Chapter 14- Principles of Evolution- Biology: Life on Earth 6e

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					                                Chapter 14 - Principles of Evolution

14.1 How Did Evolutionary Thought Evolve?
      A. Define species
      B. Develop time line of historical events
             1. 427–347 B.C.–Plato
             2. 384–322 B.C.–Aristotle – “ladder of Nature”
             3. Until 1700s–Creationism
                     a. Each species was created individually by God
                     b. Earth was the center of the universe
                     c. Man stood as the pinnacle of creation
             4. 1707–1788–G. L. Buffon–creation provided a relatively small number of founding species
             that evolved through natural processes
             5. 1769–1839–W. Smith–organization of fossils in rock layers
             6. 1769–1832–G. Cuvier–theory of catastrophism
             7. 1726–1797–J. Hutton–developed uniformitarianism
             8. 1797–1875–C. Lyell–supported Hutton
             9. 1744–1829–Lamarck–inheritance of acquired characteristics
             10. 1809–1882–C. Darwin–developed the theory of evolution; species evolved through
             natural selection and adaptation to their ever-changing environment
             11. 1823–1913–A. Wallace–supported Darwin's theory

14.3 How Do We Know that Evolution Has Occurred?
      A. Fossils
            1. Transitional forms are evidence of evolutionary change
            2. Controversies over the interpretation of fossil data
                    a. Dating of fossils
                    b. Do fossils really show transitional forms?
      B. Comparative anatomy
            1. Homologous structures
            2. Analogous structures
            3. Vestigial structures
      C. Comparative embryology
            1. All vertebrate embryos look similar to one another in early development, with the
            development of a tail and gill arches
      D. Comparative biochemistry and molecular biology
            1. All cells have DNA, RNA, ribosomes, the same 20 amino acids, and use ATP as an
            energy carrier
            2. DNA similarities

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