated     I sure don’t like it when
when I think that my tax    the government tells me
money goes to support       what to do with my
people who won’t help       money or in my own home
themselves. I think part    – I’m certainly not going
of the blame belongs with   to turn around and do the
the media – they promote    same thing to my
all the wrong values.”      neighbors.”
        Ideology?                    Ideology?
Voter C: “I really worry   Voter D: “These days, you
                           can’t be too careful. I think
about the state of the     we need to spend a lot more
world today. It seems      money on the national
like more and more kids    defense. I wish there was a
                           police officer on every
are growing up in          corner! The police could
poverty and there’s no     search my car all they want,
one there to help them.    since I don’t break the law.
                           I also think the government
I think we need to do      should crack down on the
more toward providing      media – their reporting gives
healthcare and             our enemies an inside look
                           at all our military
education programs for     preparations.”
our young people.”
        Ideology?                    Ideology?

          Conservative        Totalitarian

               Most people will fit
             somewhere within the
            parameters of this circle.

           Libertarian         Liberal

Freedom           Economic Issues            Control
   In response to many requests, not only from Americans, The
    Political Compass™ has charted the most prominent names in the
    2008 US Primaries. They have been evaluated through scrutiny of
    public statements, manifestos, interviews and, crucially, voting
    records. Our apologies for those not included.
   It is important to recognise that The Political Compass™ is a
    continuum rather than consisting of hard and fast quadrants. For
    example, Ron Paul on the social scale is actually closer to Dennis
    Kucinich than to many figures within his own party. But on the
    economic scale, they are, of course, far apart.
   When examining the chart it is important to note that although
    most of the candidates seem quite different, in substance they
    occupy a relatively restricted area within the universal political
    spectrum. Democracies with a system of proportional
    representation give expression to a wider range of political
    views. While Dennis Kucinich and Mike Gravel are depicted on the
    extreme left in an American context, they would simply be
    mainstream social democrats within the wider political landscape
    of Europe. Similarly, Hillary Clinton is popularly perceived as a
    leftist in the United States while in any other western democracy
    her record is that of a moderate conservative.
   Source: www.politicalcompass.org
Source: www.politicalcompass.org

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