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Name: Date: Period: CSCS: 5, a, b, c; 6, i; 7, a, d, e Chicken Foot Dissection Background: The chicken leg is very similar to the human leg in that both are made up of lots of different cells, tissues, and organs. These body parts interact and cooperate to allow the chicken to perform a variety of activities such as walking, hopping, sitting, and standing. In this investigation, the various tissues and structures of the leg of a chicken will be found and described. Tendons attach muscle to bone. Tendons, which attach fingers or toes to upper support bones are very long and can be easily found. Muscles move in antagonistic (opposite) pairs to move a bone. So for every movement there should be a pair of tendons. One muscle and tendon to contract and close the joint, and another tendon and muscle to relax or open the joint. The chicken foot has long easy to reach tendons which make the foot ideal to use. Chickens actually walk on their toes and NOT on their feet. Materials: chicken foot, dissecting pan, scissors, forceps, and paper towels Procedures: 1. Place the chicken foot in your dissecting pan. Examine the tough outer layer covering the outside. a. Describe this outer layer. For example, is there any hair or feathers present? What is the texture of the layer like? (Answers will vary) rough, rubbery, wet, bumpy b. How is the outer layer (skin) of the chicken foot different from the outer layer of your foot (skin)? (Answers will vary) The chicken foot is bumpy, a different color, four claws and hairless, while we have smoother skin, a different color, five fingers and hair. 2. Find the silvery white tough connective tissue that is near the top of the foot next to the bone. Taking the sharp end of the scissors, slit the chicken’s skin near the open end on the ventral (bottom) side all the way down the foot. There should be a bundle of tendons directly in the mid point. Pull this silvery mass from under the skin with your fingers. Holding the mass of tendons, PULL!!! a. What happened to the toes? The toes curled up. 3. Now separate each tendon from the bundle and pull separately. a. How many individual tendons are there? 6-8 b. What happens when you pull ONLY ONE tendon? Only 1 digit moves. 4. Now do the same thing to the front of the foot. Slit the skin and find the tendons. They will not be in a large mass like the ventral tendons. Grab these tendons and pull. a. What happens to the toes? They extend (open up) b. What happens when you stop pulling these tendons? The foot goes back to the relaxed state. 5. Pull each separate tendon like you did with the last bundle. a. Are these 2 sets of tendons antagonistic pairs? Explain. Yes, because they work in opposition to each other. b. When the chicken was alive what were the tendons attached to? The tendons attached muscle to bone. 6. Using one of your hands, form a claw with your fingers. Look at the back of your hand. a. Do you see hard strings leaving the backs of your fingers and going to your wrists? Yes b. What do they look like? (Answers will vary) c. Can you see or feel a similar set of structures in your palm? Yes d. Can you see them in your arm? Yes 7. Encircle your arm about an inch higher than your wrist. Wiggle your fingers. a. What do you FEEL? (Answers will vary) 8. Remove the skin from the chicken foot using your scalpel and dissecting scissors. Be careful to not damage the tissue underneath. 9. Look for the muscles on the chicken foot. The muscles are bundles of dark pink tissue that surrounds the bone. Muscles are what allow animals to move. 10. Look for whitish tissue, or ligaments, between the bones. Ligaments hold bones together. 11. Look for a thin strand of material with your dissecting needle. Carefully pull the strand aside with the dissecting needle. This strand is a nerve. Nerves are what send messages (directions) from the brain to different parts of the body, such as muscles. Without directions from the brain, you (and the chicken) would not be able to do anything. 12. Look for a thin reddish-brown strand of tissue. Pull it aside with the dissecting needle. This strand is a blood vessel. Blood vessels supply the different parts of the body with blood (food and oxygen) and take wastes away from these parts of the body. 1) Name 2 ways in which muscles and bones are different. a) Bones are hard. b) Muscles make bones move. 2) Name two ways in which tendons and ligaments are different. a) Tendons attach muscle to bone. b) Ligaments connect bone to bone. 3) What is a tendon? Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone. 4) What is a ligament? Connective tissue that attaches bone to bone. 5) What is a joint? A place where bones meet. 6) What is a nerve? Tissue that carries message to/from the brain. 7) Why would a chicken not be able to walk if there was some damage to the nerve in the foot? The chicken would not be able to walk if there was some damage to the nerve in the foot because the foot and the brain couldn’t send messages back and forth to the muscle.
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