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                                             PLANTS


I. PARTS OF PLANTS
1. ROOTS
      a. Functions - absorb water & dissolved minerals, anchor plant, store food
      b. root hairs – increase surface area for water absorption

2. STEM
       a. supports plant, hold up leaves
       b. contains VASCULAR TISSUE
       -XYLEM – carries water up the plant       -PHLOEM – carries food everywhere

3. LEAVES – where PHOTOSYNTHESIS occurs
       a. chloroplasts – contain chlorophyll (green pigment which absorbs light)

         b. Photosynthesis Equation:
                                                sunlight
           6CO2 +      6H2O                                           C6H12O6 + 6O2
      (carbon dioxide) (water)                  chlorophyll        (glucose-food) (oxygen)

         c. SUNLIGHT = energy source
         d. OXYGEN = waste product that is released into the air (oxygen we breathe)


SEXUAL REPRODUCTIOM IN PLANTS

FLOWERS
STAMEN – male reproductive organ (MAKES POLLEN = SPERM)                 PISTIL – female reproductive organ (MAKES EGGS)

POLLINATION - when pollen lands on FLOWER
Pollen travels to ovary  FERTILIZATION takes place  SEED

SEEDS
         1. seed coat – protects embryo
         2. embryo – will develop into plant
         3. contains stored food for embryo (cotyledon)


REVIEW
1. All plants and animals have mechanisms that                       5. Several tomato plants are grown indoors next to a sunny
  (1) transport nutrients      (3) regulate nerves                      window. The plants receive water and fertilizer and remain
  (2) perform photosynthesis (4) produce flowers                        on the windowsill. What will most likely happen?
                                                                     (1) Most of the leaves on the window side will wilt and die.
2. Grasses, shrubs, and trees are called producers because           (2) The roots of the plants will grow upward from the soil.
  they make                                                          (3) Water droplets will collect on the leaves facing away from
 (1) water (2) carbon dioxide (3) minerals (4) food                      the window.
                                                                     (4) The stem will bend toward the window.
3. Which statement describes a method of sexual
   reproduction that occurs in plants?                               6. Which observation of a plant supports the inference that
  (1) Stem cuttings are placed in water and grow roots.                 photosynthesis can take place?
  (2) Seeds are produced from the flower of the plant.                  (1) a strong, sweet smell (3) a green color
  (3) Underground stems from a plant grow into new plants.              (2) a dry, rough texture   (4) a smooth stem
  (4) A leaf falls to the soil, develops roots, and grows.
                                                                     7. Which process produces oxygen that is released into the
4. All living organisms depend on plants because plants              atmosphere?
(1) produce carbon dioxide       (3) are producers                   (1) respiration(2) locomotion (3) excretion (4) photosynthesis
(2) remove oxygen from the air (4) are consumers
8. A plant forms new tissue at the tips of its roots and stems. This new tissue growth is a direct result of
  (1) circulation    (2) coordination          (3) cellular respiration       (4) cell division

9. The diagram below shows a cross section of a bean seed.

  The function of part X in the bean seed is to
  (1) provide protection for the embryo
  (2) provide nutrients for the embryo
  (3) prevent mutations in the plant
  (4) fight off infections in the plant


10. The diagram below shows a model of plant reproduction.

The seeds shown on the plant are produced as a result of
  (1) ecological succession
  (2) hibernation
  (3) fertilization
  (4) genetic engineering




11. The diagram below shows materials needed for survival being transported inside a plant.

  Which body system performs this function in humans?
       (1) circulatory system
       (2) digestive system
       (3) excretory system
       (4) respiratory system




12. The diagram below gives information about carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere




a. What is the name of the process represented in this diagram that produces the oxygen?
   (1) photosynthesis    (2) metamorphosis     (3) respiration    (4) fertilization

b. The animals in the diagram are dependent on the plants for oxygen. Identify one other way in which animals are dependent on
   plants.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

13. The diagram below represents a bean seed that has been cut in half to show its various structures.


                                                                 Which letter represents the stored food that the new plant will use
                                                                 for early development?

                                                                 ________________
14. The diagram below shows a cross section of a bean seed. Three parts of the seed are labeled.

The function of the cotyledon is to provide food for the embryo.
Explain why the cotyledon is not needed once the bean plant matures.

___________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________


15. Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a
process that occurs in the leaf of a tree and other organisms containing chlorophyll. Energy carbon dioxide, and water are taken in
by the leaf and oxygen and sugar are produced.


                                                               a. Identify the process represented by this diagram.

                                                                  ________________________________

                                                               b. What form of energy is taken in by the leaf?

                                                                  __________________________________




16. The diagram below shows a green plant carrying on photosynthesis.



                                                      a. Identify two things shown in the diagram that the plant needs for
                                                        photosynthesis to occur.


                                                           ___________________________

                                                           ___________________________




17. The diagram below shows a bean plant.
                                             Complete the chart below by identifying the three structures labeled A, B, and C.
                                             Identify one function of each structure.
18. Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows
    the Sun and a green plant.

a. Identify one labeled part of the plant that carries on photosynthesis.

   ____________________________________________

b. In addition to sunlight and chlorophyll, what are the two materials
   that a plant needs to carry on photosynthesis?

   _________________________           ______________________________

c. Identify one product that results from the process of photosynthesis.

   _________________________________________


19. Base your answers to the questions that follow on the diagrams below, which show a system in a human and a system in a
plant.

a. Select one structure labeled in the human system above and explain how
   it contributes to the way the human system functions.

Human Structure: ______________________________________________________________________

Explanation: ___________________________________________________________________________

b. Select one structure labeled in the plant system above and explain how it
contributes to the way the organism functions.

Plant Structure: ________________________________________________________________________

Explanation: _________________________________________________


20. The diagram below illustrates a geranium leaf that has been partially covered with black paper for three days.

                                               When the black paper is removed, the area that was covered by the paper has turned
                                               white. The white section of the leaf tests negative for the presence of sugar and the
                                               green section tests positive for the presence of sugar. Explain why the white and
                                               green sections of the leaf have different sugar test results.

                                                _______________________________________________________________

                                                _______________________________________________________________

								
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