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Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy Plan for


                             Economic Development
                             Strategy Plan

                             Metropolitan Kansas City

 This report was prepared
 under an award from the
    U.S. Department of
   Commerce, Economic
Development Administration
  Grant Project Number

                                   Mid-America Regional Council
                                 Community Services Corporation
                                  600 Broadway, Suite 200 | Kansas City, MO 64105
                                                    816-474-4240 |

                                                     Updated April 30, 2009
                             Economic Development
                             Strategy Plan

                             Metropolitan Kansas City

 This report was prepared
 under an award from the
    U.S. Department of
   Commerce, Economic
Development Administration
  Grant Project Number

                                         Mid-America Regional Council
                                       Community Services Corporation
                                           600 Broadway, Suite 200 | Kansas City, MO 64105
                                                             816-474-4240 |

                                                                  Updated April 30, 2009

                                This publication was prepared by the Mid-America Regional Council
                             Community Services Corporation. The statements, findings, conclusions
                              and recommendations are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily
                                     reflect the views of the Economic Development Administration.

     he Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy Plan (CEDS)
     for Metropolitan Kansas City is designed to bring together
     the public and private sectors in the creation of an economic
roadmap to diversify and strengthen the regional economy.
The Plan provides an analysis of the regional economy and serves as
a guide for establishing regional goals and objectives, developing and
implementing a regional plan of action, and identifying investment
priorities and funding sources. The Plan integrates the region’s human
and physical capital planning in the service of economic development.
Integrated economic development planning provides the flexibility
to adapt to global economic conditions and fully utilize the region’s
unique advantages to maximize economic opportunity for its residents
by attracting the private investment that creates jobs for the region’s
residents. The Plan is a result of a continuing economic development
planning process developed with broad-based and diverse public
and private sector participation. It sets forth the goals and objectives
necessary to solve the economic development problems of the region
and clearly defines the metrics of success. Finally, the Plan provides
useful benchmarks by which Metropolitan Kansas City’s economy can
evaluate opportunities with other regions in the national economy.

                                      Executive Summary

        he Kansas City metropolitan region is            of the nation, it is growing much faster and its
        composed of 120 municipalities in nine           concentration is increasing. Due to its centrality,
        counties spanning 4,400 square miles in          the transportation and warehousing industry
two states. In 2006, the Kansas City Metropolitan        remains another area of specialization for the
Statistical Area (MSA) was the 28th largest in the       region. Surprisingly, manufacturing appears to be
U.S., with approximately 2 million people, 1.2           the region’s biggest opportunity for job growth.
million jobs and 850,000 households. Like many           The area boasts a high rate of productivity, with
metropolitan areas, the population growth is not         workers here producing about 40 percent more
uniformly distributed within counties any more           output per hour than the national average.
than it is distributed evenly between them. The
region was built on the advantages arising from its      Goals and Objectives — Defining
central location in the continental United States.       Regional Expectations
                                                         The future economy is dependent upon attracting
                                                         and retaining talented people. At the metropolitan
Kansas City grew as a marketplace for grain and          level, talented people choose to live in regions
livestock, with the nation’s second largest rail         with unique, high-quality natural and built
hub, behind Chicago. As a result, the Kansas City        features where institutions create opportunities
area became a national center for food processing;       to participate in a competitive economy. The
stock yards, meatpackers, slaughter operations,          following goals have been framed to reflect a
the leading producer of red winter wheat, and a          vision for development of the region:
hub for in-bound shipping of grain for storage,
                                                         1. Economic competitiveness rooted in
milling, baked goods, and out-bound shipping
                                                            innovative capacity. Regions specialize in
to markets. Kansas City evolved as not only an
                                                            what they do best, creating highly developed
east/west and north/south connector in the center
                                                            clusters of activity where competing firms spur
of a vast transportation network, but with the
                                                            each other to higher levels of performance.
most freeway miles per capita of any of the 30
                                                            University excellence is at the root of most
largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Low congestion
                                                            basic innovations.
and few constraints on available land produced
a sprawling metropolis. As the U.S. economy              2. High levels and use of human capacity, which
began its inexorable shift from producing goods,            requires universal quality education, strong
where minimizing shipping costs is of particular            family support systems, and a culture that
importance, to producing services, Kansas City              embraces diversity as a source of strength,
became a “back-office” town and a distribution              resilience and innovation.
center for freight. In an information economy,           3. Inherent attractiveness of place and amenities,
innovation has supplanted location as THE critical          which include vital urban centers, world-class
factor for business success.                                cultural and recreational opportunities, and
                                                            thriving first suburbs.
Economic Development Problems and
Opportunities                                            4. Social cohesion based on a high level of trust
                                                            across geographic and social communities,
The economic weakness of greatest concern                   leading to agreement on actions and policies
to the region is its ability to attract growth in           that serve the common good.
management occupations. These high-paying
occupations are growing significantly slower in          5. Strategic decision-making capacity, which
metropolitan Kansas City than nationally. The               requires effective leadership institutions and an
region’s brightest opportunities are in life sciences       engaged citizenry able to influence policy.
research and production and logistics. Though            6. Efficiency in the use of resources found in
the life sciences sector is still a smaller-than-           healthy natural environments and strong
average employer as compared to other parts                 mobility and accessibility networks.

Community and Private Sector Participation              Kansas City Smart Port is a non-profit economic
The Kansas City area has a history of public and        development organization formed to promote
private sector cooperation when it comes to             and enhance the Kansas City metro area’s status
economic development. While the Mid-America             as America’s inland port solution. Smart Port
Regional Council works internally to provide            has two main focuses in its mission. First, Smart
public sector leadership with tools to develop a        Port strives to grow the area’s transportation
great region, the Kansas City Area Development          industry by attracting businesses with significant
Council’s markets the region to the outside world.      transportation and logistics elements. Second,
Together, these two organizations represent a           the organization works to make it cheaper, faster,
platform for the community to come together             more efficient and secure for companies to move
and discuss the future development of the               goods to, from and through, the Kansas City area.
Kansas City region.                                     The Green Impact Zone in central Kansas
Within the Kansas City region, several initiatives      City’s urban core offers a unique opportunity
have taken off based on reorganizing for                to demonstrate how regional strategies and key
success. Regional organizations are bringing            partnerships can reverse decline and create
people together to form new alliances to solve          economic reinvestment.
economic development problems. The initiatives          Strategic Projects, Programs, and Activities
include One KC WIRED, the Center for Regional
Competitiveness, Kansas City Area Life Science          A review of local plans and discussions with
Institute, and Kansas City Smart Port.                  local officials found that most communities have
                                                        similar themes and statements of philosophy that
One KC WIRED is an innovative approach to               are essential for their communities and the region
regional workforce and economic development —           to achieve a high performing economy and a
one that recognizes the new reality that a highly       high quality of life for metro area residents. Local
skilled, educated and trained workforce is the          community goals represent a component of the
essential foundation of a strong regional economy.      region’s goals and local effort enhances regional
Through One KC WIRED, the region has created a          opportunities for success.
dynamic, entrepreneurial partnership strategically
designed to drive significant economic and              Consistent themes across local communities:
workforce development transformation within             1. Create and maintain communities that are
the region. The initiative’s partners are integrating      attractive places with amenities to meet the
and building upon what were once independent               needs of a diverse population.
activities to develop a comprehensive system of         2. Raise the capacity of governmental agencies to
workforce development, education and training,             make strategic decisions.
and economic development to meet the region’s
current and future needs.                               3. Develop and retain human capital to compete
The Center for Regional Competitiveness brings
university resources together with the private          4. Capitalize on the region’s strengths for strategic
sector to provide decision tools and leadership            economic development, including creation
mechanisms to support the region’s competition             of a world class Life Science/Animal Health
in the global economy.                                     Industry.
The Kansas City Area Life Science Institute             5. Capitalize on the region’s strengths to build
(KCALSI) is a non-profit organization assisting            a Transportation/Logistics/International Trade
with the transformation of Kansas City into a              Industry.
center of excellence in life sciences research          Throughout the region, organizations are
and development. KCALSI and its stakeholder             THINKING, ACTING, WORKING, and
institutions share ambitious goals — to make new        GROWING as ONE KC through public-private
discoveries in aging and related diseases, neuron-      partnerships, collaborative programs and services,
degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer        and coordinated marketing.
and infectious diseases, and to encourage related
business development.

                                               Table of Contents

Abstract ................................................................................................................................ i
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ iii
List of Charts, Maps and Tables ...........................................................................................vii
Chapter 1: Overview of the Kansas City Metropolitan Region .............................................. 1
        About MARC .............................................................................................................. 2
        Population Trends ....................................................................................................... 6
        A Brief History of the Kansas City Area’s Economy ...................................................... 9
        Geography and Environment .................................................................................... 28
Chapter 2: Analysis of Economic Challenges and Opportunities......................................... 61
Chapter 3: Vision and Goals for Regional Economic Prosperity .......................................... 83
Chapter 4: Community and Private Sector Participation ..................................................... 85
Chapter 5: Strategic Projects, Programs and Activities ........................................................ 87
Chapter 6: CEDS Action Plan ............................................................................................. 95
Chapter 7: Performance Measures.................................................................................... 100
References and bibliography ............................................................................................ 103

MARC Community Services Governing Board ................................................................. 105
Economic Development District Strategic Committee ...................................................... 105
County Profile: Johnson County, Kan. .............................................................................. 106
County Profile: Leavenworth County, Kan. ...................................................................... 109
County Profile: Miami County, Kan. ................................................................................ 111
County Profile: Wyandotte County, Kan. ......................................................................... 113
County Profile: Cass County, Mo. .................................................................................... 115
County Profile: Clay County, Mo. .................................................................................... 117
County Profile: Jackson County, Mo. ............................................................................... 119
County Profile: Platte County, Mo. .................................................................................. 122
County Profile: Ray County, Mo. ..................................................................................... 124

                                    List of Charts, Maps and Tables

Map: Cities and Counties in the Kansas City Metropolitan Region................................................ 1
Chart: Population Trends by County Components ....................................................................... 6
Chart: Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1990 and 2006 ................................................. 7
Map: Population Change 1970–2000 .......................................................................................... 8
Map: U.S. Rail Lines .................................................................................................................... 9
Chart: Kansas City Metro Population Change and Net Migration ................................................ 10
Chart: Population Change .......................................................................................................... 10
Map: U.S. Decade of Peak Population by Decade ..................................................................... 11
Map: Kansas City Metro Net Migration by County 1994-2004 ................................................... 12
Map: U.S. Interstate Highways ................................................................................................... 13
Map: Kansas City Metro Residential Land Consumption 1940-2000........................................... 14
Map: Population Growth and Decline in the Kansas City Urbanized Area ..............................15
Map: Percent White/Non White Population 2000 ...................................................................... 16
Map: Poverty by Race 2000 ....................................................................................................... 17
Map: Violent Crime 2005 .......................................................................................................... 17
Map: Neighborhood Household Income Relative to Regional Median 2000 .............................. 18
Map: Population Change by Race 1990–2000 ........................................................................... 18
Chart: Employment Growth: Manufacturing vs. Services 1969–2005 ......................................... 19
Chart: Kansas City vs. U.S. Total Employment Growth 1970-1980 ............................................. 20
Chart: Kansas City vs. U.S. Total Employment Growth 1980–1990 ............................................ 20
Chart: Kansas City vs. U.S. Total Employment Growth 1990–2000 ............................................ 21
Chart: Kansas City vs. U.S. Total Employment Growth 2000–2005 ............................................ 21
Chart: Kansas City Metro vs. U.S. Unemployment Rate 1990–2006 ........................................... 22
Map: Proposed “Megaregions” for Focusing Federal Investment ................................................ 23
Map: U.S. and State Highways in the Kansas City Region .......................................................... 25
Map: Travel Times ..................................................................................................................... 27
Map: The Greater Kansas City Region ........................................................................................ 28
Map: Watersheds in the Greater Kansas City Region .................................................................. 33
Table: Fauna in the Greater Kansas City Region ................................................................... 35–38
Table: Endangered Species in the Greater Kansas City Region.................................................... 39
Table: Former Manufactured Gas Plants..................................................................................... 47
Table: Wood Treating Facilities ................................................................................................. 47
Map: Planned Land Use in the Greater Kansas City Region ........................................................ 55
Chart: Change in Jobs by Industry in the Kansas City Region ...................................................... 61
Chart: Housing Index by Metro Area ......................................................................................... 62
Map: Employment Density 2000 ............................................................................................... 63
Map: Kansas City Region Major Employment Corridors ............................................................. 64
Table: Employment in High Density Employment Corridors ...................................................... 64
Chart: Educational Attainment 1990 and 2006........................................................................... 65
Chart: Occupational Employment 2006 ..................................................................................... 66
Chart: Relative Occupational Concentration and Growth........................................................... 67
Chart: Estimated Employment by Industry 2006 ......................................................................... 69
Chart: Estimated Output by Industry 2006 ................................................................................. 69
Chart: Relative Industry Concentration and Employment Growth 2001-2006 ............................. 70
Chart: 2006 Median Household Income .................................................................................... 73
Chart: 2004 Cost of Living Index ............................................................................................... 73
Chart: Housing Cost Index, 2004 ............................................................................................... 74
Chart: Neighborhood Self Rating, 2005 ..................................................................................... 74

Chart: Weeks of Work Delayed in Traffic, 2003 ......................................................................... 75
Chart: Change in Total Non-Farm Employment, 1990-2000, 2000-2005 .................................... 75
Chart: Change in Information Employment, 1990-2000, 2000-2005 .......................................... 76
Chart: Change in Transportation Employment, 1990-2000, 2000-2005 ...................................... 76
Chart: Change in Professional and Technical ServicesEmployment, 1990-2000, 2000-2005 ...... 77
Chart: Percent of Population Age 25 or Over, with at Least a Bachelor’s Degree ........................ 77
Chart: Firm Births Per 1,000 Existing Enterprises ........................................................................ 78
Chart: Entrepreneurs per 100,000 People 2005 ......................................................................... 78
Chart: Total Patents 2003........................................................................................................... 79
Chart: Venture Capital Investments as a Percentage of Gross Metropolitan Product.................... 79
Chart: Net Migration Rate of the Young, Unmarried, College Educated...................................... 80
Chart: Manufacturing Productivity: Output per Production Worker Hour ................................... 80
Chart: Funding for Life Sciences, Metropolitan Kansas City ........................................................ 81
Map: Missouri Total Combined Truck Freight Flows 1998 ......................................................... 82
Table: Action Plan — Promoting Economic Development and Opportunity ............................... 96
Table: Action Plan — Fostering Effective Transportation Access ................................................. 97
Table: Action Plan — Enhancing and Protecting the Environment .............................................. 98
Table: Action Plan — Maximizing Effective Development and Use of the Workforce
        Consistent with Any Applicable State or Local Workforce Investment Strategy ................ 98
Table: Action Plan — Promoting the Use of Technology in Economic Development,
        Including Access to High-Speed Telecommunications .................................................... 99
Table: Action Plan — Balancing Resources Through Sound Management of
        Physical Development .................................................................................................... 99
Table: Performance Measures — Individual Community Response Measurements ................... 101
Table: Performance Measures — MARC/Partner Agency Measurements ................................... 101
Charts and Map: County Profile — Johnson County, Kan. ........................................................ 106
Utilities and Other Services, Johnson County, Kan. .......................................................... 107–108
Charts and Map: County Profile — Leavenworth County, Kan. ................................................. 109
Utilities and Other Services, Leavenworth County, Kan. .......................................................... 110
Charts and Map: County Profile — Miami County, Kan. ........................................................... 111
Utilities and Other Services, Miami County, Kan. .................................................................... 112
Charts and Map: County Profile — Wyandotte County, Kan. .................................................... 113
Utilities and Other Services, Wyandotte County, Kan. ............................................................. 114
Charts and Map: County Profile — Cass County, Mo. .............................................................. 115
Utilities and Other Services, Cass County, Mo. ........................................................................ 116
Charts and Map: County Profile — Clay County, Mo. .............................................................. 117
Utilities and Other Services, Clay County, Mo. ........................................................................ 118
Charts and Map: County Profile — Jackson County, Mo. ......................................................... 119
Utilities and Other Services, Jackson County, Mo. ........................................................... 120–121
Charts and Map: County Profile — Platte County, Mo. ............................................................. 122
Utilities and Other Services, Platte County, Mo ....................................................................... 123
Charts and Map: County Profile — Ray County, Mo. ................................................................ 124
Utilities and Other Services, Ray County, Mo .......................................................................... 125

 An Overview of MARC and the Kansas City Region

      he Kansas City metropolitan region, as      comprise roughly 94 percent of the population
      defined for this Comprehensive Economic     of the 15-county Kansas City Metropolitan
      Development Strategy, is composed of 120    Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by the Office of
municipalities in nine counties spanning 4,400    Management and Budget.
square miles in two states.                       In 2006, the Kansas City MSA was the 28th largest
The nine counties — Johnson, Leavenworth,         metropolitan area in the U.S., with approximately
Miami and Wyandotte in Kansas, and Cass,          2 million people, 1.2 million jobs and 850,000
Clay, Jackson, Platte and Ray in Missouri —       households.

                      Cities and Counties in the KC Metro Region

Source: MARC

n About MARC
The Mid-America Regional Council, commonly             a wide range of transportation issues, working
referred to as MARC, serves as the association         in cooperation with the Kansas and Missouri
of city and county governments and the                 Departments of Transportation, local governments
metropolitan planning organization for the             and transit providers.
bistate Kansas City region. MARC seeks to              MARC’s transportation planning activities
build a stronger regional community through            encompass all of Cass, Wyandotte, Johnson and
cooperation, leadership and planning. Through          Jackson counties, and portions of Leavenworth,
MARC’s leadership, area jurisdictions and              Platte and Clay counties. MARC works with these
diverse community interests sit down together to       communities, identified stakeholders and the
address the region’s problems and identify the         public to plan for improvements to the region’s
opportunities for cooperative solutions. These         surface transportation system over the next 30
efforts, in turn, enhance the effectiveness of local   years as well as recommending investments
government.                                            through available federal and state grant funds.
As a voluntary association, MARC strives to            The primary products of the transportation
foster better understanding and cooperation on         planning process include:
issues that extend beyond the jurisdiction of a
single city, county or state. These issues include     •	 The region’s Long-Range Transportation Plan
transportation, early education, older adult              (LRTP).
services, emergency services and homeland              •	 The Transportation Improvement Plan (TIP), a
security, public safety communications,                   listing of projects recommended for federal and
environmental protection, health care, economic           state transportation funds to support achieving
development, sustainable development                      the long-range plan.
and others.                                            •	 A Congestion Management System (CMS), a
MARC’s Board of Directors consists of 33 locally          plan to reduce congestion on major highways
elected leaders representing the nine counties and        and roadways.
120 cities in the bistate metropolitan Kansas City     •	 Regional Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
region.                                                   Architecture, a plan to use technology to better
MARC plays an active leadership role in                   manage the region’s transportation system,
strengthening the metropolitan community by               including KC Scout, a freeway management
providing:                                                system, and Operation Green Light, a
•	 A forum for addressing regional objectives and         synchronized traffic signalization project on
   diverse community issues.                              major thoroughfares.
•	 Long-range planning and public policy               •	 The Smart Moves Plan, a long-range plan for
   coordination.                                          the region’s public transit system.
•	 Technical assistance and services to enhance        •	 MetroGreen a regional greenway trails system,
   the effectiveness of local government.                 and the Regional Bikeway Plan, a facility plan
                                                          for non-motorized transportation.
Transportation                                         Together these documents provide a blueprint for
MARC is the metropolitan planning organization         the development of the region’s transportation
(MPO) for the bistate Kansas City region. Federal      system and direct the expenditure of federal funds
highway and transit statutes require urbanized         for highways, transit, bikeways and other modes
areas greater than 50,000 in population to             of transportation.
designate MPOs as a condition for spending             Maintaining the region’s transportation
federal highway or transit funds. As the MPO,          infrastructure is critical to continued economic
MARC receives federal funds to develop                 growth and development for the Kansas City area.
regional transportation plans and programs and         The region’s prominence as a major transportation
to coordinate technical and policy studies on          hub, its growing logistics industrial sector,

and the need for workers to travel to and from        can range from the entire Kansas City region to a
employment centers are all factors in the region’s    single municipality or neighborhood.
transportation planning work.
                                                      Local Government Services
Community Development                                 The Government Innovations Forum was
MARC supports a coalition of officials from           created when an organization of city and county
inner-ring suburbs that works on housing and          managers and administrators from the Greater
commercial revitalization in those portions of        Kansas City metropolitan area committed to
the Kansas City region developed just prior to        support a full-time staff person at MARC to
or following the second World War. The First          manage communications between managers and
Suburbs Coalition has developed a marketing           jurisdictions and follow through on Roundtable
strategy to encourage reinvestment, partners with     ideas and initiatives. Supported by contributions
a local credit union to provide low cost financing    from over 40 cities and counties, the Government
for housing rehabilitation, and is working on the     Innovations Forum provides staff support to the
design of reinvestment in older suburban              Managers’ Roundtable and its initiatives and
strip centers.                                        connects members with a variety of regional
MARC receives funds from the U.S. Economic            research and decision-making mechanisms.
Development Administration and has been               The Government Training Institute (GTI)
designated as an Economic Development District        provides targeted cost-efficient, high quality
for the Kansas City metro area. MARC provides         training services to local governments and
support to local agencies and organizations           nonprofit partner organizations. GTI provides
seeking to plan for, design and implement             training to 7,500 employees and officials on
investments that address economic distress            an annual basis. The training programs include
within the metro area. MARC maintains this            leadership development, workshops for planning
Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy           commissioners, technical environmental training,
Plan (CEDS) to support the region’s economic          computer skills, certificate programs and
development efforts.                                  customized training.
                                                      MARC’s Small Cities Program provides
Workforce Development
                                                      administrative, planning and informational
MARC provides support to One KC Wired, an             resources to smaller local governments. There
initiative designed to help support a coordinated     are 90 cities in the region with populations under
workforce development system in the Kansas City       10,000, and only 23 of these cities employ a
metro area. One KC Wired focuses on strategic         city manager or administrator. It is increasingly
economic development sectors, and ensures that        difficult for smaller cities to address the problems
training and workforce development systems            that confront their communities due to limited
are strengthened to support job creation              resources. The Small Cities Program supplements
and retention.                                        local staff with resources, while focusing on a
                                                      limited number of issues and program areas.
Citizen Engagement                                    Included in the Small Cities Program are:
MARC supports a citizen engagement initiative
                                                      •	 Initiatives to help communities gain access
called One KC Voice that brings citizen input
                                                         to state and federal programs through grant
into local decision-making processes and helps
                                                         writing and grant management services.
the Greater Kansas City region find common
ground on important issues. MARC supports a           •	 Information on planning techniques for
regional network of organizations using input            infrastructure development, economic and
techniques that include community conversations,         community initiatives .
workshops, online communities, blog-based             •	 Training on the use of economic development
discussions and surveys. Each of public                  tools to take advantage of private funding
participation project is written and formatted           opportunities.
specifically for an individual topic, and the scale

•	 Assistance with “Best Practices,” policy writing    Environmental Protection
   and a master contract for goods and services.       MARC’s main environmental program areas of
•	 Identification of revenue sources, use of special   air quality, watershed management, solid waste
   improvement districts and budget structure.         management and green infrastructure bring
•	 Mapping support services.                           community partners together to address regional
                                                       environmental issues in a cooperative setting.
Research Services                                      Each program includes a strong educational
MARC’s Research Services Department provides           component based on the concepts of smart
various services to member cities and counties         growth and sustainability, with messages directed
and regional initiatives. These services include       at a variety of groups and audiences. MARC also
data and research, Geographic Information              works with several broad-based environmental
Systems (GIS) and mapping, and information             initiatives that cut across program lines to achieve
technology. Resources available to support             multiple objectives, including:
economic development in the metro area include:        •	 The Kansas City Environmental Education
•	 KC Economy — A source for economic                     Network works with environmental educators
   information for the Kansas City Metropolitan           and organizations to expand environmental
   Area. MARC updates this web-based resource             education in the region.
   to provide recent data and analysis to keep         •	 The Natural Resources Inventory (NRI) uses
   stakeholders up to date on Kansas City’s               digital map data to study valuable natural
   economy.                                               resource assets and ecological features in the
•	 Metro Outlook LIVE — The updated version               Kansas City region.
   of Metro Outlook, first published by MARC           •	 The region’s green building program
   in 2001, is an interactive Web site that               encourages more environmentally-sensitive
   measures regional progress through a variety of        design and construction practices.
   indicators, including employment, education,        •	 Sustainable Growth for Small Cities provides
   income, migration, poverty and more.                   tools to help growing communities with land
•	 Metro Dataline — Data on the region’s                  use practices, zoning policies and funding
   population, economy, social characteristics,           resources.
   and other areas, as well as maps of the region      •	 Creating Quality Places identifies how smart
   are housed on the Metro Dataline Web site.             growth planning concepts may be applied to
   In addition, Metro Dataline provides unique            the Kansas City region.
   reports from MARC’s Research Services staff,
   and links to other major sources of data about      Emergency Services, Homeland Security and
   the Kansas City region.                             Public Safety Communications
•	 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—               MARC has provided support to the region’s
   Local governments use GIS every day to              emergency services agencies for over 30 years,
   assist regional planning efforts in the areas of    bringing officials together to develop plans,
   transportation, environment and emergency           protocols and programs, and to manage local,
   services. MARC supports collaboration               state and federal resources.
   between area governments on cross-
                                                       MARC coordinates the region’s 9-1-1
   jurisdictional GIS/mapping projects and cost-
                                                       communications system, ensuring a high quality
   sharing endeavors.
                                                       means for the public to access emergency
•	 Publications — The Research Services                response.
   Department publishes a wide variety of reports,
                                                       MARC administers the region’s homeland security
   including the annual Greater Kansas City
                                                       funding, ensuring the region is working toward
   Economic Forecast, the Long Range Forecast,
                                                       enhancing capabilities to reduce risks from and
   migration studies and Regional Data Snapshots.
                                                       respond to all hazards, including those caused

by terrorist acts. MARC also supports the Mid-           Aging Services
America Local Emergency Planning Committee,              MARC’s Department of Aging Services functions
charged with bringing industry and emergency             as the Area Agency on Aging for Cass, Clay,
response agencies together to reduce risks from          Jackson, Platte and Ray counties in Missouri.
hazardous chemical releases, and coordinates             Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs), created through
pre-hospital emergency care with hospitals and           the Older Americans Act of 1965, advocate for,
ambulance services.                                      design and implement programs to meet the
Early Education                                          unique needs of older citizens within the counties
                                                         they serve.
Since 1989, MARC has worked with community
partners to develop a system of high quality early       MARC coordinates a wide variety of services
education programs and services in metropolitan          for older adults and their caregivers, including
Kansas City. Early education is important to             congregate and home-delivered meals,
ensure that all young children have the skills           transportation services, case management
and support necessary to enter school ready to           services, an information and assistance phone
succeed.                                                 line, and a volunteer ombudsman program for
                                                         residents of long-term care facilities.
In 2005, MARC became the grantee for Mid-
America Head Start (MAHS), serving Clay,
Jackson and Platte counties in Missouri. MAHS
ensures quality services for 2,733 children and
their families each year.
MARC’s early education program advocates for
community support and adequate funding to
ensure that all families have access to quality
early learning programs, particularly children
from lower income working families that need
support to enter or remain in the work force.

Health Care
MARC’s Regional Health Care Initiative addresses
ways to provide effective health care for citizens
who do are uninsured or underinsured. The
initiative’s current work involves:
•	 Developing a health information exchange
   network among safety net providers.
•	 Making sure the region is fully utilizing federal
   and state programs.
•	 Increasing access to health care services for
   those currently uninsured.
The project addresses these priorities by building
on existing community programs and initiatives.
It also brings together stakeholders with the
appropriate technical assistance to develop
and implement strategies to address the issues
associated with the uninsured.

n Population Trends
Jackson County is the region’s largest county,      period of decline. Jackson County’s population
followed by Johnson, Clay and Wyandotte             began growing again in the 1980s. Wyandotte’s
respectively.                                       turn-around is not yet evident in the officially
Johnson County has grown both the most and          published population estimates from the Census
the fastest in recent years, though Cass County     Bureau. However, in the first six years of this
approaches it in percentage terms.                  decade it has more than doubled its housing
                                                    production from that experienced during the
Wyandotte and Jackson counties, which contain       entire 1990s, suggesting that Wyandotte, too, has
the region’s oldest housing and industrial areas,   begun growing again.
grew steadily until 1970, then experienced a

                          Population Trends by County Components

  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Censuses

As the region grows it has also become more              By 2006, the percent of the population that was
diverse. The region’s population is predominantly        white fell to 78 percent and the Black population
white, but it has seen increased diversity               fell just slightly to 12 percent. The Hispanic
since 1990.                                              population grew considerably to 6.5 percent.
In 1990, the white population accounted for              The region saw net growth of 343,386 — 23
nearly 83 percent of the total, with 13 percent          percent from the Hispanic population
Black and 3 percent Hispanic.                            (79,174 out of 343,386).

               Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1990 and 2006
                              Metropolitan Kansas City

  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2006 American Community Survey

Like many metropolitan areas, the population      Here, the pattern of growth from 1970 to 2000
growth is not uniformly distributed within        can be seen as one of increasing suburbanization
counties any more than it is distributed evenly   around an urban core still largely experiencing
between them.                                     population decline.

                                   Population Change, 1970-2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, MARC

n A Brief History of the Kansas City Area’s Economy
 What are the three things most important to           factories on the south side of the river, and a city
 business success? According to the old adage, the     was born.
 answer is simple — “Location, location, location.”    The region grew to be the nation’s second largest
 This adage served the Kansas City area well in the    rail hub, behind Chicago. As a result, in the first
 hundred years following its beginnings in the mid-    half of the 20th century, the Kansas City area
 19th century. Starting as a series of trading posts   became a national center for food processing.
 that marked the jumping off points for the three      Most well-known is its role in the cattle industry.
 main trails heading west (the Santa Fe, California    The Kansas City area was the nation’s undisputed
 and Oregon trails), the region was built on the       leader in stocker and feeder cattle. Over a million
 advantages arising from its central location in the   head of cattle were processed annually in the
 continental United States.                            stock yards in the West Bottoms at the confluence
 As people moved west and began farming the rich       of the Kansas and Missouri rivers. In addition,
 land, Kansas City grew as a marketplace for grain     all five of the nation’s major meatpackers ran
 and livestock. With the advent of the railroads,      significant slaughter operations here.
 leaders in the Kansas City area came together         Less well-known is the area’s role in the grain
 to build the Hannibal Bridge as the first place       industry. With Kansas becoming the world’s
 where the intercontinental rail lines could cross     largest producer of red winter wheat, the Kansas
 the Missouri River. Rail spawned warehouses and       City Board of Trade grew until it became the

                                          U.S. Rail Lines

Source: ESRI

place where the
world’s price for this               KC Metro Population Change and Net Migration
commodity was set.
Not only were billions
of bushels traded here,
a significant portion of
Kansas wheat was also
shipped here, stored,
milled into flour and
turned into baked
goods and shipped
back out to feed
the nation.
Other manufacturing
followed agriculture
to take advantage
of centrality, river       Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Data for 2000s estimated by MARC by linearly extrapolating
and rail. Henry Ford       2000-2006 trends to 2010
built the first auto
assembly plant outside
of Detroit here in 1912. General
Motors soon followed suit at Leeds                                      Population
and Fairfax. Joyce Hall started
Hallmark in 1910, kicking off a
regional specialization in printing
that continues to this day.
The advantages of centrality for
processing and shipping goods
probably reached their peak
economic influence in the 1950s.
During this period, the Kansas
City region grew its fastest,
adding 250,000 people total, and
experienced its highest level of
migration — a net of some 90,000
people relocated here from other           Source: U.S. Census Bureau.
parts of the country over
the decade.
Consequently, roughly 100 years after its birth in
1853, the Kansas City region surpassed the                  increasing mechanization of agriculture and
1 million population mark. In 1960, the region              the transformation from family to corporate
reached its highest-ever population ranking,                farming forced many people out of farming
becoming the 19th largest metropolitan area in              and into cities. Third, the destruction of much
the U.S.                                                    of the rest of the world’s industrial capacity in
The region’s surge in population growth appears             the aftermath of World War II increased U.S.
to have been related to three things. First,                economic dominance and the opportunities for its
the post-World War II baby-boom boosted                     manufacturers, which were largely concentrated
births to nearly 30,000 per year, a level that              in cities.
has not been matched since. Second, the

As a result, many people left rural communities                 experienced their peak populations before 1940
searching for increased opportunities in                        (colored yellow or gold in the map below), with
metropolitan areas. The remnants of this can still              many counties closest to Kansas City actually
be seen today. Most of the non-metropolitan                     having their peak population in 1900 or before.
counties surrounding the Kansas City metro area

                            U.S. Decade of Peak Population, By County

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, City of Kansas City, Missouri. Green circles represent the 50 largest metropolitan
areas in 2000.

Interestingly, even when examining population               net migrants from the rural and smaller metros
change in the last 10 years or so, the Kansas City          surrounding it.
region still exhibits the same tendency to draw

                       KC Metro Net Migration by County, 1994-2004

Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, tabulated by MARC.

The rising economic prosperity associated with        nation’s interstate highway system. Kansas City
a manufacturing-based economy produced                emerged as not only an east/west and north/south
improved incomes in wide segments of the              connector in the center of a vast transportation
population and, with them, increased demands          network, but as having the most freeway miles per
for housing and automobiles. These were               capita of any of the 30 largest U.S. metropolitan
accommodated by large federal subsidies,              areas.
especially for roads, as construction began on the

                                 U.S. Interstate Highways

Source: ESRI.

Low congestion and few constraints on available              1980, the region’s residential land area has
land produced a sprawling metropolis. Some                   increased three times faster than population.
might argue it sprawled too far, too fast. Since

              KC Metro Residential Land Consumption, 1940-2000
                         1940                                                         1960

                         1980                                                         2000

Source: Land records of Johnson, Leavenworth, Wyandotte, Clay and Jackson counties.

One of the problems created when land use              grow. In metropolitan Kansas City, most of the
expands faster than population is that some            decline has been concentrated in its older and
previously developed areas of the region               more centrally located areas.
experience population decline, even as new areas

       Population Growth and Decline in the KC Urbanized Area,
                     1940                                                        1960

                     1980                                                        2000

                             Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Shaded areas are contiguous census tracts with 1000
                             persons per square mile and approximate the urbanized area of the region. Census
                             tract boundaries are as defined in 2000. MARC reallocated data from prior censuses
                             to the 2000 definitions.
                             **Areas experiencing population decline are measured over previous 20-year period.
                             So the 1940 map depicts areas declining between 1920 and 1940, the 1960 map
                             depicts areas declining between 1940 and 1960, etc.

The decline in metropolitan Kansas City’s            the map below. Interestingly, minority areas are
urban core is fueled, in large part, by continuing   also largely bounded by the gray areas, which
geographic patterns of racial segregation            represent sparsely populated locations such as
and poverty.                                         flood plains, industrial areas and parks. There are
Before the civil rights era began in the 1950s,      two general exceptions to this: to the southeast in
Troost Avenue served as the legally sanctioned       Kansas City, Missouri, and to the west in Kansas
boundary between black and white communities         City, Kansas. These directions coincide with the
in Kansas City, Missouri. It still shows up as a     historical movement of the African-American
sharp north/south racial divide 50 years later in    population within the region.

                               Percent White/Non-White, 2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census.

Social isolation is correlated with a host of social      concentrations are highest in the Kansas City area
ills, from poorer performing schools to increased         for African-Americans. Poor whites, on the other
rates of crime. Such isolation increases when it          hand, live throughout the region.
is combined with concentrated poverty. Poverty

                                       Poverty by Race, 2000
              Whites in Poverty, 2000                                    Blacks in Poverty, 2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

                                                            Violent Crime, 2005

There is a clear spatial correlation
of concentrated poverty
with violent crime shown in
comparing the maps above with
the map to the right.

                                          Source: Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, police departments,
                                          through the UMKC Center of Economic Information, FBI Uniform Crime
                                          Reports, Kansas Bureau of Investigation, Johnson County Sun.

Due in part to a desire to avoid
experiencing greater social problems,            Neighborhood Household Income
many middle class households left the
region’s urban core, resulting in a loss of      Relative to Regional Median, 2000
income and purchasing power.
As a result, the center part of the region
continues to lose population as more
people move outward than stay, both
whites and minorities.
At the exact same time the Kansas City
region was facing these internal issues,
several external events conspired to
diminish centrality’s ability to spur
the progress of the entire metropolitan
economy. The flood of 1951 caused
meatpackers to consider replacing their
aging Kansas City plants. The technology
of cattle and grain production began
changing in favor of processing even
nearer to the place of food production.
And, most importantly, the U.S. economy
began its inexorable shift from producing
goods — where minimizing shipping costs
is of particular importance — to producing
services — where proximity to markets         Source: U.S. Census Bureau.
is of particular importance, markets that
were largely concentrated on the coasts.

                         Population Change, by Race, 1990-2000
      Change in White Population, 1990-2000                 Change in Black Population, 1990-2000

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Geolytics

As a result, demand for centralized processing             speed of transforming discoveries into products
declined, though most goods continued to move              and services, speed of getting them to market.
through here. Meanwhile headquarters moved                 In short, “innovation, innovation, innovation”
closer to markets. Kansas City became a “back-             supplanted location as THE critical factor for
office” town and a distribution center for freight.        business success.
In the last quarter of the 20th Century, the base          But as a back-office town, the Kansas City area
of the U.S. economy shifted further, so that               economy experienced difficulty in transforming
the primary value added by American workers                itself to acquire the necessary innovation capacity.
was not the production of goods and services               In the 1970s, despite employment growth
themselves, but the information needed to                  approximately equal to the U.S. for most of the
produce them better, faster, cheaper. In an                decade, it was unable to provide enough jobs for
information economy, there is a premium placed             its residents, and experienced a net out-migration
on speed — speed of processing and transmission            of 41,000 people, mostly young baby-boomers
of course, but also speed of knowledge discovery,          looking for their first jobs.

       Employment growth: Manufacturing vs. Services, 1969-2005

    Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis

Beginning in 1979 and continuing into the early       (pharmaceuticals), Sprint (telecommunications)
1980s, the region permanently lost 20,000             and DST (financial system data processing)
manufacturing jobs and employment growth              signaled the region would not be left out of the
lagged the nation. The net outflow of people          shift to an information and technology economy.
stopped however, with net migration returning to      Firms like Cerner (health care management
positive territory, reaching 15,000 for the decade.   software) and Garmin (global positioning systems)
The Kansas City area economy began to                 followed in their footsteps.
recover its footing. The growth of Marion Labs

                        Total Employment Growth, 1970-1980

          Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis

                        Total Employment Growth, 1980-1990

          Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis

Because of the area’s success in adapting its               more people than it lost, a level of net migration
economy to meet new demands for information-                is near its 1950s record.
based services and products, employment                     While the Kansas City region continues to grow
began to grow faster. Indeed, during the 1990s,             in population, its relative economic performance
employment growth exceeded the national                     appears to have reversed again in the first half of
average. As a result, the region attracted 80,000           the 2000s.

                          Total Employment Growth, 1990-2000

            Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis

                          Total Employment Growth, 2000-2005

            Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis

This period looks more like the early 1980s                       Nonetheless, it is apparent that something
than the 1990s in terms of employment growth.                     significant has changed, and not for the better.
In large part, this is due to the difficulties                    Historically, even in recessions, the Kansas
experienced by the telecommunications industry                    City region has had an unemployment rate at
following the dot-com bust in 2000 and the                        least one-half percentage point below the U.S.
transportation industry following the terrorism                   average. That is no longer the case. In fact, area
attack on 9/11/2001. Significantly, both the U.S.                 unemployment is now running about one-half
and the Kansas City metropolitan area economies                   percentage point above the national average.
have grown at a rate much slower than the
average for the first five years in the decade.

               KC Metro vs. U.S. Unemployment Rates, 1990-2006
                                            Unemployment Rates US vs. KC







        1990   1991   1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006

Some have expressed concern that Kansas City’s              Is this the economic future of metropolitan Kansas
best days are behind it. Such talk is reinforced            City — to be passed over or ignored?
when the Regional Plan Association proposes 10              In a nutshell, the purpose of this Comprehensive
“Megaregions” as the basis for federal investment           Economic Development Strategy is to make sure
in improving global economic competitiveness                it is not.
and the Kansas City region finds it is not a
member of any of them.

          Proposed “Megaregions” for Focusing Federal Investment

Source: Regional Plan Association, “America 2050: A Prospectus,” New York: September 2006.

n Metropolitan Kansas City’s Regional Transportation System
The Kansas City region, a major transportation         averages. Kansas City’s percentage of roads
hub, is one of only five U.S. metro areas served       classified as “mediocre” is similar to peer city and
by three intersecting interstate highways. In          national averages, but the area has fewer roads
addition to Interstates 70, 35 and 29, the region is   classified as “fair” and “good.” Overall, pavement
served by many federal and state highways, with        conditions in Kansas City have deteriorated
the most freeway miles per capita of any urban         notably since 2000.
area in the nation.                                    TRIP’s report uses 2002 FHWA data, which is
Major trucking concerns, including YRC, operate        based on the Highway Performance Monitoring
out of the Kansas City area. Air transportation,       System.
including considerable air freight operations and
general aviation activity, is served by Kansas City    Bicycle/Pedestrian Trails
International Airport and a number of smaller          Bicycle and pedestrian trails in the Kansas
airports. Kansas City is the second busiest railroad   City metropolitan area are being developed
center in the nation, with major rail yards for        at an increasing rate under the auspices of
Union Pacific, Burlington Northern, and Canadian       MetroGreen®, a plan for an 1,100-mile, area-
Pacific. The region is also served by barge            wide, interconnected system of public and private
transportation, with 11 regulated barge lines          open spaces, greenways and trails that will link
transporting goods through the metropolitan area       seven counties in the Kansas City metropolitan
on the Missouri River.                                 area. Many communities in the region have
                                                       adopted local plans for both on-road and off-road
Roadway System Infrastructure                          facilities.
Kansas City’s system of roadways is among
the most extensive in the nation. Recently,            Freight and Goods Movement Facilities
new statistics made available from the Federal         Kansas City’s importance as a freight center is due
Highway Administration confirm that Kansas City        in no small part to its infrastructure.
continues to possess the most freeway miles per
                                                       The Kansas City region is generally considered
person of all urbanized areas with populations
                                                       the nation’s second most important rail center,
greater than 500,000. The Kansas City metro area
                                                       with service by four of the eight Class I railroads,
also has the fourth highest total roadway miles per
                                                       three regional carriers and a local switching
person, the second highest estimated freeway lane
                                                       carrier. Amtrak serves the Kansas City area with
miles per person, and the thirteenth highest daily
                                                       stops at Union Station in Kansas City, Mo., in
vehicle miles traveled (DMVT) per person. These
                                                       Independence and in Lee’s Summit.
rankings are due in large part to the extensive
highway projects implemented in the Kansas City        Recent developments in rail facilities include
region during the 1970s and 1980s, such as the         the completion of the Sheffield Flyover in 2000,
construction of the Interstate 435 loop.               the rehabilitation of the Highline Bridge, and the
                                                       completion of the Argentine Connection flyover
Roadway System Condition                               bridge in 2004. These advances, partly financed
According to data collected from The Road              by private funds, helped to increase rail efficiency
Information Program (TRIP), Kansas City’s average      and capacity and relieve freight rail congestion
pavement conditions are in worse condition than        for rail carriers in the Kansas City region. Six
the national and peer city averages.                   intermodal trade facilities are also located in
                                                       the region, serving both rail and truck freight
In 2000, Kansas City’s percentage of roads             movement.
classified as “poor” was lower than both national
and peer city averages, but TRIP’s 2004 Bumpy          A major intermodal facility is under development
Roads Ahead research report found that Kansas          in the Gardner, Kan., area. Burlington Northern
City’s “poor” pavement conditions significantly        Santa Fe Railroad will move its switching yard
exceeded both the national and peer city               operations from Kansas City, Kan., to this new

               U.S. and State Highways in the Kansas City Region

Source: MARC Geographic Information Systems

facility. Major warehouse space is also under           River near the confluence of the Kansas and
development. Projections for rail activity indicate     Missouri Rivers. The Port is an intermodal facility,
a major increase in activity in the Kansas City         transferring freight between barge, truck and
region over the next 20 years.                          rail. In addition, the Kansas City region benefits
The Kansas City area has three airports that are        from numerous private ports, which are used by
capable of supporting large air cargo aircraft,         companies shipping commodities such as grains,
the largest of which is Kansas City International       sand and gravel, fertilizer, chemicals, coal and
Airport (KCI). KCI is also the region’s only airport    coke, to name only a few.
with scheduled air cargo service.                       The Kansas City area is also one of the nation’s
The Kansas City Port Authority operates the area’s      top five trucking centers. Freight and goods
only public port, located along the Missouri            movement has continued to increase in recent

years, though trucking has gained a larger              Census data, over 93 percent of all commute
percentage of freight movement than rail.               trips made in the region are by automobile (82.8
Between 1992 and 2000, the total tonnage in             percent drive alone; 10.4 percent carpool).
freight movement grew from nearly 79 million            Public transportation accounts for 1.3 percent
tons to nearly 137 million tons, a dramatic             of all commute trips in the region, with a similar
increase of 73 percent. Specifically, barge freight     percentage of commuters walking and fewer
traffic has grown during the period from 1.4            bicycling.
million tons to 5.3 million tons, an astounding
growth rate of 290 percent.                             Vehicle Occupancy
                                                        Commute trips are generally characterized by
Transit Service                                         very low vehicle occupancy rates. MARC studies
MARC, the Kansas City Area Transportation               indicate that the average vehicle occupancy rate
Authority (KCATA), Johnson County Transit               during the afternoon peak hour is slightly over 1.2
(JCT) and Unified Government Transit (UGT)              persons per vehicle. This represents a stabilization
have worked cooperatively on the Smart Moves            in vehicle occupancy rates, since a large decline
Transit Plan, a regional transportation plan for        was observed between 1993 and 1997. This
expanded transit service throughout a seven-            figure includes a number of non-work trips, so the
county region. Smart Moves builds on the                actual work trip occupancy rate is considerably
comprehensive assessment of Kansas City’s transit       lower. For example, U.S. Census Journey-to-Work
needs identified in the 1998 Metropolitan Transit       data indicates a vehicle occupancy rate of 1.08
Initiative, the 2001 Transit Investment Strategy,       for the Kansas City metropolitan area in 1990.
and the Creating Quality Places initiative begun in
1999.                                                   Congestion
The plan is bus-based, proposing to more than           Congestion is increasing in metropolitan Kansas
double the amount of transit services currently         City. According to the Texas Transportation
offered in the Kansas City metro area and elevate       Institute (TTI), the percent of congested travel
the system to a level more comparable to Kansas         during peak vehicle miles traveled increased from
City’s peer cities. Two corridors, I-35 from Olathe,    5 percent in 1982 to 32 percent in 2002. These
Kan., to downtown Kansas City and I-70 from             levels are relatively low when compared with
Odessa, Mo., to downtown Kansas City, are also          other metropolitan areas of comparable size. As
currently being evaluated for fixed-guideway            a whole, large metropolitan areas saw congested
transit potential.                                      travel increase from 24 percent of peak vehicle
                                                        miles traveled in 1982 to 65 percent in 2002.
Smart Moves proposes services within a quarter-
mile walking distance for the highest-density           Travel Time
areas of the metropolitan region, with less dense
                                                        Because of its relatively low congestion levels,
areas being served by a mixture of fixed routes,
                                                        metropolitan Kansas City generally experiences
demand-response service and park-and-ride
                                                        shorter travel times than many other metropolitan
lots. According to recent figures, reliance on
                                                        areas. Travel time is a function of both the
the private automobile continues to grow in the
                                                        distance traveled and the degree of traffic
Kansas City area. The region’s extensive roadway
                                                        congestion. While travel distances can be
system prevents congestion from becoming
                                                        relatively long in Greater Kansas City because of
as bad as some peer cities. Nevertheless,
                                                        the low-density urban form, limited congestion
in some locations, especially during peak
                                                        keeps travel times low. In the Travel Time and
periods, significant congestion is experienced.
                                                        Delay Study conducted by MARC in 2000
Furthermore, all studies and statistics indicate that
                                                        and 2001, regional travel speeds significantly
this congestion is growing increasingly heavier.
                                                        increased for all three functional classifications
Modes of Travel                                         of roads surveyed (freeway/expressway, principal
                                                        arterials and minor arterials). The study, available
The Kansas City metropolitan area is heavily
                                                        online at,
dependent on the automobile as the dominant
                                                        includes a full description of methodology.
mode of transportation. According to 2000

                                                       City’s daily VMT has decreased in three of the last
                   Travel Times                        four years for which we have data. Between 1982
  Average Distance from Downtown Drivers               and 2002, daily VMT per person grew 56 percent
    Can Travel in 20 Minutes, 1957-2006                in metropolitan Kansas City. During the same
                                                       period, daily VMT per person grew an average of
                                                       44 percent in similarly sized metropolitan areas
                                                       across the country. However between 1998 and
                                                       2002, daily VMT decreased by 1.87 percent in
                                                       metro Kansas City while it grew by 1.42 percent
                                                       in the comparison cities.

                                                       Transit Ridership
                                                       In 2008, the Kansas City area’s three transit
                                                       providers saw an increase in transit ridership due
                                                       to expanded services and dramatically increasing
                                                       gasoline prices. The three transit providers include
                                                       the Kansas City Area Transportation Authority
                                                       (KCATA), Johnson County Transit and Unified
                                                       Government Transit. KCATA’s ridership dropped
                                                       sharply during the early 1980s, in part due to the
                                                       significant reduction in service implemented at
                                                       that time. In 1997, average weekday ridership
 Source: MARC Travel Time Surveys
                                                       on KCATA increased for the first time since the
                                                       1979-1980 peak of 93,000 daily riders. In 1999,
Commuters into the central business district           this trend continued and ridership surpassed
continue to experience a decrease in travel time.      50,000 for the first time since 1993. Ridership
For most of the metro area, the 20-minute drive        has continued to fluctuate as gasoline prices and
ring has continued to move outward, with one           economic conditions impact ridership.
notable exception. The eastern portion of the          Efforts are underway to expand transit services
loop has rescinded significantly in recent years,      to meet a growing demand and increase
illustrating the growing congestion along I-70 and     productivity. In the metro area, 12 percent of
other corridors in the eastern part of the region.     adults don’t own a car, and many rely on transit
MARC is currently updating the Travel Time Study       services. Rush hour congestion more than
for the Kansas City metropolitan area as part of a     tripled on the region’s roadways between 1983
continuing effort to monitor the performance of        and 2003, leading to an increased demand for
the roadway system.                                    transit services. The region’s labor force loses an
                                                       estimated $570 million in productivity each to
Vehicle Miles of Travel
                                                       sitting in traffic.
Travelers in Greater Kansas City take advantage
                                                       A number of planning efforts are underway in
of short travel times and low levels of congestion
                                                       the region, including light rail and commuter
by traveling more miles per person each day than
                                                       rail studies; bus rapid transit studies and project
residents of most other metropolitan areas.
                                                       implementation along Troost Avenue in Kansas
MARC analysis of data from the Texas                   City, Mo.; State Avenue in Kansas City, Kan.; and
Transportation Institute’s 2004 Urban Mobility         Metcalf Avenue in Overland Park, Kan.
Study indicates that metro area residents
generated 28.65 vehicle miles of travel (VMT)
per person each day in 2002. The average for
metropolitan areas of similar size for 2002 was
24.03 VMT per person each day.
While daily VMT grew faster in Greater Kansas
City than in other metropolitan areas, Kansas

n Geography and Environment

The nine Missouri and Kansas counties that make       the Missouri Ecological Classification System.
up the Kansas City metropolitan area—Cass, Clay,      Soil types in Cass County are formed of loess,
Jackson, Platte and Ray in Missouri and Johnson,      residuum and alluvium, and are deep and nearly
Leavenworth, Miami and Wyandotte in Kansas —          level to sloping. The bedrock underlying the
have a combined area of 4,000 square miles. The       surface soils is primarily sandstone, shale and
region is located in the west-central and northwest   limestone. Elevations in the county range from
parts of Missouri and northeast parts of Kansas.      730 feet to 1,120 feet above sea level.

Cass County, Mo.                                      Clay County, Mo.
Cass County, the 27th largest county in Missouri,     Clay County is Missouri’s 109th largest county,
has an area of 699 square miles. Cass County          with an area of 396 square miles. Clay County is
is located in the west-central part of the state,     located in the northwest part of the state and lies
entirely within the Osage Plains section of           entirely within the Central Dissected Till Plains

                            The Greater Kansas City Region

Source: MARC

section. The floodplain of the Missouri River            Ray County, Mo.
forms the southern portion of the county; the rest       Ray County, the state’s 60th largest county, has an
of the county consists of gently to moderately           area of 569 square miles. Ray County is located
sloping uplands and floodplains. The bedrock             in the northwest part of the state and lies entirely
underlying Clay County is limestone and shale.           within the Central Dissected Till Plains section.
Elevations in Clay County range from 849 feet to         Ray County is primarily uplands and bottomlands.
1,020 feet above sea level.                              The uplands are located in the northern part of
Jackson County, Mo.                                      the county and are characterized by gently rolling
                                                         to broken topography, whereas the bottomlands
Jackson County, the state’s 52nd largest county,         are in the southern part of the county near the
has an area of 605 square miles. Jackson County          Missouri River. Near the Missouri River, the land
is located in the west-central part of the state         is undulating to flat, and the soil is fertile. The
and lies within the Central Dissected Till Plains        underlying bedrock in the county is shale and
and Osage Plains ecological sections. The far            limestone. Elevations in Ray County range from
northern portion of Jackson County consists of           702 feet to 1,024 feet above sea level.
the nearly level floodplain of the Missouri River,
the county’s northern boundary. This area is             Johnson County, Kan.
bordered on the south by moderately sloping to           Johnson County has grown to become the state’s
steep bluffs and hills. The remainder of the county      most populous county with over 525,000 persons.
consists of gently to moderately sloping uplands         The county has an area of 477 square miles.
and floodplains. The soil in Jackson County is           Johnson County is located in the northeast part
mostly loess, and ranges from deep and gently            of the state and lies partly within the Dissected
sloping to steep and poorly to well drained. The         Till Plains and partly in the Osage Plains. Johnson
soil is fertile, but only a small portion is devoted     County is primarily uplands with hilly areas
to agriculture because of the large urban and            along the streams. North flowing streams that
suburban areas of the county. The northern               are tributaries to the Kansas River, such as Kill
portion of the county represents the southern            Creek, Cedar Creek and Mill Creek, have steeper
extreme of glacial action in Missouri. The bedrock       gradients and greater local relief of 150 to 250
underlying the county is limestone and shale.            feet. Elevations in Johnson County range from 742
Elevations in Jackson County range from 748 feet         feet to 1,134 feet above sea level.
to 1,009 feet above sea level.
                                                         Leavenworth County, Kan.
Platte County, Mo.
                                                         Leavenworth County has experienced steady
Platte County is the 105th largest county in             growth as development moves outward from the
Missouri, with an area of 420 square miles. Platte       urban center. The county is now home to almost
County is located in northwest Missouri and lies         74,000 persons. The county has an area of 463
within the Central Dissected Till Plains section         square miles. Leavenworth County is located
of the state. The topography of Platte County is         in the northeast part of the state. Elevations in
heavily influenced by the Missouri River. Most           Leavenworth County range from 860 feet to 1,062
of the county is level to sloping and is mainly a        feet above sea level.
floodplain, although there are some areas with
bluffs. Platte County’s soil is generally deep and       Miami County, Kan.
well to moderately well drained. The soil near the
                                                         Miami County has experienced modest growth
Missouri River is alluvial, but farther west, the soil
                                                         as development moves outward from Johnson
is composed of loess and residuum. The bedrock
                                                         County, which lies to the north of Miami County.
underlying the county is limestone and shale.
                                                         The county is now home to just over 31,000
Elevations in Platte County range from 359 feet to
                                                         persons, and has an area of 592 square miles.
1,026 feet above sea level.
                                                         Miami County is located in east-central Kansas

and lies entirely within the Osage Plains section       54.4°F in March to 74.6°F in May. Normal
of the Central Lowlands. The major topographic          low temperatures during this period range from
features are the southeast-trending Marais des          33.2°F in March to 53.9°F in May. Normal
Cygnes River valley and the gently sloping upland       mean springtime temperatures in the region
plains formed by erosion of flat-lying sedimentary      range from 43.8°F in March to 64.3°F in May.
rocks underlying the county. The highest point in       Spring precipitation in the Kansas City area ranges
the county, 1,150 feet above sea level, is south        from 2.44 inches in March to 5.39 inches in
and east of Louisburg. The lowest point, 790 feet       May. Snowfall in the region during the spring is
above sea level, is along the Marais des Cygnes         minimal, ranging from 3.4 inches in March, 0.8
River at the south edge of the county.                  inches in April and normally no snow in May.
                                                        Summer (June, July and August) in the region
Wyandotte County, Kan.
                                                        is warm and relatively humid. Normal high
After years of population decline, Wyandotte            temperatures in the summer range from 83.9°F
County has experienced growth in the western            in June to 87.1°F in July. Hotter temperatures
part of the county around the NASCAR racetrack.         are not uncommon, however, with a record high
The county is now home to about 155,000                 temperature for the Kansas City metropolitan area
persons. The county has an area of 151 square           set at 113°F on August 13, 1936. The average
miles. Wyandotte County is located in the               relative humidity, a percentage measure of the
northeast part of the state and lies entirely           amount of moisture in the air compared to the
within the Central Dissected Till Plains section.       maximum amount of moisture the air can hold
Wyandotte County is primarily uplands and               at the same temperature and pressure, ranges
bottomlands. The uplands are located in the             from 85 percent in the morning and 63 percent
northern part of the county and are characterized       in the afternoon in June to 86 percent in the
by gently rolling to broken topography, whereas         morning and 64 percent in the afternoon in
the bottomlands are in the southern part of the         August. Normal low temperatures during this
county near the Missouri River. Near the Missouri       period range from 63.2°F in June to 68.2°F in
River, the land is undulating to flat, and the soil     July. Normal mean summertime temperatures in
is fertile. The underlying bedrock in the county        the region range from 73.6°F in June to 78.5°F in
is shale and limestone. Elevations in Wyandotte         July. Summer precipitation in the Kansas City area
County range from 702 feet to 1,024 feet above          ranges from 3.54 inches in August to 4.44 inches
sea level.                                              in June. Mean annual precipitation in the region is
                                                        37.98 inches, with the summer months being the
Climate                                                 wettest season, usually contributing about 12.4
The weather in the Kansas City area is highly           inches of precipitation to the annual total.
changeable. Rapid changes in the region’s               Fall (September, October and November) in
weather result from the wide range of potential         the Kansas City area is usually quite pleasant,
weather influences. The climate in the region           with warm days and cool nights. The weather
is classified as a modified continental climate.        during the fall is generally drier and milder than
Because there are no physical geographic features       the during summer months, contributing to the
nearby to obstruct or alter the flow of air currents,   pleasant “feel” of the weather during this time of
such as mountain ranges or large bodies of water,       year. Normal high temperatures in the fall range
the region is affected by currents of moist air         from a high of 79°F in September to a low of
from the Gulf of Mexico, dry air currents from the      52°F in November. Normal low temperatures
desert southwest and cold polar air from the arctic     during this period are 57.2°F in September,
and Canada.                                             decreasing to 33.4°F in November. Normal mean
Spring (March, April and May) in the Kansas             fall temperatures in the region decrease from
City area is the season with the most changeable        68.1°F in September to 42.7°F in November. Fall
weather, particularly early in the season. The          precipitation in the Kansas City area is greatest
last freeze normally occurs in early April,             in September, with a mean of 4.64 inches, to
although freezes can occur in early May.                November, with a mean of 2.30 inches (NCDC,
Normal high temperatures in spring range from           online data). The first freeze is usually in mid to

late October. Snowfall in the region during the fall   typical of the shelf action of a shallow sea. The
is minimal, with generally a snowless September        arrangement of the rock layers is indicative of
and 1.2 inches of snow in November.                    the alternating deposition of sand, mud and
Winters (December, January and February) in            calcareous materials (i.e., materials containing
the Kansas City region are generally not severe.       calcium carbonate) as the shallow prehistoric
Although there can be cold, snowy days,                seas advanced and withdrew. The end of the
temperatures and snowfall amounts are usually          Pennsylvanian period marked the last recession
not extreme. Normal high temperatures in the           of the seas in the region and the beginning of the
winter are 40°F in December, 36°F in January           processes of erosion which continue to transform
and 42.6°F in February. Normal low temperatures        the physical features of the area.
during this period are 22.5°F in December,             Glaciation has also had a tremendous impact
17.8°F in January and 23.2°F in February.              on the geology of the Kansas City area. First
Normal mean wintertime temperatures in the             Nebraskan and later Kansan ice sheets spread
region are 31.3°F in December, 26.9°F in January       across the area, with the Kansan ice sheet
and 33°F in February. Winter precipitation in the      expanding south of the Missouri River (the
Kansas City area is 1.64 inches in December, 1.15      southernmost expansion of glacial ice sheets in
inches in January and 1.31 inches in February.         North America). The movement of ice resulted
Winter snowfall in the region is 4.5 inches in         in the excavation of rock and soil and altered
December, 5.6 inches in January and 4.4 inches         the topography of the region. The material
in February. The annual snowfall amount is             transported by the movement of ice was
generally around 20 inches.                            deposited across the area in the form of glacial
                                                       drift, which covers most of the northern half of the
Geology                                                Kansas City metropolitan area. The material that
The rock strata underlying the Kansas City             comprises glacial drift is boulder clay, which is
region reflects the significant changes to the         clay with a mixture of sand, gravel and boulders.
area’s geology over time. The base layer of the        The rocks and gravel that make up this material
region’s rock strata is igneous and metamorphic        originated both locally and in more northern parts
rock and is part of the southern extension of the      of present-day North America, exemplifying the
Canadian Shield, the rock foundation of the North      vast distances that glacial material was moved.
American continent. Although this layer of rock is     Following the withdrawal of ice sheets from
now buried about 2,000 feet below the surface,         the region, windblown silt known as loess was
millions of years ago it was at or near the surface    deposited. The Missouri River transported this
until the region became covered by a warm,             silt and it was carried by the wind to hills near
shallow sea. When the waters of this prehistoric       the river. Loess is made up of quartz, muscovite,
sea covered the region, the principal geologic         mica, magnetite, dolomite and calcite, materials
action affecting the area changed from surface         common to glacial drifts. Loess is composed of
erosion to sediment deposition. The deposition         small, uniform particles, and its deposition is
of sediment provided material necessary for the        greatest on bluffs overlooking the Missouri River,
formation of the earliest sedimentary rocks in the     although it can also be found four to five miles
area, which were sandstone.                            away from the river as well.
Over several geologic periods of advancing and         In more recent times, geologic activity across
receding seas, material was deposited which,           the region is represented by the erosion,
over time, transformed into limestone and shale.       transportation and deposition of base material.
These geologic periods left systems of rock layers     These geologic actions resulted in alluvial
in the region, the most significant being the          deposits in the valleys of the region’s principal
Pennsylvanian system. Pennsylvanian system             streams. Although alluvial materials vary in their
rocks are clearly evident today in the form of         composition, their primary ingredients include
outcroppings which are common across the               clay, sand, gravel and boulders. The specific
region. The rock formations in the Pennsylvanian       composition of alluvial material is related to the
system are about 250 million years old and are         parent material in a given stream’s watershed.

Soils                                                   potential for shrink and swell combine to make
                                                        alluvial areas unsuitable for most uses except
The fertile soils found across the Kansas City
                                                        agriculture and wildlife habitat.
area are a major natural resource of the region.
These soils are well-drained and productive,
                                                        Waterways and Water Resources
and they are well-suited to agriculture. These
soils are also generally well-suited for                Water, particularly surface water, is a great natural
construction and development activities without         resource in the Kansas City area. The region is
severe limitations. In the Kansas City region,          drained by three river basins; the Lower Missouri-
there are 55 different soil series grouped into 33      Grand-Chariton River Basin, the Lower Missouri-
different soil associations. Shale and limestone        Blackwater-Lamine River Basin and the Osage
are the parent materials for 13 of these soil           River Basin. The vast majority of the region’s
associations and loess is the parent material for       watersheds drain into the Missouri River, which is
12 associations. The remaining soil associations        one of Missouri’s (and the nation’s) major rivers,
are derived from glacial till and alluvium. The         along with the Mississippi River on the eastern
region’s soils are partially the product of the         side of the state. In Cass County, however, the
disintegration of bedrock and partially caused by       watersheds drain into the Osage River Basin.
transported material.                                   According to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                                                        (USACE), the average flow of the region’s major
Loess is concentrated in the hills above the
                                                        rivers and streams range from a high of 35,070
Missouri River valley. In some parts of the
                                                        million gallons per day in the Missouri River to
region, the depth of this loess may exceed 50
                                                        a low of less than 13 million gallons per day in
feet. Loess is derived from the deposition of silt
                                                        some of the region’s small streams. Some of the
from the river valleys by wind. This silt may
                                                        region’s rivers, such as the Missouri River, are
have been deposited along the region’s streams
                                                        subject to minimum flow requirements in order to
as glaciers receded, although the actual source
                                                        maintain water quality standards. The minimum
of this material is unknown. Loess soils are
                                                        flow requirement for the Missouri River is 2,620
good for most uses, but they are easily eroded
                                                        million gallons per day. This requirement is
and their slope may reach 20 percent in some
                                                        maintained by the Corps’ regulation of upstream
soil associations. With loess soil, shrinking
                                                        reservoirs and their respective dams in Montana,
and swelling (characteristics that may affect
                                                        North and South Dakota and Nebraska — Fort
construction) are generally less than in soils from
                                                        Peck, Garrison, Oahe, Big Bend, Fort Randall and
other parent material. In addition, loess soils have
                                                        Gavins Point.
adequate drainage and permeability. Glacial till
soils in the region have similar characteristics.       In the Kansas City area, significant quantities of
                                                        ground water are found only in alluvial deposits
In the Kansas City area, soil associations from
                                                        along the Missouri River. These alluvial deposits
rock material are primarily derived from shale
                                                        can be more than 100 feet deep in the Missouri
and limestone. These soils are generally shallow
                                                        river valley (the average depth is 80 to 90 feet)
to bedrock, clayey and have a moderate to high
                                                        and saturated water-bearing materials range
potential to shrink and swell. Consequently,
                                                        in depth from 30 to 60 feet, although they are
these soils are less suitable than loessial soils for
                                                        generally found near a depth of 40 feet. Water
most uses.
                                                        wells in these alluvial deposits can yield from
All of the major streams in the Kansas City region      1,500 to 2,000 gallons per minute, although the
have provided alluvial deposits. Generally, the         average yield is between 500 and 1,000 gallons
depth of the deposit is directly related to the         per minute.
width of a stream’s floodplain. Alluvium in the
                                                        In the region’s tributary valleys, the availability of
Missouri River valley is about 100 feet thick.
                                                        ground water is limited. The alluvial deposits in
Depositions along other streams in the region
                                                        these areas range in thickness from 20 to 70 feet
are shallower and have finer material. Alluvial
                                                        in the lower reaches to less than 10 feet in the
soils occur in areas subject to frequent flooding.
                                                        upper reaches. In addition, the large amounts of
The high flood threat in alluvial areas, the
                                                        shale in these tributary valleys results in mainly
soil’s excessive wetness, low strength and high
                                                        clay fill sediments in the alluvial aquifer. Because

                 Watersheds in the Greater Kansas City Region

Source: MARC

this material has a low water transmissibility,        of glacial deposits can exceed 100 gallons per
water well yields in these areas can be as low         minute, the varying thickness of glacial deposits
as one to 10 gallons per minute. Tributaries in        results in highly variable yields of ground water
areas comprised mainly of sandstone, however,
may produce wells with higher yields, since            Ground water from areas with deposits of material
these areas have sediments with greater water          over bedrock provide yields that are generally
transmissibility.                                      less than 10 gallons per minute, although some
                                                       isolated yields can be greater. In addition, water
Aquifers in the region’s uplands are found in          from bedrock tends to be mineralized and
materials of glacial origin or from weathered          contains hardness and iron that exceed national
materials above bedrock. Neither of these areas        drinking water standards.
produces substantial yields of ground water.
Although some ground water yields in areas

Ecosystems                                             also common. Small remnants of native prairie
                                                       remain in some counties, but true forests are
The Missouri Ecological Classification System
                                                       almost nonexistent and areas of pre-settlement
(ECS) is a very useful tool for natural resource
                                                       timber are uncommon. Second-growth woodlands
planning and management, and for describing
                                                       and forests of oak and mixed hardwoods are
the varied and complex ecosystems of the Kansas
                                                       confined to the area’s roughest terrain, and
City region. The Missouri ECS, developed by
                                                       invasive timber exists along fence lines and on
the Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership
                                                       abandoned farmland.
(MoRAP) and its partner agencies, divides the
state “into a nested system of units from broad        Land cover devoted to cropland or pasture ranges
ecoregions to subregions, through landscapes to        from 34 percent in Jackson County, Mo., to 68
local sites.” The Missouri ECS is also integrated      percent in Ray County, Mo. Major crops include
into the U.S.Forest Service’s (USFS) National          corn, soybeans, sorghum, wheat and hay.
Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units,
a system that describes the nation’s ecological        Fauna
regions. This integrated system of ecological          The varied ecosystems of the Kansas City area
classification divides Missouri into sections,         are home to a large number of mammals, birds,
subsections and landtype associations (LTAs).          reptiles, amphibians and fish. Despite widespread
Sections and subsections are determined by             urbanization, farming and ranching, many
“geomorphology (land form, relative relief,            animals, even large species like white-tailed
lithology, structure and geomorphic process),          deer, have successfully adapted to the alteration
potential vegetation and major soil groups.” LTAs      of the natural environment and loss of habitat in
“are based on more local patterns in topography,       the region.
geologic parent materials, soil types and
                                                       There are 44 different species of mammals in the
vegetation communities.” This plan describes the
                                                       Missouri counties of Cass, Clay, Jackson, Platte
natural environment of the Kansas City region in
                                                       and Ray. These mammals range in size from the
the context of the Missouri ECS.
                                                       tiny shrew to the large white-tailed deer (and even
                                                       the occasional black bear in Jackson County).
                                                       The Kansas City area is home to 258 species of
Historically, the terrestrial natural communities of
                                                       birds. Many of these species, like starlings and
the Kansas City area included a complex mixture
                                                       sparrows, are quite common in the area.
of grassland (prairie), savanna, woodland and
                                                       Others are rare and endangered, such as the
forest. Today, only remnants of these natural
                                                       peregrine falcon.
communities exist, largely replaced by cropland,
pasture, invasive and second-growth vegetation.        The region is home to 46 species of reptiles,
Current land cover in the Kansas City area is the      including poisonous snakes like Osage
result of both natural and man-made processes          copperheads and timber rattlesnakes.
that have dramatically altered the area’s natural      Twenty different kinds of amphibians inhabit
communities: long- and short-term climate              the region. Some of these amphibians are found
change (such as excessively wet or dry years),         throughout the Kansas City area, such as bullfrogs
natural disasters (e.g., floods, tornadoes, fires      and eastern American toads. Other amphibians
and drought), the conversion of areas of natural       are limited to a single county in the region, such
vegetation to cropland and pastures, urban             as the dwarf American toad, which is only found
development and transportation uses.                   in Cass County.
In most of the Kansas City metropolitan area,          Seventy-four species of fish ply the region’s lakes,
agriculture and urbanization have significantly        rivers and streams. Several species of fish found in
altered land cover. Historically, much of the          the region, such as the pallid sturgeon and Topeka
region was covered by tall grass prairie, with oak     shiner, are listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish
savannas and woodlands in steeper scarped areas        and Wildlife Service and Missouri Department
and valleys. Marshes and bottomland forests were       of Conservation. The waters of the Kansas City

area are also home to several species of primitive                  The following tables list the mammals, birds,
fishes, including bowfin; longnose and shortnose                    reptiles, amphibians and fish of the Kansas City
gar; pallid, lake and shovelnose sturgeon; and                      area according to the Missouri Fish and Wildlife
paddlefish. Interestingly, only two species of                      Information System of the Missouri Department of
paddlefish exist today; one in the midwestern                       Conservation.
United States and the other in China.

                           Fauna in the Greater Kansas City Region
 Armadillo Nine-Banded Dasypus Novemcinctus Mexicanus               Mouse, White-Footed (Peromyscus Leucopus)
 Badger (Taxidea Taxus Taxus)                                       Muskrat (Ondatra Zibethicus)
 Bat, Big Brown (Eptesicus Fuscus Fuscus)                           Opossum, Virginia (Didelphis Virginiana Virginiana)
 Bat, Brazilian Free-Tailed (Tadarida Brasiliensis Mexicana)        Otter, River (Lontra Canadensis)
 Bat, Evening (Nycticeius Humeralis Humeralis)                      Rabbit, Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus Floridanus Alacer)
 Bat, Hoary (Nycteris Cinerea Cinerea)                              Raccoon (Procyon Lotor Hirtus)
 Bat, Red (Nycteris Borealis Borealis)                              Rat, Eastern Wood (Neotoma Floridana)
 Bear, Black (Ursus Americanus Americanus)                          Rat, Hispid Cotton (Sigmodon Hispidus)
 Beaver (Castor Canadensis Carolinensis)                            Rat, Norway (Rattus Norvegicus Norvegicus)
 Bobcat (Felis Rufus Rufus)                                         Shrew, Least (Cryptotis Parva Parva)
 Chipmunk, Eastern (Tamias Striatus Griseus)                        Shrew, Southeastern (Sorex Longirostris)
 Coyote (Canis Latrans Frustror)                                    Skunk, Eastern Spotted (Spilogale Putorius)
 Deer, White-Tailed (Odocoileus Virginianus)                        Skunk, Striped (Mephitis Mephitis Avia)
 Fox, Gray (Urocyon Cinereoargenteus)                               Squirrel, Fox (Sciurus Niger Rufiventer)
 Fox, Red (Vulpes Vulpes Fulva)                                     Squirrel, Franklin’s Ground (Spermophilus Franklinii)
 Gopher, Plains Pocket (Geomys Bursarius Missouriensis)             Squirrel, Gray (Sciurus Carolinensis Carolinensis)
 Jackrabbit, Black-Tailed (Lepus Californicus Melanotis)            Squirrel, Southern Flying (Glaucomys Volans)
 Mink (Mustela Vison Letifera)                                      Squirrel, Gray (Sciurus Carolinensis Carolinensis)
 Mole, Eastern (Scalopus Aquaticus Machrinoides)                    Squirrel, Southern Flying (Glaucomys Volans)
 Mouse, Deer (Peromyscus Maniculatus)                               Squirrel, Thirteen-Lined Ground
 Mouse, House (Mus Musculus Domesticus)                             Vole, Prairie (Microtus Ochrogaster)
 Mouse, Meadow Jumping (Zapus Hudsonius Pallidus)                   Vole, Woodland (Microtus Pinetorum)
 Mouse, Western Harvest (Reithrodontomys Megalotis)                 Woodchuck (Marmota Monax Monax)

 Avocet, American (Recurvirostra Americana)                         Cuckoo, Black-Billed (Coccyzus Erythropthalmus)
 Bittern, American (Botaurus Lentiginosus)                          Cuckoo, Yellow-Billed (Coccyzus Americanus Americanus)
 Bittern, Least (Ixobrychus Exilis Exilis)                          Dickcissel (Spiza Americana)
 Blackbird, Brewer’s (Euphagus Cyanocephalus)                       Dove, Mourning (Zenaida Macroura Carolinensis)
 Blackbird, Red-Winged (Agelaius Phoenicus)                         Dove, Rock (Columba Livia)
 Blackbird, Rusty (Euphagus Carolinus)                              Duck, American Black (Anas Rubripes)
 Blackbird, Yellow-Headed (Xanthocephalus Xanthocephalus)           Duck, Ring-Necked (Athya Collaris)
 Bluebird, Eastern (Sialia Sialis Sialis)                           Duck, Ring-Necked (Athya Collaris)
 Bobolink (Dolichonyx Oryzivorus)                                   Duck, Ruddy (Oxyura Jamaicensis Rubida)
 Bobwhite, Northern (Colinus Virginianus Virginianus)               Duck, Wood (Aix Sponsa)
 Bufflehead (Bucephala Albeola)                                     Dunlin (Calidris Alpina)
 Bunting, Indigo (Passerina Cyanea)                                 Eagle, Bald (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus Alascensis)
 Bunting, Painted (Passerina Ciris Ciris)                           Eagle, Golden (Aquila Chrysaetos Canadensis)
 Bunting, Snow (Plextrophenax Nivalis Nivalis)                      Egret, Cattle (Bulbulcus Ibis Ibis)
 Canvasback (Athya Valisineria)                                     Egret, Great (Ardea Alba)
 Cardinal, Northern (Cardinalis Cardinalis Cardinalis)              Egret, Snowy (Egretta Thula Thula)
 Catbird, Gray (Dumetella Carolinensis)                             Falcon, Peregrine (Falco Peregrinus Tundrius)
 Chat, Yellow-Breasted (Icteria Virens Virens)                      Finch, House (Carpodacus Mexicanus)
 Chickadee, Black-Capped (Parus Atricapillus Atricapillus)          Finch, Purple (Carpodacus Purpureus Purpureus)
 Chickadee, Carolina (Parus Carolinensis Extimus)                   Flicker, Northern (Colaptes Auratus Auratus)
 Chuck-Will’s Widow (Caprimulgus Carolinensis)                      Flycatcher, Acadian (Empidonax Virescens)
 Coot, American (Fulica Americana Americana)                        Flycatcher, Alder (Empidonax Alnorum)
 Cormorant, Double-Crested (Phalacrocorax Auritus Auritus)          Flycatcher, Great Crested (Myiarchus Crinitus)
 Cowbird, Brown-Headed (Molothrus Ater)                             Flycatcher, Least (Empidonax Minimus)
 Crane, Sandhill (Grus Canadensis)                                  Flycatcher, Olive-Sided (Nuttallornis Borealis)
 Creeper, Brown (Certhia Americana)                                 Flycatcher, Scissor-Tailed (Muscivora Forficata)
 Crossbill, Red (Loxia Curvirostra Minor)                           Flycatcher, Willow (Empidonax Trailii)
 Crossbill, White-Winged (Loxia Leucoptera Leucoptera)              Gadwall (Anas Strepera)
 Crow, American (Corvus Brachyrhynchos)                             Gallinule, Purple (Porphyrula Martinica)

                                                                                                               continued on next page

Birds, continued
Gnatcatcher, Blue-Gray (Polioptila Caerulea Caerulea)        Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus Carolinensis)
Godwit, Hudsonian (Limosa Haemastica)                        Ovenbird (Seiurus Aurocapillus)
Goldeneye, Common (Bucephala Clangula Americana)             Owl, Barn (Tyto Alba)
Goldfinch, American (Carduelis Tristis Tristis)              Owl, Barred (Strix Varia)
Goose, Canada (Branta Canadensis)                            Owl, Eastern Screech (Otus Asio Asio)
Goose, Greater White-Fronted (Anser Albifrons Frontalis)     Owl, Great Horned (Bubo Virginianus)
Goose, Lesser Snow (Chen Caerulescens)                       Owl, Long-Eared (Asio Otus)
Goshawk, Northern (Accipiter Gentilis Atricapillus)          Owl, Short-Eared (Asio Flammeus Flammeus)
Grackle, Common (Quiscalus Quiscula)                         Parula, Northern (Parula Americana)
Grackle, Great-Tailed (Quiscalus Mexicanus)                  Pelican, American White
Grebe, Eared (Podiceps Nigricollis)                          Pewee, Eastern Wood (Contopus Virens)
Grebe, Horned (Podiceps Auritus)                             Phalarope, Wilson (Phalaropus Tricolor)
Grebe, Pied-Billed (Podilymbus Podiceps Podiceps)            Pheasant, Ring-Necked (Phasianus Colchicus)
Grebe, Western (Aechmophorus Occidentalis)                   Phoebe, Eastern (Sayornis Phoebe)
Grosbeak, Blue (Guiraca Caerulea Caerulea)                   Pintail, Northern (Anas Acuta)
Grosbeak, Evening (Hesperiphona Vespertina Vespertina)       Pipit, American (Anthus Rubescens)
Grosbeak, Pine (Pinicola Enucleator Leucura)                 Pipit, Sprague’s (Anthus Spragueii)
Grosbeak, Rose-Breasted (Pheucticus Ludovicianus)            Plover, American Golden (Pluvialis Dominicus)
Grouse, Ruffed (Bonasa Umbellus Mediana)                     Plover, Piping (Charadrius Melodus)
Gull, Franklin’s (Larus Pipixcan)                            Rail, King (Rallus Elegans)
Gull, Herring (Larus Argentatus)                             Redhead (Athya Americana)
Gull, Ring-Billed (Larus Delawarensis)                       Redpoll, Common (Carduelis Flammea Flammea)
Harrier, Northern (Circus Cyaneus)                           Redstart, American (Setophaga Ruticilla)
Hawk, Broad-Winged (Buteo Platypterus Platypterus)           Robin, American (Turdus Migratorius Migratorius)
Hawk, Cooper’s (Accipiter Cooperii)                          Sanderling (Calidris Alba)
Hawk, Red-Shouldered (Buteo Lineatus Lineatus)               Sandpiper, Buff-Breasted (Tryngites Subruficollis)
Hawk, Red-Tailed (Buteo Jamaicensis Borealis)                Sandpiper, Spotted (Actitus Macularia)
Hawk, Rough-Legged (Buteo Lagopus Sanctijohannis)            Sandpiper, Upland (Bartramia Longicauda)
Hawk, Sharp-Shinned (Accipiter Striatus Velox)               Sapsucker, Yellow-Bellied (Sphyrapicus Varius)
Hawk, Swainson’s (Buteo Swainsoni)                           Scaup, Greater (Athya Marila Nearctica)
Heron, Black-Crowned Night (Nycticorax Nycticorax Hoactli)   Scaup, Lesser (Athya Affinis)
Heron, Great Blue (Ardea Herodias)                           Scoter, Black (Melanitta Nigra)
Heron, Green (Butorides Virescens)                           Scoter, Surf (Melanitta Perspicillata)
Heron, Little Blue (Egretta Caerulea Caerulea)               Scoter, White-Winged (Melanitta Fusca)
Heron, Yellow-Crowned Night (Nyctanassa Violacea Violacea)   Shoveler, Northern (Anas Clypeata)
Hummingbird, Ruby-Throated (Archilochus Colubris)            Shrike, Loggerhead (Lanius Ludovicianus Migrans)
Jay, Blue (Cyanocitta Cristata Cristata)                     Shrike, Northern (Lanius Excubitor Invictus)
Junco, Dark-Eyed (Junco Hyemalis)                            Siskin, Pine (Carduelis Pinus Pinus)
Kestrel, American (Falco Sparverius Sparverius)              Snipe, Common (Gallinago Gallinago Delicata)
Killdeer (Charadrius Vociferus)                              Solitaire, Townsend’s (Myadestes Townsendi Townsendi)
Kingbird, Eastern (Tyrannus Tyrannus)                        Sora (Porzana Carolina)
Kingbird, Western (Tyrannus Verticalis)                      Sparrow, American Tree (Spizella Arborea Arborea)
Kingfisher, Belted (Megaceryle Alcyon Alcyon)                Sparrow, Baird’s (Ammodramus Bairdii)
Kinglet, Golden-Crowned                                      Sparrow, Chipping (Spizella Passerina Passerina)
Kinglet, Ruby-Crowned                                        Sparrow, Clay-Colored (Spizella Pallida)
Kite, Mississippi (Ictinia Mississippiensis)                 Sparrow, Field (Spizella Pusilla Pusilla)
Lark, Horned (Eremophila Alpestris Praticola)                Sparrow, Fox (Passerella Iliaca Iliaca)
Longspur, Lapland                                            Sparrow, Grasshopper
Loon, Common (Gavia Immer)                                   Sparrow, Harris’ (Zonotricha Querula)
Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos Platyrhynchos)                   Sparrow, Henslow’s (Ammodramus Henslowii Henslowii)
Martin, Purple (Progne Subis Subis)                          Sparrow, House (Passer Domesticus)
Meadowlark, Eastern (Sturnella Magna)                        Sparrow, Lark (Chondestes Grammacus)
Meadowlark, Western (Sturnella Neglecta)                     Sparrow, Leconte’s (Ammospiza Leconteii)
Merganser, Common                                            Sparrow, Lincoln’s (Melospiza Lincolnii Lincolnii)
Merganser, Hooded (Lophodytes Cucullatus)                    Sparrow, Savannah (Passerculus Sandwichensis Oblitus)
Merganser, Red-Breasted                                      Sparrow, Song (Melospiza Melodia Melodia)
Merlin (Falco Columbarius Richardsonii)                      Sparrow, Swamp (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana)
Mockingbird, Northern                                        Sparrow, Vesper (Pooecetes Gramineus Gramineus)
Moorhen, Common                                              Sparrow, White-Crowned
Nighthawk, Common (Chordeiles Minor)                         Sparrow, White-Throated (Zonotricha Albicollis)
Nuthatch, Red-Breasted (Sitta Canadensis)                    Starling, European (Sturnus Vulgaris Vulgaris)
Nuthatch, White-Breasted                                     Swallow, Bank (Riparia Riparia Riparia)
Oldsquaw (Clangula Hyemalis)                                 Swallow, Barn (Hirundo Rustico)
Oriole, Baltimore (Icterus Galbula)                          Swallow, Cliff (Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota Pyrrhonota)
Oriole, Orchard (Icterus Spurius)                            Swallow, Northern Rough-Winged

                                                                                                   continued on next page

Birds, continued
Swallow, Tree (Iridoprocne Bicolor)                          Warbler, Golden-Winged (Vermivora Chrysoptera)
Swift, Chimney (Chaetura Pelagica)                           Warbler, Hooded (Wilsonia Citrina)
Tanager, Scarlet (Piranga Olivacea)                          Warbler, Kentucky (Oporornis Formosus)
Tanager, Summer (Piranga Rubra)                              Warbler, Mourning (Oporornis Philadelphia)
Teal, Blue-Winged (Anas Discors Discors)                     Warbler, Nashville (Vermivora Ruficapilla)
Teal, Green-Winged (Anas Crecca)                             Warbler, Orange-Crowned (Vermivora Celata)
Tern, Black (Chlidonias Niger)                               Warbler, Palm (Dendroica Palmarum)
Tern, Caspian (Sterna Caspia)                                Warbler, Pine (Dendroica Pinus Pinus)
Tern, Common (Sterna Hirundo)                                Warbler, Prairie (Dendroica Discolor)
Tern, Interior Least (Sterna Antillarum Athalassos)          Warbler, Prothonotary (Protonotaria Citrea)
Thrasher, Brown (Toxostoma Rufum Rufum)                      Warbler, Tennessee (Vermivora Peregrina)
Thrush, Gray-Cheeked (Catharus Minimus)                      Warbler, Wilson’s (Wilsonia Pusilla)
Thrush, Hermit (Hylocichla Guttata Faxoni)                   Warbler, Yellow-Rumped (Dendroica Coronata)
Thrush, Swainson’s (Hylocichla Ustulata Swainsoni)           Warbler, Yellow-Throated (Dendroica Dominica)
Thrush, Wood (Hylocichla Mustelina)                          Warbler, Yellow (Dendroica Petechia)
Titmouse, Tufted (Parus Bicolor)                             Waterthrush, Louisiana (Seiurus Motacilla)
Towhee, Eastern (Pipilo Erythrophthalmus)                    Waterthrush, Northern (Seiurus Noveboracensis)
Turkey, Wild (Meleagris Gallopavo Silvestris)                Waxwing, Cedar (Bombycilla Cedrorum)
Veery (Hylocichla Fuscescens Fuscescens)                     Whip-Poor-Will (Caprimulgus Vociferus)
Vireo, Bell’s (Vireo Bellii)                                 Wigeon, American (Anas Americana)
Vireo, Philadelphia (Vireo Philadelphicus)                   Willet (Catoptrophorus Semipalmatus)
Vireo, Red-Eyed (Vireo Olivaceus)                            Woodcock, American (Philohela Minor)
Vireo, Solitary (Vireo Solitarius)                           Woodpecker, Downy (Picoides Pubescens Pubescens)
Vireo, Warbling (Vireo Gilvus)                               Woodpecker, Hairy (Picoides Villosus)
Vireo, White-Eyed (Vireo Griseus)                            Woodpecker, Pileated (Dryocopus Pileatus)
Vireo, Yellow-Throated (Vireo Flavifrons)                    Woodpecker, Red-Bellied (Melanerpes Carolinus)
Vulture, Turkey (Cathartes Aura Septentrionalis)             Woodpecker, Red-Headed (Melanerpes Erythrocephalus)
Warbler, Bay-Breasted (Dendroica Castanea)                   Wren, Bewick’s (Troglodytes Bewickii Bewickii)
Warbler, Black-And-White (Mniotilta Varia)                   Wren, Carolina (Thryothorus Ludovicianus Ludovicianus)
Warbler, Black-Throated Green (Dendroica Virens)             Wren, House (Troglodytes Aedon Parkmanii)
Warbler, Blackburnian (Dendroica Fusca)                      Wren, Marsh (Cistothorus Palustris Dissaeptus)
Warbler, Blackpoll (Dendroica Striata)                       Wren, Sedge (Cistothorus Platensis Stellaris)
Warbler, Canada (Wilsonia Canadensis)                        Wren, Winter (Troglodytes Troglodytes Hiemalis)
Warbler, Cape May (Dendroica Tigrina)                        Yellowlegs, Lesser (Tringa Flavipes)
Warbler, Cerulean (Dendroica Cerulea)                        Yellowthroat, Common
Warbler, Chestnut-Sided (Dendroica Pensylvanica)


Bullsnake (Pituophis Catenifer Sayi)                         Snake, Flathead (Tantilla Gracilis)
Coachwhip, Eastern                                           Snake, Graham’s Crayfish (Regina Grahamii)
Copperhead, Osage                                            Snake, Great Plains Rat (Elaphe Emoryi)
Kingsnake, Prairie                                           Snake, Lined (Tropidoclonion Lineatum)
Kingsnake, Speckled                                          Snake, Northern Redbelly
Lizard, Eastern Collared                                     Snake, Northern Water (Nerodia Sipedon Sipedon)
Lizard, Northern Fence                                       Snake, Prairie Ringneck
Lizard, Western Slender Glass                                Snake, Red Milk (Lampropeltis Triangulum Syspila)
Massasauga, Eastern                                          Snake, Red-Sided Garter
Racer, Yellowbelly (Coluber Constrictor Flaviventris)        Snake, Rough Green (Opheodrys Aestivus)
Racerunner, Prairie                                          Snake, Texas Brown (Storeria Dekayi Texana)
Racerunner, Six-Lined                                        Snake, Western Earth (Virginia Valeriae Elegans)
Rattlesnake, Timber (Crotalus Horridus)                      Snake, Western Plains Garter
Skink, Five-Lined (Eumeces Fasciatus)                        Snake, Western Ribbon
Skink, Great Plains (Eumeces Obsoletus)                      Snake, Western Worm (Carphophis Vermis)
Skink, Ground (Scincella Lateralis)                          Softshell, Midland Smooth (Apalone Mutica Mutica)
Skink, Northern Prairie                                      Softshell, Western Spiny
Slider, Red-Eared (Trachemys Scripta Elegans)                Turtle, Common Musk (Sternotherus Odoratus)
Snake, Black Rat (Elaphe Obsoleta Obsoleta)                  Turtle, Common Snapping
Snake, Blotched Water                                        Turtle, False Map
Snake, Diamondback Water                                     Turtle, Ornate Box (Terrapene Ornata Ornata)
Snake, Eastern Hognose (Heterodon Platirhinos)               Turtle, Three-Toed Box
Snake, Eastern Plains Garter                                 Turtle, Western Painted (Chrysemys Picta Bellii)

                                                                                                     continued on next page

  Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana)                         Salamander, Smallmouth (Ambystoma Texanum)
  Common Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculosus)                Salamander, Spotted (Ambystoma Maculatum)
  Frog, Blanchard’s Cricket                           Spadefoot, Plains (Spea Bombifrons)
  Frog, Green (Rana Clamitans Melanota)               Toad, Dwarf American
  Frog, Northern Crawfish (Rana Areolata Circulosa)   Toad, Eastern American
  Frog, Plains Leopard (Rana Blairi)                  Toad, Great Plains Narrowmouth
  Frog, Southern Leopard                              Toad, Great Plains (Bufo Cognatus)
  Frog, Western Chorus (Pseudacris Triseriata)        Toad, Woodhouse’s
  Peeper, Northern Spring                             Treefrog, Cope’s Gray (Hyla Chrysocelis)
  Salamander, Eastern Tiger (Ambystoma Tigrinum)      Treefrog, Gray (Hyla Versicolor

  Bass, Largemouth (Micropterus Salmoides)            Minnow, Bluntnose (Pimephales Notatus)
  Bass, Striped (Morone Saxatilis)                    Minnow, Brassy (Hybognathus Hankinsoni)
  Bass, White (Morone Chrysops)                       Minnow, Fathead (Pimephales Promelas)
  Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus)                      Minnow, Brassy (Hybognathus Hankinsoni)
  Bowfin (Amia Calva)                                 Minnow, Fathead (Pimephales Promelas)
  Buffalo, Bigmouth (Ictiobus Cyprinellus)            Minnow, Plains (Hybognathus Placitus)
  Buffalo, Black (Ictiobus Niger)                     Minnow, Suckermouth (Phenacobius Mirabilis)
  Bullhead, Black (Ameiurus Melas)                    Minnow, Western Silvery (Hybognathus Argyritis)
  Bullhead, Yellow (Ameiurus Natalis)                 Mosquitofish, Western (Gambusia Affinis)
  Burbot (Lota Lota)                                  Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula)
  Carp, Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis)          Pike, Northern (Esox Lucius)
  Carp, Common (Cyprinus Carpio)                      Quillback (Carpiodes Cyprinus)
  Carp, Grass (Ctenopharyngodon Idella)               Redhorse, Shorthead (Moxostoma Macrolepidotum)
  Carpsucker, River (Carpiodes Carpio)                Sauger (Stizostedion Canadense)
  Catfish, Blue (Ictalurus Furcatus)                  Shad, Gizzard (Dorosoma Cepedianum)
  Catfish, Channel (Ictalurus Punctatus)              Shiner, Bigmouth (Notropis Dorsalis)
  Catfish, Flathead (Pylodictis Olivaris)             Shiner, Common (Luxilus Cornutus)
  Chub, Creek (Semotilus Atromaculatus)               Shiner, Emerald (Notropis Atherinoides)
  Chub, Flathead (Platygobio Gracilis)                Shiner, Golden (Notemigonus Crysoleucas)
  Chub, Hornyhead (Nocomis Biguttatus)                Shiner, Redfin (Lythrurus Umbratilis)
  Chub, Sicklefin (Macrhybopsis Meeki)                Shiner, Red (Cyprinella Lutrensis)
  Chub, Silver (Macrhybopsis Storeriana)              Shiner, River (Notropis Blennius)
  Chub, Speckled (Macrhybopsis Aestivalis)            Shiner, Sand (Notropis Stramineus)
  Chub, Sturgeon (Macrhybopsis Gelida)                Shiner, Silverband (Notropis Shumardi)
  Crappie, Black (Pomoxis Nigromaculatus)             Shiner, Topeka (Notropis Topeka)
  Crappie, White (Pomoxis Annularis)                  Smelt, Rainbow (Osmerus Mordax)
  Darter, Johnny (Etheostoma Nigrum)                  Stonecat (Noturus Flavus)
  Darter, Orangethroat (Etheostoma Spectabile)        Stoneroller, Central (Campostoma Pullum)
  Darter, Slenderhead (Percina Phoxocephala)          Sturgeon, Lake (Acipenser Fulvescens)
  Drum, Freshwater (Aplodinotus Grunniens)            Sturgeon, Pallid (Scaphirhynchus Albus)
  Gar, Longnose (Lepisosteus Osseus)                  Sturgeon, Shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus Platorynchus)
  Gar, Shortnose (Lepisosteus Platostomus)            Sucker, Blue (Cycleptus Elongatus)
  Goldeye (Hiodon Alosoides)                          Sucker, White (Catostomus Commersoni)
  Goldfish (Carassius Auratus)                        Sunfish, Green (Lepomis Cyanellus)
  Herring, Skipjack (Alosa Chrysochloris)             Sunfish, Longear (Lepomis Megalotis)
  Killifish, Plains (Fundulus Zebrinus)               Sunfish, Orangespotted (Lepomis Humilis)
  Logperch (Percina Caprodes)                         Walleye (Stizostedion Vitreum Vitreum)
  Madtom, Slender (Noturus Exilis)                    Warmouth (Lepomis Gulosus)

Source: Missouri Department of Conservation

Endangered Species                                                contains the common name of the mammal, bird,
                                                                  reptile, amphibian, fish or plant; its scientific
The Kansas City region is home to several species
                                                                  name; its habitat; and its status as an endangered,
of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and plants listed
                                                                  threatened or candidate species according to
as endangered or threatened by the U.S. Fish and
                                                                  the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and/or the
Wildlife Service. These species are listed below.
                                                                  Missouri Department of Conservation. Detailed
This list also contains “candidate species”—
                                                                  information on endangered or threatened species
species that have been studied and proposed for
                                                                  in the Kansas City area is available through the
addition to the federal endangered and threatened
                                                                  MOFWIS database at http://www.conservation.
species list by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
— and species classified as endangered by the
Missouri Department of Conservation. The table

               Endangered Species in the Greater Kansas City Region
        Species                                              Habitat                                           Status
 American Bittern          Lakes, reservoirs, non-forested wetlands                                      State endangered
 Bald Eagle                Forest land (deciduous, evergreen and mixed), water, streams and canals,      Federal threatened
                           lakes, reservoirs, forested and non-forested wetland                          State endangered
 Barn Owl                  Residential, cropland and pasture, orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries,    State endangered
                           herbaceous rangeland
 Black-Tailed Jackrabbit   Residential, cropland and pasture, orchards, groves, mixed rangeland,         State endangered
                           other agricultural land, herbaceous rangeland
 Eastern Massasauga        Herbaceous rangeland, shrub and brush rangeland, non-forested wetland         State endangered
 Eastern Spotted Skunk     Cropland and pasture, orchards, groves, herbaceous rangeland, shrub and State endangered
                           brush rangeland, mixed rangeland, forest land (deciduous, evergreen and
 Flathead Chub             Streams and canals                                                            State endangered
 Indiana Bat               Hibernacula habitat: caves and mines; maternity and foraging habitat:     Federal endangered
                           small stream corridors with well developed riparian woods, upland forests
 Interior Least Tern       Water, streams and canals, lakes, beaches, strip mines, quarries and          Federal endangered
                           gravel pits                                                                   State endangered
 King Rail                 Cropland and pasture, streams and canals, non-forested wetland                State endangered
 Lake Sturgeon             Streams and canals                                                            State endangered
 Mead’s Milkweed           Virgin prairies                                                               Federal threatened
                                                                                                         State endangered
 Northern Harrier          Cropland and pasture, rangeland, herbaceous rangeland, shrub and brush        State endangered
                           rangeland, mixed rangeland, non-forested wetland
 Pallid Sturgeon           Missouri and Mississippi Rivers                                               Federal endangered
                                                                                                         State endangered
 Peregrine Falcon          Cropland and pasture, herbaceous rangeland, mixed rangeland                   Federal endangered
                                                                                                         State endangered
 Sicklefin Chub            Streams and canals                                                            Federal candidate
 Snowy Egret               Evergreen forest land, lakes, reservoirs, forested and non-forested wetland   State endangered
 Sturgeon Chub             Streams and canals                                                            Federal candidate
 Topeka Shiner             Streams and canals                                                            Federal endangered
                                                                                                         State endangered
Source: Missouri Department of Conservation

Environmental Concerns                                The Missouri River Alluvial Plain subsection,
                                                      which includes portions of Clay, Jackson, Platte
Conservation                                          and Ray counties, has been significantly altered
Agriculture and urban development have                by channelization, drainage and conversion to
significantly transformed the natural environment     agricultural uses. Dams on the upper Missouri
of the Kansas City region since its settlement in     River have altered the natural hydrologic
the early 1800s. The conversion of native prairies,   processes and conditions of the river. Critical
wetlands, woodlands and forests into cropland         conservation challenges exist in this ecological
and pastures and residential, commercial and          subsection. The need for flood protection,
industrial areas has substantially impacted the       the economic realities of urban and industrial
natural environment of the region. Across the         development along the river and agriculture in the
region, direct impacts include the conversion of      alluvial plain must be balanced with the desire
land to urban or agricultural uses, resulting in      to minimize pollution from these activities and
the alteration or elimination of natural habitats.    preserve native ecosystems. Innovative land use
Indirect impacts of this process include air and      and natural resource management strategies can
water pollution, the deposition of sediments          help achieve this necessary balance. For example,
in waterways and of the introduction of               allowing land set aside for the preservation of
solid wastes into the natural environment. In         native plant and animal species to be used for
addition, residential, commercial and industrial      flood storage during periods of high water and
development creates a need for roads and              emulating the Missouri River’s natural hydrograph
highways, utilities, flood control measures and       in river management can promote native species
other collateral development that can adversely       and ecosystems in the subsection.
impact natural areas.                                 In the Loess Hills subsection, which includes
Environmental concerns and conservation               the majority of Platte and Clay counties and
challenges exist in each of the ecological            portions of Jackson and Ray counties, the loess
subsections in the region. In the Scarped             soils are highly susceptible to erosion in the
Osage Plains ecological subsection, which             absence of good farming practices. Erosion of
includes large portions of Cass and Jackson           these soils has economic as well as environmental
counties, agriculture has had a profound effect       consequences. Excessive erosion degrades the
on the natural environment. The conversion of         productivity of the farmland and sends large
wildland into cropland and pastures has resulted      amounts of sediments into rivers and streams.
in the significant loss of natural vegetation;        Most of the land in this subsection has been
natural vegetation is now rare and limited            converted to agricultural uses, leaving very little
to small patches, many less than 50 acres in          of the natural vegetation. In this subsection, only
size. Preserving the remaining areas of natural       one remnant of natural glacial prairie is known
habitats is the challenge for conservation in         to exist and it is not owned by either a public or
this subsection. Oak savanna and remnants of          private conservation organization. None of the
woodland have been degraded over the years,           known wetlands in this subsection are owned by
but restoration efforts with the prescribed use of    conservation groups. The conservation challenge
fire appear promising. Remnants of native prairie     in this subsection is the preservation and/or
still exist under mostly conservation ownership.      restoration of native glacial prairies and wetlands.
In addition, streams, though severely impacted,       In the Grand River Hills ecological subsection,
still offer an opportunity to preserve rare species   the majority of the land has been converted
of fish and other aquatic life. Conservation and      to agriculture, with very little of the natural
ecosystem restoration activities in this subsection   vegetation remaining. The majority of Ray
will require public-private cooperation. The          County, a portion of Clay County and a very small
benefits of such efforts will not only be the         section of Platte County lie within this ecological
preservation of native flora and fauna, but also      subsection. As in the Loess Hills ecological
an increase in forage and timber resources and        subsection, most of the original glacial prairie in
protection of area watersheds.                        the Grand River Hills subsection no longer exists.

Although several forests in this subsection have         near Independence, is a seven-square-mile,
been preserved, none of the once widespread              government-owned, contractor-operated
savannas or woodlands in the subsection are              plant that began operation in 1941. It is the
known to exist. Like the Loess Hills subsection,         largest small arms ammunition plant in the
the conservation challenge in the Grand river            nation. Industrial operations generated large
Hills subsection is the preservation and/or              quantities of potentially hazardous waste,
restoration of native glacial prairies and wetlands.     including solvents, explosives, heavy metals
                                                         (such as barium, cadmium, chromium, lead,
Hazardous Waste Sites                                    mercury and silver) and depleted uranium.
The Kansas City area is also home to a number            Since 1941, the facility disposed of operational
of sites used for the disposal of industrial             wastes in lagoons, landfills and burn pits
byproducts and hazardous wastes. These sites are         located throughout the facility. Groundwater
listed as Class 1 through Class 5 in the Missouri        beneath the site, soil, and surface water are
Department of Natural Resources’ Registry                contaminated with volatile organic compounds
of Confirmed Abandoned or Uncontrolled                   and heavy metals. Air strippers and
Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites in Missouri,              groundwater extraction wells were installed
referred to as the Registry.                             to remove contaminants from extracted
                                                         groundwater and to contain contaminated
Class 1 Sites                                            groundwater plumes. Further investigations
Class 1 sites are defined in the Missouri Registry       leading to final cleanup activities are taking
Annual Report as “sites that are causing or              place. Current disposal practices are in
presenting an imminent danger of causing                 accordance with state and federal regulations.
irreversible or irreparable damage to the public         However, recent investigations indicate
health or environment—immediate action                   contaminants have migrated off site.
required.” According to the Missouri Registry          Class 2 Sites
Annual Report, the Kansas City area contains two
of these Class 1 sites:                                The Missouri Registry Annual Report defines Class
                                                       2 sites as “a significant threat to the environment
•	 Armour Road Site (Clay County)                      — action required.” There are five of these sites in
   The Armour Road Site, located at 2251               the Kansas City area, including:
   Armour Road in North Kansas City, was the           •	 BFI Missouri City Landfill (Clay County)
   location of a herbicide blending facility from
   1943 until 1983. The soil is contaminated             Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI) Missouri City
   with extremely high levels of arsenic,                Landfill is located along Stillhouse Road on a
   antimony, pentachlorophenol and lesser                bluff above the Missouri River, about one mile
   levels of numerous other substances and the           north of Missouri City, west of County Road JJ
   groundwater at the site is also contaminated.         in Clay County. The site consists of about 200
   This contamination is believed to be a result         acres, of which the southern 90 acres were
   of spills and general operational practices at        used for waste management activities. The site
   the facility. The 25,000 square foot building         was originally developed as a sanitary landfill.
   on site is also contaminated. The site,               Additional industrial waste disposal trenches
   which covers an area of 1.8 acres, is located         were constructed, filled and closed after BFI
   between an industrial area and a residential          of Kansas City Inc. leased the site in 1972
   neighborhood. South of the property are rail          from Lincoln Brothers Land, Inc. BFI operated
   yards, warehouses and industrial facilities. The      the facility from 1972 until 1983. Waste
   site is adjacent to a commercial development          management facilities included a sanitary
   zone and homes are about 1,200 feet away.             landfill, a chemical processing center where
                                                         bulk liquid wastes were received for temporary
•	 Lake City Army Ammunition Plant                       storage prior to treatment by fixation units,
   (Jackson County)                                      gelatin basins, seven bulk sludge disposal
   The Lake City Army Ammunition Plant,                  trenches, a chemical landfill, a wastewater
   located at the junction of Highways 7 and 78          treatment pond, a stormwater retention pond

  and sludge drying beds. At least 160 million              to the HCI Chemtech — Stillwell Street facility.
  pounds of industrial wastes were deposited                During previous site operations, as many as
  at the site. Contaminants at the site include             66 above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) have
  solvents, herbicide wastes, organophosphates,             been used. 46 of those tanks were located
  waste acids, waste oils, industrial wastewater            in containment areas with earthen floors
  treatment sludge, paint sludge and heavy                  until 1995, when the floors were paved with
  metals sludge. Currently, the waste facility              concrete. Bulk chemicals were delivered to
  is adequately capped, vegetated and well-                 the facility by trucks, barges and rail car and
  maintained, and a fence and locked gate                   stored in ASTs. Chemicals have been mixed
  control access to the site. Several residences            or repackaged prior to sale or sold in bulk.
  are within less than half a mile.                         The truck fleet distributed the chemicals,
•	 Conservation Chemical Company                            primarily via tank truck or drums. Spills are
   (Jackson County)                                         the probable source of on-site contamination
                                                            of soils and groundwater with volatile organic
  The Conservation Chemical Company site                    compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds
  is located in an industrial area at 8900 Front            and herbicides. The potential exists for
  Street, about 1.75 miles east of Interstate 435           contaminants to discharge into the
  along Levee Road in Kansas City. The site                 Missouri River.
  covers about six acres and is situated on the
  flood plain of the Missouri River near the           •	 HCI Chemtech — Stillwell Street
  confluence of the Missouri and Blue Rivers on           (Jackson County)
  the river side of the levee. This site operated as        The HCI Chemtech — Stillwell Street site,
  a chemical storage and disposal facility from             located at 5200 Stillwell Street in Kansas City,
  1960 to 1980. Waste disposal basins, which                is a bulk chemical storage and distribution
  were either unlined or poorly lined, were used            facility in operation since 1981. The site is
  to receive and store wastes and also served               in the Missouri River flood plain, occupying
  as containers and drying beds for byproduct               6.5 acres along the northern bank of the
  sludges. Pesticides, herbicides, waste oils,              Missouri River levee in a mixed commercial
  organic solvents, arsenic, acids, cyanide                 and industrial area. Residences are located
  compounds and other materials were disposed               approximately one-half mile from the site.
  at the facility; an estimated 93,000 cubic yards          Bulk chemicals are delivered to the facility
  of material was disposed and eventually buried            by trucks and rail cars and are stored in ASTs.
  at the site. In 1975, the Missouri Department             Chemicals may be mixed, repackaged prior to
  of Natural Resources investigated the operation           sale or sold in bulk. Releases and spills are the
  and ordered it closed and cleaned up. The site            probable source of contamination of soils and
  was closed in 1979. Post-closure activities,              groundwater. Volatile and semi-volatile organic
  which concluded in 1990, included capping                 compounds were detected in groundwater at
  six lagoons, grading, and placing vegetation on           concentrations above health-based screening
  the remaining portion of the site.                        levels. Groundwater contaminants originating
•	 HCI Chemtech — Birmingham Road                           on the HCI Chemtech property are migrating
   (Clay County)                                            off site to the north, and the potential exists
                                                            for site contaminants to discharge into the
  The HCI Chemtech — Birmingham Road site is                Missouri River.
  located at 6301 Northeast Birmingham Road in
  North Kansas City. The facility encompasses 11       •	 Riverfront Landfill (Jackson County)
  acres along the northern bank of the Missouri             The Riverfront Landfill is located on Levee
  River. Residences are located about 1,000 feet            Road at Chouteau along the south bank of the
  north of the site. This site is a bulk chemical           Missouri River from River Mile 363.5 to 359.0
  storage and distribution facility that has been           in Kansas City. The 492-acre site operated as a
  in operation since 1968. Current storage and              municipal landfill from 1950 until 1972. The
  handling activities are restricted to caustics and        site contains myriad hazardous wastes; waste
  asphalt, due to the transfer of some operations           disposed at the site was unregulated and no

  records exist about the wastes dumped at the            The location of the site next to the Missouri
  site. A portion of the landfill was capped in           River presents problems because of flooding
  1992 and the western portion of the landfill            and groundwater contamination. Surface soil
  was developed as a city park. Groundwater               contamination is widespread but is contained
  contamination is possible, due to the site’s            within berms. During the flood of 1993, the
  history, the quantity and type of waste disposed        inactive sludge disposal area was covered by
  at the site and the hydrogeologic setting of            floodwater. Groundwater contamination has
  the area. The site was excavated to the water           resulted from past activities at the site, but
  table and filled a liner, so infiltrating materials     the groundwater discharge to the Missouri
  are likely to contaminate groundwater.                  River has had minor impacts on water quality.
  Due to burning of liquid wastes at the site,            The Missouri River is used as a drinking
  polychlorinated dibenzofurans may have                  water supply by the city of Lexington 31
  resulted from the burning of environmentally            miles downstream and the Missouri River
  persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).            alluvium supplies drinking water to the city
  At one time, final cover material at the site           of Independence 2.5 miles downstream.
  eroded, exposing solid wastes, which entered            An exposure assessment conducted by the
  the Missouri River (Kansas City corrected this          Missouri Department of Health and Senior
  problem). Principal concerns at this site are the       Services did not uncover any evidence of
  potential for human contact with contaminated           human exposure occurring off site. However,
  soils and groundwater.                                  according to the Missouri Registry Annual
                                                          Report, the site poses a health risk because of
Class 3 Sites                                             the toxicity of the chemicals present and the
According to the Missouri Registry Annual Report,         known groundwater contamination.
Class 3 sites “do not present a significant threat      •	 Independence FMGP #1 (Jackson County)
to the public health or the environment — action
                                                          The Independence Former Manufactured
may be deferred.” There are five Class 3 sites in
                                                          Gas Plant (FMGP) #1 site is located in a
the Kansas City area:
                                                          combination residential, commercial and light
•	 Amoco Oil Sugar Creek Refinery                         industrial area northwest of the intersection
   (Jackson County)                                       of West Pacific Avenue and South River
  The Amoco Oil Sugar Creek Refinery is                   Boulevard in Independence. Gas plant
  located at 1000 North Sterling in Sugar                 operations occurred on property currently
  Creek. This site is the location of a former            owned by the Reorganized Church of Jesus
  active oil refinery which began operations in           Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS). In addition,
  1904 and ceased refinement of crude oil and             several of the plant operations buildings were
  production of petroleum products in 1982.               located beneath what is now West Pacific
  The former refinery area consists of about              Avenue. The site is located within the drainage
  423 acres. Amoco now operates a marketing               basin along the southeast edge of the RLDS
  terminal and an asphalt plant on the property.          Auditorium parking lot and extends beneath
  Five separate disposal areas of the Amoco               West Pacific Avenue. No visual remains of
  property, totaling about 22 acres, are located          former gas plant structures remain and the
  next to the Missouri River. The registered areas        entire basin area of the site is covered by
  include four inactive tank bottom disposal              vegetation. Waste present on the site is coal
  areas and one inactive sludge disposal area.            tar. Subsurface soil samples collected from the
  There is also a land farm for the disposal of           site contained volatile organic compounds and
  leaded gasoline storage sludge near the river,          carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  which the EPA has identified as having high             at concentrations exceeding health-based
  concentrations of lead and chromium. Other              screening levels, as well as leachable benzene
  contaminants identified at the site include             exceeding the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching
  cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons               Procedure regulatory limit of 0.5 parts per
  (PAHs), oil and sludges, arsenic, mercury,              million. Although coal tar residuals are present
  benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene.             in surface and subsurface soil at the site, the

  majority of contamination is located between             its closure in 1978. Between 1969 and 1972,
  six to seven feet below the ground and is                and prior to the Resource Conservation and
  not expected to pose a significant air or soil           Recovery Act (RCRA), a variety of industrial
  exposure risk. In addition, the potential for            and residential wastes were deposited at the
  exposure to contaminants and their migration             site. Since no waste identification records or
  off site is minimal. However, disturbance                transport receipts exist, the exact quantities
  of the soil (other than regular lawn care and            and characteristics of industrial waste in the
  parking lot maintenance) would increase                  landfill can only be speculated. Intermittent
  the chance for public exposure to the buried             inspection reports by the Missouri Department
  hazardous wastes.                                        of Health and Senior Services and statements
•	 Lake Lotawana Sportsmen’s Club                          by the former operator indicate that the landfill
   (Jackson County)                                        accepted waste liquids, sludges and solids from
                                                           local commercial and industrial operations
  The Lake Lotawana Sportsmen’s Club                       until 1972. The presence of ignitable, corrosive
  is located at 29709 Alley Road in Lake                   and toxic wastes in significant quantities is
  Lotawana. It is a 60 acre private sport club             probable, but unconfirmed. The wastes that
  with a recreational small arms firing range.             may have been disposed at the site include
  The site is surrounded by nearby residences.             wastewater treatment sludges and refinery
  The principal environmental concern is                   sludges from industrial firms, including clarifier
  lead associated with the operation of the                sludges, filtration sludges, paint sludges,
  firing range. Surface soils contain elevated             solvent wastes, off-spec pesticides, refractory
  concentrations of lead (as high as 4,700                 slag and air pollution residues. The main
  parts per million) and one sample contained              source of off-site migration of contaminants
  leachable lead at a concentration of 181                 has been discharge periodically observed
  parts per million, exceeding the Toxicity                emanating from the leachate collection sump
  Characteristic Leaching Procedure regulatory             area. Surface discharge could lead to exposure
  limit of 5.0 parts per million. In addition,             through ingestion of contaminated surface or
  low concentrations of lead were detected                 groundwater. Contamination of the Missouri
  in sediment samples collected from a                     River alluvial aquifer may also be possible. The
  downgradient intermittent stream, indicating             potential for exposure exists due to the absence
  that some lead is migrating off site. No                 of sampling data and uncertainty about
  significant accumulation of lead is expected in          the kinds and concentrations of hazardous
  the stream, however. The Missouri Department             substances at the site (MDNR, 138-140).
  of Natural Resources has determined that no
  significant exposure risk is present through the    •	 Prier Brass Manufacturing Company
  soil or surface water. In addition, the potential      (Jackson County)
  for groundwater contamination is low to                  The Prier Brass Manufacturing Company is
  moderate. The chief health concern with this             located in an industrial area at 7801 Truman
  site is human exposure to unacceptable levels            Road in Kansas City and operated from 1907 to
  of lead-contaminated dust through inhalation             1985 as a manufacturer of brass products. The
  or ingestion. Tracking lead-contaminated                 site contained unacceptable levels of leachable
  dust off site is also a concern because of the           lead and cadmium. Contaminated material
  documented high levels of such contaminants              has been removed from the site and excavated
  found in the area.                                       areas have been filled with clean fill. However,
•	 Plattco Landfill — Riverview Property                   contaminated foundry wastes remain under
   (Platte County)                                         a portion of the main building. The potential
                                                           exists for off-site contamination via surface
  The Plattco Landfill — Riverview Property is             water, due to the proximity of waste materials
  located on FF Highway in Parkville, on the               to the Blue River (it is possible for floodwaters
  bluffs above the Missouri River and within               and surface runoff to wash contaminants
  a quarter mile of Rush Creek. The site was               into the river). The completion of removal
  operated as a sanitary landfill from 1969 until          action has decreased this threat, however.

  According to the Missouri Registry Annual            indicates a health threat exists at this site, based
  Report, municipal drinking water systems             on available data (MDNR, 175-177).
  downstream are not expected to be adversely         •	 Lee Chemical (Clay County)
  impacted by contaminants from the site unless
  a major release occurs. Also, it is likely that       The 2.5-acre Lee Chemical site is located
  any effects of contamination on groundwater           south of old Highway 210 and north of the
  would be localized. Reoccupation of the site          railroad tracks, approximately 0.7 miles east
  and ongoing renovation, however, raise the            of Highway 291 in Liberty. This site was used
  possibility of worker and visitor exposure to         for packaging a variety of chemicals from
  contaminants still present under the main             1966 to 1974, when Lee Chemical abandoned
  building on the site.                                 the facility. City of Liberty officials removed
                                                        several hundred drums of chemicals on the site
Class 4 Sites                                           in 1977. Although the visible contamination
                                                        has been removed, analyses indicate
The Missouri Registry Annual Report defines
                                                        trichloroethylene (TCE) and volatile organic
Class 4 sites as being “properly closed--require
                                                        compounds are still present in groundwater
continued management” (MDNR, 3). Two Class 4
                                                        and soil. In 1980, a drinking water study
sites exist in the Kansas City area:
                                                        detected TCE in the city’s drinking water
•	 ARMCO (Jackson County)                               wells and Lee Chemical was identified as the
 ARMCO is an active steel manufacturing plant           source of the TCE in the city’s well, located a
 located at 7000 Winner Road in an industrial           quarter-mile east of the site. Interim response
 area of Kansas City. From 1962 to 1980, the            and remedial actions by the city of Liberty, as
 company used two landfills at the site for the         well as well field management techniques and
 disposal of electric furnace baghouse dust             treatment modifications, have reduced TCE
 generated by steel manufacturing processes.            levels in the drinking water to below detection
 This dust was found to contain leachable               limits; no wells currently supplying drinking
 quantities of lead and cadmium, as well as             water to the city contain detectable levels of
 10 to 12 percent zinc. This industrial waste           TCE. In addition, a new municipal well field
 became regulated by RCRA after 1980, and               was developed about two miles from the site.
 the two landfills are capped and covered               Although the city of Liberty’s remedial actions
 with vegetation. Although no environmental             were very effective, a health risk still exists at
 problems currently exist, the potential exists for     the Lee Chemical site, since levels of TCE in
 surface and groundwater contamination due              the groundwater (but not in the city’s public
 to the leachable nature of the waste. A study          drinking water system) are still above the
 conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and            public drinking water standard (MDNR,
 Missouri Department of Natural Resources               16, 201-204).
 found that the only release of contaminants
 from the site appears to be from surface run-        Class 5 Sites
 off into the Blue River. This study revealed a       The Missouri Registry Annual Report defines Class
 doubling of zinc levels and smaller increases        5 sites as “properly closed with no evidence of
 in the concentration of lead in the river            present or potential adverse impact — no further
 immediately following rainstorms. Cancer             action required” (MDNR, 3). Since Class 5 sites
 deaths between 1983 and 1993 for this site’s         are removed from the registry, they are not
 study population were higher than expected,          included in this plan.
 compared to statewide cancer deaths. However,
 two natality studies found no significant            National Priorities List
 differences compared to state averages and           Four of the aforementioned Class 1 through 4
 an exposure investigation by the Missouri            sites are also included in the U.S. Environmental
 Department of Health and Senior Services did         Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Priorities
 not document any significant exposure from           List (NPL). The NPL is the EPA’s list of national
 this site. The Missouri Registry Annual Report       priorities among the known or threatened

releases of hazardous substances, pollutants or      include chromated copper arsenate (CCA), copper
contaminants throughout the United States (www.      napthenate, creosote and pentachlorophenol. Registry sites on the NPL include:         Past mismanagement of these preservatives at
•	 Armour Road site in North Kansas City             wood-treating facilities has caused significant
                                                     contamination of soil and groundwater at some
•	 Conservation Chemical Company site in             sites. Contamination is generally caused by
   Kansas City                                       excess preservative from the treated wood
•	 Lake City Army Ammunition Plant in                dripping onto the ground. These chemicals
   Independence                                      contaminate the soil and groundwater and can
•	 Lee Chemical site in Liberty                      potentially be transported a considerable distance
                                                     from the site. The Missouri Registry Annual
Former Manufactured Gas Plants                       Report lists five confirmed wood treater sites in
                                                     the Kansas City area.
Prior to the availability of natural gas, many
municipal and industrial gas plants manufactured     “Tier II” Facilities
gas from coal. These sites are now known as
“former manufactured gas plants” (FMGPs). Many       Federal and state Emergency Planning and
wastes, including coal tar, were generated by        Community Right-to-Know regulations require
the coal gas production process at these plants.     that facilities that have on site (1) more than
These wastes were often spilled or buried on site.   10,000 pounds of hazardous materials for which a
The primary chemical contaminants in coal tar        Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required; (2)
are potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic     more than 500 pounds, or the threshold planning
hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds.         quantity, of extremely hazardous substances as
Other contaminants that may present a risk at        defined by 40 CFR Parts 300 and 355; or (3) more
FMGP sites are cyanide and several kinds of          than 100 pounds of explosives or blasting agents,
metals. The Missouri Registry Annual Report          must provide the Missouri Emergency Response
lists eight confirmed FMGP sites in the Kansas       Commission (MERC), Local Emergency Planning
City area.                                           Committees (LEPC) and local fire departments
                                                     with annual reports (known as Tier II reports)
Wood Treating Facilities                             of the types and quantities of these hazardous
                                                     materials (MERC website, online data). There are
The wood preservation process involves the
                                                     more than 700 of these “Tier II” facilities in Cass,
penetration of a preservative, usually under
                                                     Clay, Jackson, Platte and Ray counties.
pressurized applications, into the timber.
Common preservatives used in this process

                                 FORMER MANUFACTURED GAS PLANTS
                  Site                                Address                 County             Status
 Excelsior Springs FMGP (Excelsior        400 West Excelsior, Excelsior      Clay      Negotiations for cleanup
 Springs Light & Power)                   Springs                                      ongoing; EPA removal
 Independence FMGP #1                     Pacific and Grand Avenue,          Jackson   Listed in Registry
 Independence FMGP #2 (Missouri           23rd Street and Pleasant Avenue, Jackson     MDNR Site Evaluation
 Gas Energy)                              Independence                                 Unit investigation
                                                                                       planned; SAU
                                                                                       investigation planned
 Kansas City FMGP #1 (Kansas City         East 1st Street and Campbell,      Jackson   Voluntary Cleanup
 Coal Gas Station A)                      Kansas City                                  Program; cleanup ongoing
 Kansas City FMGP #2 (Kansas City         Campbell and East 3rd Street,      Jackson   Voluntary Cleanup
 Coal Gas Station B)                      Kansas City                                  Program; cleanup ongoing
 Kansas City FMGP #3 (MGE Natural         20th and Indiana Avenue,           Jackson   Voluntary Cleanup
 Gas Storage/Kansas City Gas Light)       Kansas City                                  Program – Complete
 Kansas City FMGP #5 (Missouri Gas        Southwest Station (south of 25th   Jackson   Voluntary deed restriction
 Company)                                 Street), Kansas City                         filed SAU
 Parkville FMGP (Parkville Oil            Not applicable                     Platte    MDNR Site Evaluation
 Company/Hugh T. Jones)                                                                Unit; no further action
Source: Missouri Registry Annual Report, 2008

                                        WOOD TREATING FACILITIES
                  Site                                Address                 County              Status
 A.K. Gibbon Lumber (Gibbon               1301 West 13th Street, Kansas      Jackson   MDNR Site Evaluation
 Lumber)                                  City                                         Unit investigation
                                                                                       planned; cleanup pending
 Curt Bean Lumber Company, Inc.           1320 E. Old Lexington Road,        Jackson   EPA investigation ongoing
 Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation          2300 Oakland, Kansas City          Jackson   Remedial action ongoing
 – Kansas City
 Koppers Company, Inc. Forest             6740 Stadium Drive, Kansas City Jackson      Remedial action ongoing
 Products Division (Beazer East)
 Southeast Wood (Georgia Pacific;         Walker Road & Highway 58,          Cass      Voluntary Cleanup
 International Paper Company)             Pleasant Hill                                Program; cleanup
 Universal Forest Products                2600 Precision Drive,              Cass      EPA investigation planned
 (Southwest Company, Inc.)                Harrisonville
Source: Missouri Registry Annual Report, 2008

                                                          General Thomas Ewing issued Field Order
History of development and
                                                          Number 11 on August 25, 1863, which required
development trends                                        all residents to leave Cass County (as well as
                                                          Bates, Jackson and portions of Vernon counties)
Cass County, Mo.
                                                          so they could not assist Confederate forces in the
Prior to the arrival of the first white settlers in the   area. This action virtually depopulated the county,
area now known as Cass County, Kansa Indians              and many residents did not return at the end of
occupied much of this territory, including the sites      the Civil War.
of modern Pleasant Hill, Garden City, Archie and
                                                          Though still largely rural, Cass County saw its
Drexel. Indians of the Osage tribe may have also
                                                          population grow by 28.7 percent between 1990
been present in this area, although neither of these
                                                          and 2000. Urbanized areas of the county include
tribes probably had a truly permanent settlement
                                                          the extreme southern portion of Kansas City,
in this area.
                                                          Belton, Harrisonville, Pleasant Hill, Peculiar
The first white settler of the Cass County area is        and Raymore. According to the Kansas City
disputed. David Creek from Indiana reportedly             Area Development Council, “Cass County is a
settled in this area in 1828. However, some claim         blossoming collection of urbanized cities, rural
that a squatter named John Walker was the first           housing developments and agricultural areas.
settler. Another squatter, John Lackey, was the first     It offers easy access to the Kansas City
white settler on the site of modern Harrisonville.        metropolitan area but is distant enough to
In 1830, he built a cabin and fenced a field on           retain its ‘small-town’ charm.”
lland that would become the county seat.
Cass County was originally called Van Buren               Clay County, Mo.
County and was created on May 3, 1835 by                  Before the arrival of the first European settlers
separation from Jackson County. Named for                 to the territory now known as Clay County, the
President Martin Van Buren, the county’s name             area was inhabited by the Missouri, Sac and Iowa
was changed on February 19, 1849, when                    Indians. As part of the Louisiana Territory, it was
Bates County was detached from Cass County.               under French control until 1803, when France
President Van Buren riled Missouri’s Democrats            sold the territory to the United States as part of the
by his alliance with the Free-Soil Party and,             Louisiana Purchase. Clay County was first settled
consequently, the county was named after                  by French fur trappers in 1800 at Randolph Bluff,
General Lewis Cass of Michigan, who was the               along the Missouri River; however, no trace of
Democratic candidate for president in 1848.               their settlement remains.
In 1835, Cass County’s government was                     The county’s first permanent settlers arrived
organized and the site of the town of Harrisonville       in 1819 from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia,
was established by an act of the Missouri General         Maryland and North Carolina. Named for Henry
Assembly. In 1837, Harrisonville was laid out             Clay, Kentucky statesman and Whig Party leader,
over an area of 160 acres and included four               Clay County was created on January 2, 1822 by
streets: Wall and Pearl going from east to west           the detachment of the county’s territory from
and Lexington and Independence going north and            Ray County.
south. The town’s first lots were sold in June of         The town of Liberty was platted in 1822 near the
1837; lots facing the public square sold for $20          site of Hixon’s Mill. Liberty has been the county
each and the others were $10. Hopwell (or New             seat since its founding. The county’s first road
Hope) Baptist Church, Harrisonville’s first church,       connected the town of Liberty to Bluffton Road.
was established in 1835 and the town’s first              The county’s first bridge was built in 1830 over
house was built in 1836. Harrisonville’s first            the Fishing River at the crossing of the State Road.
jail, and the second jail for the county, was             The first church in Clay County was the Little
constructed in 1838.                                      Shoal Creek Church, established on May 28,
The turbulence of the Civil War significantly             1823 in Liberty.
impacted Cass County. Because most county                 The Civil War caused much suffering among
residents supported the South, Union Brigadier            the citizens of Clay County and hampered the

development of agriculture in the area. The            belonging to Cass and Bates counties. Jackson
county was the home of the notorious outlaws           County is named for Andrew Jackson, the “Hero
Frank and Jesse James, and the area was a favorite     of New Orleans,” a general in the War of 1812
hideout for them.                                      and the seventh president of the United States.
Today, commerce and industry have replaced             Settlers began arriving in the Jackson County area
agriculture as Clay County’s principal economic        in the early 1820s; the first settlers in what is now
enterprise. About half the land area in the            Kansas City reportedly arrived in 1821, the year
county has been developed, and the remaining           Missouri was admitted to the Union. Francois
undeveloped land is prime for business, industrial     Chouteau, a French trader, built a trading post
and residential development. Clay County’s             along the Missouri River near what is now the
population grew by 19.9 percent between                city’s Northeast Industrial District. After being
1990 and 2000; the county is one of the fastest        flooded out in 1826, Chouteau and other
growing in the Kansas City metropolitan area.          French families established Kansas City’s first
Principal communities in Clay County include           non-Indian settlement at the foot of present-day
Excelsior Springs, Gladstone, Kansas City,             Troost Avenue.
Kearney, Lawson, Liberty, North Kansas City            Jackson County government was organized
and Smithville. According to the Clay County           in 1826 and the city of Independence was
Economic Development Council, “population              selected as the county seat in 1827. The county’s
growth in Clay County has increased the need for       first courthouse — constructed of logs — was
service providers and retail stores. Clay County       completed in 1828.
continues to enjoy a strong manufacturing,
transportation and distribution base, with             The 1830s and 1840s were a period of growth
significant new growth in the services sector.”        and prosperity for Jackson County. By 1832, most
                                                       of the wagons making the journey westward on
Jackson County, Mo.                                    the Santa Fe Trail were outfitted in Independence.
                                                       Businesses selling supplies and services to
The first settlements in what is now Jackson
                                                       westbound settlers made Independence a
County were established in “Six-Mile,” an area of
                                                       prosperous community by the early 1840s. In
23,040 acres purchased from the Osage Indians
                                                       1833, John McCoy purchased land he called
in 1808. That same year, Fort Osage was built
                                                       “Westport” and established a landing on the
along the Missouri River near what is now the
                                                       Missouri River, allowing supplies to be transferred
town of Sibley. The construction of Fort Osage
                                                       from the river to westward-bound wagon
was directed by William Clark, co-commander
                                                       routes at a point 22 miles farther west than
of the famed Lewis and Clark expedition. The
                                                       Independence. By 1845, Westport’s growth as a
purpose of the fort was threefold: it was a military
                                                       supply center, influenced by McCoy and others,
outpost created to guard the United States’ newly
                                                       and an 1844 flood that significantly hampered
acquired Louisiana Purchase territory and protect
                                                       freight operations at the Independence (Wayne
the United States Factory Trade House at the site;
                                                       City) landing, resulted in Westport replacing
its establishment aided the federal government’s
                                                       Independence as a supply and departure point
efforts to befriend the area’s Osage Indians; and it
                                                       for westward-bound wagons. In 1838, the Town
offered Missouri’s early settlers a sanctuary from
                                                       of Kansas Company, comprised of John McCoy
which they could venture farther west. Fort Osage
                                                       and 13 other investors, bought the 271-acre
was abandoned in 1827, due to settlers pushing
                                                       Gabriel Prudhomme farm (McCoy’s Missouri
the frontier farther west and the termination of the
                                                       River landing was on this property), which would
federal “Factory System.”
                                                       become Kansas City’s first downtown district.
Nearly all the land comprising Jackson County
                                                       The 1830s were also a period of strife for the
was acquired from the Osage and Kansa Indians
                                                       county. In 1831, thousands of Mormons from
through a treaty signed on June 2, 1825.
                                                       New York and Ohio followed their leader, Joseph
Between 1804 and 1827, this land was under
                                                       Smith, to Jackson County after he proclaimed
the successive jurisdictions of St. Louis, Howard,
                                                       Independence as the City of Zion. In 1833,
Cooper and Lafayette counties. From 1827 to
                                                       settlers who supported slavery succeeded in
1835, Jackson County included territory now

driving the Mormons out of Jackson County and         the major cattle markets in the world. In 1872,
into neighboring Clay County.                         the first county courthouse in Kansas City was
In 1848, William Ray established a blacksmith         built (interestingly, it was intended as an annex
shop along the Santa Fe Trail in Jackson County.      to the primary courthouse in Independence.
Others settled in the same area, and by 1858 the      Blue Springs was incorporated in 1880. In 1896,
community was referred to as “Ray’s Town” or          1,344-acre (now 1,769-acre) Swope Park was
“Raytown” (Raytown did not incorporate as a city      dedicated, and in 1897, Kansas City annexed the
until 1950). In 1849, Independence became an          Westport area. Several significant Kansas City
incorporated city. Kansas City was incorporated       buildings were constructed during this period. In
by Jackson County on June 1, 1850; at this time,      1890, Kansas City’s first “skyscraper” — the New
it was called the Town of Kansas, named after         York Life Building – was built on West 9th Street.
the area’s original inhabitants, the Kansa Indians.   In 1899, Kansas City’s first convention center was
The Town of Kansas was incorporated as the City       constructed at 12th and Wyandotte Streets (it was
of Kansas by the state in 1853 and in 1889 it         destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1900).
officially became Kansas City. In 1853, William       The county’s growth continued in the early
Gregory was elected as Kansas City’s first mayor      twentieth century. Some highlights of the area’s
and the first city council meeting was held.          growth and development during this period
The Civil War dramatically impacted the               include:
lives of Jackson County’s citizens. The Battles       •	 1904 — Standard Oil Company (later Chevron)
of Independence (in which Confederate                    builds a refinery in Sugar Creek
forces captured the city) and Lone Jack were          •	 1909 — Annexation increases the size of
Confederate victories and resulted in Confederate        Kansas City from 25.4 to 59.7 square miles
military domination of the region for a short
period of time. Because many of Jackson County’s      •	 1920 — Sugar Creek is incorporated
residents were sympathetic to the South, Union        •	 1922 — J.C. Nichols builds the Country Club
Brigadier General Thomas Ewing, commander                Plaza, the nation’s first planned shopping
of the District of the Border, issued Field Order        center
Number 11 in 1863, which required the county’s        •	 1926 — Liberty Memorial is dedicated
residents (and those of Bates, Cass and portions of
Vernon counties) to leave the county. In 1864, the    •	 1929 — The University of Kansas City (now
Union Army of the Border, commanded by Major             the University of Missouri–Kansas City) is
General Samuel Curtis, routed Confederate Major          chartered
General Sterling Price’s Missouri Expedition at the   •	 1930 — Buckner is incorporated
Battle of Westport, the largest and most decisive     •	 1934 — The county courthouse at 415 East
Civil War battle in Missouri. This battle resulted       12th Street in Kansas City is constructed
in the loss of Confederate military power in the
Kansas City area and the retreat of Price’s forces    •	 1935 — Construction of Kansas City’s
for the remainder of the war.                            Municipal Auditorium, at 13th and Wyandotte
                                                         Streets, is completed
Several notable events occurred in Jackson
County in the late nineteenth century which           •	 1937 — City Hall in Kansas City is completed
fostered the growth and development of the            Following World War II, many of Jackson
area. On November 4, 1865, Lee’s Summit was           County’s smaller communities became
incorporated; the town was platted by William         incorporated cities. These incorporations included
Howard, a local farmer and stockman. 1869             Raytown in 1950; Unity Village in 1953; Sibley in
saw the opening of the Hannibal Bridge, the           1957; Lake Lotawana in 1958; Lake Tapawingo in
first railway bridge across the Missouri River.       1962; and Lone Jack in 1964.
The construction of this bridge, facilitated by the   Kansas City grew in size during this period,
passage of a bill in Congress, gave Kansas City       annexing 26.5 square miles in 1963, increasing
trade dominance in the area (over Leavenworth,        the city’s total area to 316 square miles. Major
Kan., and St. Joseph, Mo.). Subsequently, the         construction and development projects helped
railroads helped establish Kansas City as one of

propel significant growth in Jackson County in the      at a site where the military road from Liberty
latter half of the century. The opening of Interstate   Landing to Fort Leavenworth met the Platte River.
70 in 1965 fostered residential and commercial          Martin later built a flour mill nearby. In 1838,
development in eastern Jackson County, with             Martinsville was renamed Platte City when the
significant growth occurring in Independence            county was organized and the community was
and Blue Springs. 1972 saw the completion of            selected as the county seat.
Arrowhead Stadium; its companion sports facility,       In 1837, Joseph Moore laid out a town along
Royals Stadium (now Kauffman Stadium), was              the banks of the Missouri River. A year later,
completed in 1973. In 1997, the opening of              Moore sold half the interest in the property to
the American Jazz Museum, the Negro Leagues             Bela Hughes, who laid out the present town
Baseball Museum and the Gem Theater were                of Weston. Weston grew quickly, reaching a
significant components of the renovation and            population of 300 within a year.
development of the 18th and Vine historic district.
Renovation and re-opening of historic Union             In addition to the daily rigors of frontier life in
Station in Kansas City was completed in 1999.           the 1800s, early settlers in Platte County (and
1999 was also the year the Stowers Institute for        much of the Kansas City area) were impacted by
Medical Research was opened at 50th Street and          a devastating Missouri River flood in June 1844,
Rockhill Road in Kansas City, part of the region’s      which submerged farms, destroyed crops and
transformation into one of the country’s leading        facilitated the spread of disease in its aftermath.
areas for life sciences and biomedical research.        In 1846, the Mexican War brought growth and
                                                        prosperity to Platte County with the assembling
Now, at the dawn of the 21st century, Jackson           and equipping of the expeditionary forces of
County’s growth and development continues               Generals Stephen Kearney and Sterling Price at
at a rapid pace. According to the Kansas City           Fort Leavenworth. In addition, the exodus of the
Area Development Council, more than 42                  Mormons to the Utah Territory around this same
percent the region’s jobs and more than half of         time was beneficial to Platte County’s economy.
its largest employers (i.e., those with more than       Weston became an important outfitting area for
500 employees) are located in Jackson County.           these journeys westward. With the discovery of
In 2000, non-residential building construction in       gold in California in 1849, Weston, Platte City,
Jackson County increased 23 percent over 1999.          St. Joseph, Independence and Kansas City grew
In addition, 41 percent of the metropolitan area’s      in importance as supply and departure points for
non-residential building projects in 2000 occurred      those heading west.
in Jackson County.
                                                        Today, Platte County continues to grow and
Platte County, Mo.                                      prosper. Major new or planned developments in
                                                        the county include:
Platte County was one of the first counties in
Missouri to be organized from land known as the         •	 Zona Rosa — an upscale retail, office and
“Platte Purchase.” The Platte Purchase included            residential community
land between Missouri’s original western                •	 Parkville Commons — 250,000 square feet of
boundary on the east (a north-south line drawn             retail and office development on Highway 9
through the mouth of the Kansas River) and the             near I-435 in Parkville
Missouri River on the west. This land included the
current counties of Andrew, Atchison, Buchanan,         •	 The Shops at Boardwalk — a 123,000-square
Holt, Nodaway and Platte. In 1836, the Missouri            foot shopping center
state legislature, expecting the passage of the         •	 Platte Valley Plaza — a retail and housing
Platte Purchase treaty, passed an act attaching the        development in Platte City
land that would become Platte County to Clay            •	 Riverside/Quindaro Bend Levee — a $58.3
County for “civil and military purposes.” Platte           million levee constructed to free flood-prone
County, named for the Platte River which runs              land in Riverside for future light industrial,
through it, was organized in 1838.                         retail and commercial development
Platte City was originally called “Martinsville” in     •	 Congress Corporate Center — a 156-acre
honor of Zadoc Martin, who started a ferry service         business park

•	 Mastercard International — an 87,000-square-      for the county over the next ten years. Recent
   foot back-up data center at 11530 NW              development in the county includes:
   Ambassador in Kansas City                         •	 Bank Midwest — acquired Hardin Federal
•	 Liberty Mutual Group — a 100,000-square-foot         Savings and Loan in 2001, increasing the
   data center                                          number of Bank Midwest branches in the
•	 Farmland Industries — a 280,000-square-              county to three.
   foot headquarters just east of Kansas City        •	 Walmart Stores, Inc. — closed a 50,000-square-
   International Airport (Platte County EDC,            foot store in Richmond and replaced it with a
   online data).                                        new 152,000-square-foot Walmart Supercenter
•	 Dairy Farmers of America — headquarters of           in 2001
   the largest dairy cooperative in the nation       •	 Ray County Memorial Hospital — added
•	 Harley-Davidson Motor Company — a more               26,195 square feet to its existing facility,
   than 300,000-square-foot manufacturing plant         providing additional space for patient care, a
                                                        new lobby and a gift shop. In addition, 14 new
•	 Citicards — 136,000- and 138,000-square-foot         staff were added to the hospital
Platte County is one of the region’s fastest         Johnson County, Kan.
growing areas. According to the Platte County        Johnson County, formed in 1855, was one of the
Economic Development Council, “Platte County         first counties established in the Kansas Territory.
is one of only two Missouri counties listed in       Earlier settlements in the county included a Wells
the top 250 counties in the USA” with regard to      Fargo station built to connect Fort Leavenworth
growth potential.                                    to Fort Scott, and a Shawnee Indian reservation
                                                     established in 1825. The county is named after
Ray County, Mo.                                      Rev. Thomas Johnson whose son, Alexander
Organized out of the territory of Howard             Johnson, was the first white person born in the
County in 1820, Ray County was one of                county in 1832. Alexander Johnson later helped
Missouri’s 25 original counties. It initially        establish the town of Shawnee, Kan.
included all the Missouri land from the Grand        The Oregon, California and Santa Fe trails all
River west to the state line and from the Missouri   passed through the county. Prior to and during
River north to the state line. In 1836, Ray County   the Civil War, the county was home to many
assumed its present size with the organization       battles between abolitionists and pro-slavery
of Caldwell County. Bluffton was the county          forces. In 1862, Quantrill’s Raiders a group of
seat until 1827, when its name was changed to        Confederate guerillas led by William Quantrill,
Richmond. The county is named after John Ray,        raided the Johnson County communities of Olathe
a Howard County delegate to Missouri’s first         and Spring Hill, destroying many homes and
constitutional convention.                           businesses.
Hunters and trappers were probably the first         Johnson County remained largely rural until
non-native people to explore the area that would     the early 20th century, when many suburban
eventually become Ray County. John Vanderpool        communities were developed. This development
Sr. and his family were the county’s first           boomed after World War II, and Johnson County
residents, settling near Crooked River in 1815.      is still one of the fastest growing areas in the
The Vanderpools, from Tennessee, emigrated           region, with the highest population — and highest
to Ray County seeking a better life. In 1819, the    median household income —of any county in
first steamboat to travel up the Missouri River      Kansas.
ventured as far west as Camden. That same
year, Meadders Vanderpool opened the first           In 2008, CNN/Money and Money magazine
school in Ray County on Ogg’s Branch Range.          ranked three cities in Johnson County —
Although Ray County remains primarily rural and      Overland Park (9), Olathe (11), and Shawnee
agricultural, the Kansas City Area Development       (39) — on its list of the “100 Best Cities to Live in
Council forecasts a 15-percent growth rate           the United States. Olathe was also ranked 24th in

the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2008 list of the top 25          Originally organized in 1855 as Lykins County,
fastest growing cities in the nation.                     in honor of Dr. David Lykins, a missionary who
                                                          served among the Miami Indians and was a
Leavenworth County, Kan.                                  member of the first territorial council, Miami
Leavenworth County, formed in 1866, was among             County was renamed after the Indian tribe in
the first 33 counties formed by the territorial           1861.
government of Kansas. Both the county and its             Still largely rural in nature, Miami County is
county seat, the city of Leavenworth, are named           home to many streams and creeks and fertile,
after Colonel Henry Leavenworth, who founded              gently rolling farmland. Oil and gas exploration
Fort Leavenworth on the bluffs of the Missouri            have played a big part in Miami County’s history.
River in 1827.                                            Gas drilling began in 1882, and the first oil well
The land where Leavenworth County is located              west of the Mississippi River was discovered in
was originally settled by Kansa, Osage and                the county in 1888. Railroads also were a big
Delaware Indians. Fort Leavenworth played an              influence, beginning with the Kansas City–Fort
important role in keeping the peace among Indian          Scott and Gulf Railroad in 1870.
tribes and increasing numbers of settlers heading         Paola, the county seat, has a population of just
west.                                                     over 5,000. Its businesses include manufacturing,
The city of Leavenworth, founded in 1854,                 distribution, health care facilities, banking and
was the first city in Kansas. In 1858, the Sisters        retail operations.
of Charity settled in Leavenworth. The Sisters
opened St. John Hospital in 1864 and founded              Wyandotte County, Kan.
Saint Mary College (now the University of Saint           Wyandotte County, the smallest county in Kansas
Mary) in 1923.                                            with a total area of only 151 square miles, was
In 1863, the Kansas State legislature authorized          named after the Wyandot Indians. The county
the construction of the Kansas State Penitentiary         was organized in 1855. One of its earliest settlers,
on a site now located in the city of Lansing. Work        Moses Grinter, operated a ferry on the Kansas
began in 1864, but financial difficulties connected       River in the 1830s. the ferry was used by traders
with the Civil War delayed its completion until           and soldiers traveling the military road between
1868.                                                     Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott, as well as settlers
                                                          on their way to Santa Fe, N.M.
In 1881, General William T. Sherman founded
the school that would later become the U.S.               The city of Kansas City, Kansas was formed
Army Command and General Staff College at Fort            in 1868 and incorporated in 1872. The city
Leavenworth.                                              is located near Kaw Point at the confluence
                                                          of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. In 1997,
In 1906, the Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary             voters approved a merger of city and county
opened its first cell house. The penitentiary,            governments, creating the Unified Government of
which is still in use today, has housed many              Wyandotte County/Kansas City, Kan. The county
famous criminals over the years.                          also includes the cities of Bonner Springs and
The county, with a population estimated at over           Edwardsville.
73,000 in 2006, is one of the largest and fastest         The Kansas Speedway, a NASCAR racetrack that
growing in the state. Incorporated cities include         opened in 2001, and Village West, an adjacent
Leavenworth, Lansing, Tonganoxie, Basehor,                retail development opened in 2002, have had
Linwood, Easton and Bonner Springs.                       a significant impact on the county’s economy.
                                                          Wyandotte County is also home to General
Miami County, Kan.
                                                          Motors’ Fairfax auto assembly plant.
Miami County, with a population just over
30,000, is largely rural. The county is home
to four cities — Fontana, Louisburg, Paola and

Land use and land cover
Cass County, Mo.                                         Johnson County, Kan.
About 62 percent of Cass County is devoted to            A major portion of the county is urbanized, with
agriculture. Major crops include corn, soybeans,         older first suburbs in the northeast area, older
sorghum, wheat and hay. Most of the remaining            communities that have become growing suburbs
38 percent of the county is urban and suburban,          throughout the county and some undeveloped
particularly in the northern portion of the county.      area. About 38 percent of Johnson County’s land
Principal communities in the county include              area is devoted to agriculture and covered by
Belton, Harrisonville, a small portion of south          cropland and pasture. Principal communities
Kansas City, a portion of southern Lee’s Summit,         in Johnson County include Lenexa, Overland
Peculiar, Pleasant Hill and Raymore.                     Park, Olathe, Leawood, Prairie Village, Merriam,
                                                         Mission, Shawnee, and Gardner.
Clay County, Mo.
Clay County’s land cover today is about 47               Leavenworth County, Kan.
percent cropland and pasture, with corn,
soybeans, sorghum, wheat and hay being the               Leavenworth County has an urban center in the
major crops. Much of the rest of the county              northeast part of the county. About 24 percent
consists of urban and suburban development,              of the county’s land is in pasture and 30 percent
particularly in the southern part of the county.         in cropland. Major cities include the city of
Principal communities in Clay County include             Leavenworth, Lansing and Tonganoxie.
Excelsior Springs, a portion of Kansas City,
                                                         Miami County, Kan.
Kearney, Liberty and North Kansas City.
                                                         Miami County is primarily a rural county with
Jackson County, Mo.                                      five cities, including Paola, Louisburg and
Jackson County is heavily urbanized.                     Osawatomie. Approximately 80 percent of the
Approximately 34 percent of the county’s land,           county’s land remains in agricultural use.
however, is agricultural and used as cropland or
                                                         Wyandotte County, Kan.
pasture. Principal crops include corn, soybeans,
sorghum, wheat and hay. Principal communities            The county is heavily urbanized; with only 19
in Jackson County include Blue Springs,                  percent of the county’s land in agricultural use.
Grandview, Independence, Kansas City, Lee’s              About 11 percent is in cropland and 8 percent in
Summit and Raytown.                                      pasture. The county has four cities, and most of
                                                         the county is within these cities of Kansas City,
Platte County, Mo.                                       Edwardsville, Bonner Springs and Lake Quivira.
About 60 percent of Platte County’s land area
is devoted to agriculture and used as cropland
and pasture. Chief crops include corn, soybeans,
sorghum, wheat, hay and tobacco. The county’s
principal communities include a portion of Kansas
City, Platte City, Parkville and Riverside, all in the
southern part of the county.

Ray County, Mo.
About 68 percent of Ray County’s land area is
devoted to agriculture and covered by cropland
and pasture. Major crops include corn, soybeans,
sorghum, wheat and hay. Principal communities
in Ray County include a portion of Excelsior
Springs, Hardin, Lawson, Orrick and Richmond,
the largest community and county seat.

              Planned Land Use in the Greater Kansas City Region

Source: MARC Research Services

National Historic Landmarks                                Stumbaugh Post No. 180 G.A.R. Hall, Austin (6/8/00)

The Kansas City area has a rich cultural heritage,         Clay County, Mo.
exemplified by the many places of historic interest        Aker Cemetery, northeast of Smithville (11/13/74)
and significance across the region.                        Antioch Christian Church, Kansas City (4/02/79)
                                                           Arthur-Leonard Historic District, Liberty (1/4/01)
“National Historic Landmarks make tangible the
                                                           Clardy Heights Historic District, Liberty (1/4/01)
American experience. They are places where                 Claybrook House, Kearney vicinity (12/21/81)
significant historical events occurred, where              Clay County Savings Association Building, Liberty
prominent Americans worked or lived, that                    (12/28/92)
represent those ideas that shaped the nation,              Clinton House, Liberty (11/22/78)
that provide important information about our               Compton, Dr. James, House, Kansas City (7/10/79)
past, or that are outstanding examples of design           Dougherty-Prospect Heights Historic District, Liberty
or construction.” These landmarks can be sites,              (1/4/01)
buildings or objects that have significance and            Elms Hotel, Excelsior Springs (3/29/85)
meaning for most Americans and “possess                    Excelsior Springs Hall of Waters Commercial East
                                                             Historic District, Excelsior Springs (5/27/99)
exceptional value or quality in illustrating and
                                                           Excelsior Springs Hall of Waters Commercial West
interpreting the heritage of the United States.”             Historic District, Excelsior Springs (5/27/99)
There are seven historic sites across the Kansas           Garrison School Historic District, Liberty (1/4/01)
City region that are National Historic Landmarks.          Hall of Waters, Excelsior Springs (6/09/83)
These sites include:                                       Hughes, Frank, Memorial Library, Liberty (12/28/92)
                                                           IOOF Liberty Lodge #49, Liberty (12/28/92)
•	 Fort Osage in Sibley (Jackson County)                   James Brothers’ House and Farm, northeast of Kearney
•	 Mutual Musicians Association Building in                  (3/16/72); boundary increase (9/27/78)
   Kansas City (Jackson County)                            Jewell Hall, Liberty (9/6/78)
                                                           Jewell-Lightburne Historic District, Liberty (1/4/01)
•	 Harry S. Truman Farm Home in Grandview                  Major Hotel, Liberty (12/28/92)
   (Jackson County)                                        Miller Building, Liberty (12/28/92)
•	 Harry S. Truman Historic District in                    Nebo Hill Archaeological Site (3/04/71)
                                                           Odd Fellows Home District, Liberty (9/15/87)
   Independence (Jackson County)
                                                           Sears, Roebuck and Company Warehouse Building,
•	 Watkins Mill north of Excelsior Springs (Clay             North Kansas City (5/9/97)
   County)                                                 South Liberty Courthouse Square Historic District,
                                                             Liberty (12/28/92)
•	 Shawnee Methodist Mission (Johnson County)
                                                           Watkins Mill, northwest of Excelsior Springs (11/13/66)
•	 Fort Leavenworth, (Leavenworth County)                  West Liberty Courthouse Square Historic District,
                                                             Liberty (12/28/92)
National Historic Places                                   Wheeling Corrugating Company Building, North
                                                             Kansas City (10/21/94)
The National Register of Historic Places is the            Woodneath, Kansas City (2/17/78)
federal government’s official list of historic
properties worthy of preservation. Listed below,           Jackson County, Mo.
by county, are the region’s historic properties,           18th and Vine Historic District, Kansas City (9/9/91)
historic districts and archeological sites on the          Ambassador Hotel Historic District, Kansas City
National Register of Historic Places. Dates in               (2/17/83)
parentheses are dates that sites were added to the         Attucks School, Kansas City (9/9/91)
National Register of Historic Places.                      Baker-Vawter Building, Kansas City (5/5/00)
                                                           Bellerive Hotel, Kansas City (2/28/80)
Cass County, Mo.                                           Benton, Thomas Hart, House and Studio, Kansas City
Brown, Robert A., House, north of Harrisonville              (11/21/80)
  (6/15/70)                                                Beth Shalom Synagogue, Kansas City (9/9/82)
Harrisonville Courthouse Square Historic District,         Bingham-Waggoner Home and Estate, , Independence
  (4/08/94)                                                  (5/22/80)
O’Bannon Homestead, northeast of Garden City               Bixby, Walter E., House, Kansas City (11/21/78)
  (7/03/79)                                                Blue Mills, Independence (4/21/94)
Street Peter’s Episcopal Church, Harrisonville (9/09/82)

Boley Building, Kansas City (3/9/71)                        Building, Kansas City (5/08/85)
Bonfils Building, Kansas City (3/22/84)                   Gumbel Building, Kansas City (1/25/79)
BMA Tower, Kansas City (8/21/02)                          Harris, Col. John, House, Kansas City (10/18/72)
Bryant Building, Kansas City (4/24/89)                    Helping Hand Institute Building, Kansas City (5/5/00)
Bryant, Dr. John S. Jr. and Harriet Smart, House,         Henderson, Dr. Generous, House, Kansas City
  Independence (5/21/92)                                    (2/28/79)
Bunker Building, Kansas City (9/5/75)                     Hook, Mary Rockwell, House, Kansas City (9/8/83)
Byram’s Ford Historic District, Kansas City (10/16/89)    Hotel Phillips, Kansas City (6/4/79)
Cave Spring, Kansas City (8/10/78)                        Houses by Mary Rockwell Hook, Kansas City (9/8/83)
Chambers Building, Kansas City (12/28/01)                 Howe, Frank M., Residence, Kansas City (4/18/85)
Chappell, Philip E., House, Kansas City (8/3/90)          Hughes, Mollie and Josephine, House, Independence
Chicago Apartments, Kansas City (9/11/80)                   (4/7/94)
Circle Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)                 Hyde Park Historic District, Kansas City (11/21/80)
City Bank Building, Kansas City (2/17/83)                 Ivanhoe Masonic Temple, Kansas City (5/2/85)
Coates House Hotel, Kansas City (2/23/72)                 Jackson County Courthouse, Independence (10/18/72)
Coca-Cola Building, Kansas City (8/18/88)                 Jackson County Jail and Marshal’s House,
Columbia Building, Kansas City (5/5/00)                     Independence (6/15/70)
Continental Hotel, Kansas City (8/8/83)                   Janssen Place Historic District, Kansas City (11/7/76)
Corrigan, Bernard, House, Kansas City (1/18/78)           Jenkins Music Company Building, Kansas City (3/2/79)
Corrigan, Thomas, Building, Kansas City (9/16/82)         Jensen-Salsbery Laboratories, Kansas City (7/16/85)
Crestwood Historic District, Kansas City (10/8/98)        Jones, Lewis, House, Independence (4/21/94)
Crossroad Historic Freight District, Kansas City          Kansas City Athenaem, Kansas City (10/11/79)
  (12/22/00)                                              Kansas City Club Building, Kansas City (11/19/02)
Curtiss, Louis, Studio Building, Kansas City (6/19/72)    Kansas City Livestock Exchange, Kansas City (4/5/84)
Disney, Walt, House and Garage, Kansas City               Kansas City Masonic Temple, Kansas City (11/14/80)
  (5/22/78)                                               Kansas City, Missouri Western Union Telegraph
District I (Armour Boulevard), Kansas City (7/28/83)        Building, Kansas City (2/12/03)
District I (Hotels in Downtown Kansas City), Kansas       Kansas City Power and Light Company Building,
  City (8/8/83)                                             Kansas City (1/9/03)
District II (Armour Boulevard), Kansas City (7/28/83)     Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City (5/23/77)
District III (Armour Boulevard), Kansas City (7/28/83)    Kansas City Terminal Railway Company Roundhouse
Dorson Apartment Building, Kansas City (5/5/87)             Historic District, Kansas City (1/26/01)
Elmwood Cemetery, Kansas City (7/28/83)                   Kansas City Water Department Building, Kansas City
Ellsworth Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)                (4/7/94)
Emery, Bird and Thayer Building, (1/7/72)                 Keith, Charles S., House, Kansas City (03/31/00)
  (Demolished)                                            Kelly’s Westport Inn, Kansas City (9/7/72)
Faultless Starch Company Building, Kansas City            Kessler Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)
  (5/9/02)                                                Kirkwood Building, Kansas City (7/25/01)
Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company Building,        Kritser House, Independence (4/10/85)
  Kansas City (8/14/97)                                   Land Bank Building, Kansas City (1/18/85)
Fire Department Headquarters; Fire Station #2, Kansas     Lewis-Webb House, Independence (2/6/86)
  City (9/2/82)                                           Liberty Memorial, Kansas City (10/6/00)
Firestone Building, Kansas City (1/3/86)                  Liquid Carbonic Company Building, Kansas City
Floyd, Jacobs, House, Kansas City (9/8/83)                  (4/29/94)
Fort Osage, north of Sibley (10/15/66)                    Loew’s Midland Theater-Midland Building, Kansas City
Fort Osage Archaeological District (3/17/72)                (9/28/77)
Four Gates Farm, Kansas City (7/15/91)                    Long, R. A., Building, Kansas City (1/8/03)
Fowler, Henry T. House, Kansas City (7/28/83)             Long, R. A., House, Kansas City (11/14/80)
Gate City National Building, Kansas City (9/2/82)         Longview Farm, Lee’s Summit (10/24/85)
Georgen, John and Adele, House, Independence              Loose, Jacob, House, Kansas City (7/28/83)
  (5/5/00)                                                Loretto Academy, Kansas City (7/28/83)
German Evangelical Pastors’ Home Historic District,       Love, Emily Rockwell, House, Kansas City (9/8/83)
  Blue Springs (10/13/88)                                 McConahay Building, Kansas City (5/22/78)
Gloyd Building, Kansas City (7/25/85)                     McIntire, Levi, House, Kansas City (7/28/83)
Goodenow Textiles Company Building, Kansas City           McMahon Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)
  (4/18/03)                                               Maine Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)
Grand Avenue Temple and Grand Avenue Temple               Majors, Alexander, House, Kansas City (4/3/70)

Maples Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)                Street Mary’s Episcopal Church, Kansas City (11/7/78)
Maryland Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)              Street Paul’s Episcopal Church, Lee’s Summit (10/3/85)
Meyer, August, House, Kansas City (9/09/82)              St. Teresa’s Academy Music and Arts Building, Kansas
Mineral Hall, Kansas City (7/12/76)                        City (11/15/00)
Minor, Charles, House, Independence (3/22/84)            Santa Fe Place Historic District, Kansas City (5/30/86)
Missouri Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)              Santa Few Trail – Minor Park, Kansas City (6/30/94)
Missouri Pacific Depot, Independence (1/29/79)           Santa Fe Trail – Santa Fe Trail Park, Independence
Mutual Musician’s Foundation Building, Kansas City         (4/21/94)
  (2/7/79)                                               Savoy Hotel and Grill, Kansas City (12/30/74)
Myers, George J., House, Kansas City (7/28/83)           Scarritt Building and Arcade, Kansas City (3/9/71)
National Bank of Commerce Building, Kansas City          Scarritt, Edward Lucky, House, Kansas City (5/23/77)
  (5/5/99)                                               Scarritt, Rev. Nathan, House, Kansas City (5/8/78)
National Garage, Kansas City (5/5/00)                    Scarritt, William Chick, House, Kansas City (3/21/78)
Nettleton, George H., Home, Kansas City (10/14/99)       Scarritt Point North Historic District, Kansas City
New England Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)             (12/1/97)
New York Life Building, Kansas City (7/8/70)             Scarritt Point South Historic District, Kansas City
Newbern Hotel, Kansas City (9/23/80)                       (12/1/97)
Newcomer’s, D. W., Sons Funeral Home, Kansas City        Sewall Paint and Glass Company Building, Kansas City
  (8/9/83)                                                 (5/9/02)
Noland, Smallwood V., House, Independence                Shelley, William Francis, House, Kansas City (3/17/78)
  (4/21/94)                                              Simpson-Yeomans Country Side Historic District,
Old New England Building, Kansas City (10/25/73)           Kansas City (9/06/84; boundary increase 5/26/00)
Old Town Historic District, Kansas City (6/7/78)         Sophian Plaza, Kansas City (7/5/83)
Ostertag, Robert, House, Kansas City (9/8/83)            South Side Historic District, Kansas City (6/9/83)
Overfelt-Campbell-Johnston House, Independence           Standard Theatre, Kansas City (6/5/74)
  (9/5/75)                                               Stine and McClure Undertaking Company Building,
Owens-McCoy House, Independence (4/21/94)                  Kansas City (7/19/90)
Palace Clothing Company Building, Kansas City            Temple Block Building, Kansas City (6/19/85)
  (1/18/85)                                              Temple Site, Independence (9/22/70)
Parkview, The, Kansas City (10/22/02)                    Tocama, Kansas City (11/24/82)
Paseo YMCA, Kansas City (9/09/91)                        Toll, Alfred, House, Kansas City (7/28/83)
Peck, George B., Dry Goods Company Building,             Townley Metal and Hardware Company Building,
  Kansas City (4/30/80)                                    Kansas City (4/14/94; additional documentation
Peppard, Joseph Grear, House, Kansas City (3/26/85)        1/24/01)
Pilgrim Lutheran Church for the Deaf of Greater Kansas   Trinity Episcopal Church, Independence (4/27/79)
  City and Parsonage, Kansas City (1/25/01)              Tromanhauser, Norman, House, Kansas City (1/26/01)
Pink House (Residential Structures by Mary Rockwell      Truman, Harry S., Historic District, Independence
  Hook), Kansas City (9/8/83)                              (11/11/71)
President Gardens Apartments Historic District, Kansas   Truman, Harry S., National Historic Site, Independence
  City (12/10/98)                                          (5/31/85)
President Hotel, Kansas City (8/8/83)                    TWA Corporate Headquarters Building, Kansas City
Professional Building, Kansas City (7/17/79)               (11/20/02)
Quality Hill, Kansas City (7/7/78)                       Union Station, Kansas City (2/1/72)
Repp, William D., House, Kansas City (7/28/83)           Unity School of Christianity Historic District, Unity
Rice-Tremonti House, Raytown (3/2/79)                      Village (4/12/89)
Richards and Conover Hardware Company, Kansas            Uptown Building and Theatre, Kansas City (6/27/79)
  City; (1/21/99)                                        Vaile, Harvey M., Mansion, Independence (10/1/69)
Rockhill Neighborhood, Kansas City (7/21/75)             Van Noy, Ira C. and Charles S., House, Kansas City
Rockwell, Bertrand, House, 1004 W. 52nd Street,            (7/8/87)
  Kansas City (9/8/83)                                   Virginia Apartments, Kansas City (10/22/02)
Row House Building, Kansas City (5/22/78; boundary       Volker, William, House, Kansas City (5/20/93)
  increase 1/15/85)                                      Waldo Water Tower, Kansas City (4/18/77)
Sacred Heart Church, School and Rectory, Kansas City     Walnut Street Warehouse and Commercial Historic
  (11/14/78)                                               District, Kansas City (9/17/99)
Safeway Stores and Office and Warehouse Building,        Waltower Building, Kansas City (8/8/01)
  Kansas City (5/5/00)                                   Ward, Seth E., Homestead, Kansas City (2/17/78)
                                                         Warner, Maj. William, House, Kansas City (5/23/77)

Webster School, Kansas City (9/2/82)                        Ott, Albert, House, Olathe (4/1/98)
West 11th Street Historic District, Kansas City (9/9/82)    Overland Theater, Overland Park (2/9/05)
West 9th Street—Baltimore Avenue Historic District,         Parker, Martin Van Buren, House, Olathe (8/29/88)
  Kansas City (11/7/76; boundary increase 11/20/02)         Pickering, I.O., House, Olathe (12/1/80)
Westminster Congregational Church, Kansas City              Redel Historic District, Stilwell (8/16/96)
  (2/28/80)                                                 Shawnee Methodist Mission, Fairway (5/23/68)
Wholesale District, Kansas City (10/25/79)                  Turner (William Thomas) Barn, Gardner (4/1/99)
William S. Mitchell (boat), Kansas City (10/9/85)           Virginia School District #33, Shawnee (5/19/04)
  (destroyed by flood in July 1993)                         Voights (Herman J. and Ella B.) House, Leawood
Woodson-Sawyer House, Independence (3/20/86)                  (5/18/95)
Wornall, John B., House, Kansas City (5/21/69)              WPA Beach House at Gardner Lake, Gardner (6/25/92)
Young, Solomon, Farm, Grandview (5/5/78)                    Wolcott House, Mission Hills (5/2/01)
Platte County, Mo.                                          Leavenworth County, Kan.
Babcock Site, address restricted (11/15/73)                 AXA Building, Leavenworth (3/16/72)
Benjamin Bannaker School, Parkville (9/22/95)               Abernathy Furniture Company Factory, Leavenworth
Deister Archaeological Site, address restricted (1/21/70)     (10/12/04)
Krause, Frederick, Mansion, Platte City (5/22/78)           Angell, A.J., House, Leavenworth (11/17/77)
MacKay Building, Park College, Parkville (4/6/79)           Arch Street Historic District, Leavenworth (7/3/02)
McCormick Distillery, Weston (4/16/74)                      Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Passenger
Platte County Courthouse, Platte City (1/17/79)               Depot, Leavenworth (6/11/86)
Pleasant Ridge United Baptist Church, near Weston           Begley Bridge, Millwood vicinity (5/9/03)
  (3/13/02)                                                 Brewer, David J., House, Leavenworth (2/23/72)
Renner Village Archaeological Site, address restricted      Burt, Nathaniel H., House, Leavenworth (10/27/87)
  (4/16/69)                                                 Caenen Site 14LV1083, Tonganoxie vicinity (9/6/05)
Scott, Charles Smith, Memorial Observatory, Parkville       Carroll, Edward, House, Leavenworth (10/02/86)
  (5/29/92)                                                 Evans Site, Tonganoxie Vicinity (10/28/04)
Sugar Creek Site, address restricted (12/12/73)             First Presbyterian Church, Leavenworth (01/11/06)
Waddell “A” Truss Bridge, Parkville (1/25/91)               Fort Leavenworth, (10/15/66 )
Washington Chapel C.M.E. Church, Parkville (8/31/92)        Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, Fort
Weston Historic District, Weston (8/21/72)                    Leavenworth (7/15/99)
                                                            Harris, Senator William A., House, Linwood (11/5/74)
Ray County, Mo.                                             Harvey, Fred, House, Leavenworth (4/26/72)
Dougherty Auditorium (Farris Theater), Richmond             Hollywood Theater, Leavenworth (10/25/90)
  (9/16/82)                                                 Hund School, Leavenworth (3/9/00)
Mansur, Isaiah, Farmstead Historic District, Richmond       Insley, Merritt, House and Outbuildings, Leavenworth
  vicinity (8/14/98)                                          (10/2/86)
New Hope Primitive Baptist Church, southwest of             Lansing Man Archeological Site, Lansing (3/24/71)
  Richmond (11/14/80)                                       Leavenworth County Courthouse, Leavenworth
Ray County Courthouse, Richmond (10/11/79)                    (4/26/02)
Ray County Poor Farm (Ray County Historical Society         Leavenworth Downtown Historic District,
  & Museum), Richmond (7/10/79)                               Leavenworth (4/26/02)
Watkins House, Richmond (2/10/83)                           Leavenworth Historic Industrial District, Leavenworth
Johnson County, Kan.                                        Leavenworth Public Library, Leavenworth (7/30/86)
Blackfeather Farm, Stilwell (8/22/96)                       North Broadway Historic District, Leavenworth
Ensor Farm, Olathe (2/27/04)                                  (7/3/02)
Foster, Herman D. House (Gardner Historical                 North Esplanade Historic District, Leavenworth
  Museum), Gardner (11/28/07)                                 (12/12/77)
Horn-Vincent-Russell Estate, Mission Hills (7/25/97)        Paul Site 14LV1043, Tonganoxie vicinity (9/6/05)
Lanesfield School, Edgerton (10/13/88)                      Powers, David, House, Leavenworth (8/30/77)
Lanter, Franklin R., House, Olathe (10/10/07)               Quarry Creek Archeological Site, Fort Leavenworth
Loomis Historic District, Merriam (5/17/06)                   (4/23/73)
Mahaffie, J.B., House, Olathe (8/29/77)                     Scott Site, Tonganoxie Vicinity (10/29/04)
Majors (Alexander) House, Leawood (12/29/70)                South Esplanade Historic District, Leavenworth (7/3/02)
McCarthy (John) House, Edgerton (7/10/00)                   Third Avenue Historic District, Leavenworth (7/3/02)
                                                            Union Depot (Old), Leavenworth (3/11/82)

Union Park Historic District, Leavenworth (7/3/02)       Grinter Place, Kansas City (1/25/71)
Western Branch, National Home for Disabled               Hanover Heights Neighborhood Historic District,
  Volunteer Soldiers, Leavenworth (4/30/99)                Kansas City (5/17/90)
Zacharias Archeological Site, Leavenworth (1/8/87)       Huron Cemetery, Kansas City (9/3/71)
                                                         Lake of the Forest Historic District, Bonner Springs
Miami County, Kan.                                         (1/22/96)
Asylum Bridge, Osawatomie (1/4/90)                       Lowell Elementary School, Kansas City (1/31/08)
Brown, John, Cabin, Osawatomie (3/24/71)                 Northeast Junior High School, Kansas City (10/16/08)
Carey’s Ford Bridge, Rantoul (1/4/90)                    Quindaro Townsite, Kansas City (5/22/02)
Creamery Bridge, Osawatomie (3/10/83)                    Rosedale World War I Memorial Arch, Kansas City
Hillsdale Archeological District, Hillsdale (5/12/77)      (8/2/77)
Jackson Hotel, Paola (7/9/08)                            Sauer Castle, Kansas City (8/2/77)
Jake’s Branch of Middle Creek Bridge, Louisburg          Schleifer-McAlpine House, Kansas City (10/10/07)
  (7/2/85)                                               Scottish Rite Temple, Kansas City (9/11/85)
Miami County Courthouse, Paola (3/1/73)                  Shafer (Theodore) House, Kansas City (2/18/00)
Mills, William, House, Osawatomie (11/20/86)             Shawnee Street Overpass, Kansas City (3/8/84)
Pottawatomie Creek Bridge, Osawatomie (3/10/83)          Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Building, Kansas City
Wyandotte County, KS                                     St. Augustine Hall, Kansas City (2/24/71)
Argentine Carnegie Library, Kansas City (4/30/86)        Sumner High School and Athletic Field, Kansas City
Bonner Springs High School, Bonner Springs (7/11/02)       (9/6/05)
Castle Rock, Kansas City (2/18/00)                       Trowbridge Archeological Site, Kansas City (2/24/71)
City Hall and Fire Headquarters, Kansas City (4/25/86)   Westheight Manor Historic District, Kansas City
Fairfax Hills Historic District (Parkwood Estates),        (2/19/82)
  Kansas City (6/30/07)                                  Whitefeather Spring, Kansas City (8/27/75)
Fire Station No. 9, Kansas City (9/05/85)                Williamson, Roy, House, Edwardsville (4/18/07)
Gates, Judge Louis, House, Kansas City (12/01/80)        Wyandotte County Courthouse, Kansas City (4/26/02)
Granada Theater, Kansas City (2/9/05)                    Wyandotte High School, Kansas City (4/30/86)

  Analysis of Economic Challenges and Opportunities

        he financial crisis of 2008 has sent the U.S.    seriously has weakened consumer confidence as
        economy into uncharted territory. As of          homeowners watched their wealth erode in just a
        second quarter 2009, the U.S. economy is         few months time.
in its third consecutive quarter of contraction. The     Unfortunately, the decline in the housing market
national unemployment rate stands at 8.1 percent,        soon spread to the rest of the financial sector.
the highest rate since 1983. Even the most               Most mortgages were securitized and sold to
optimistic forecasts are calling for the economy         institutions and investors around the world. As
to contract until late 2009, and the employment          defaults grew, these securities became worth
picture to worsen until 2010.                            much less than was paid for them. Ultimately,
The economic downturn was precipitated, in               capital markets froze, and they still are not
large part, by defaults in the sub-prime mortgage        working properly despite the best efforts of the
market as adjustable rate mortgages were reset.          Federal Reserve, the Treasury and the FDIC.
The defaults subsequently impacted the rest of           With banks and other financial institutions not
the housing market. Housing starts are down              lending, consumers not spending and businesses
79 percent from a January 2006 peak and home             not borrowing, the result has been a world-wide
values have declined 28 percent nationally since         recession of a magnitude and scope not seen
peaking in May 2006. This loss in value has              since the Great Depression.

                     Change in Jobs by Industry in the Kansas City Region



           TCPU              2007 Q4–2008 Q4
                             2008 Q4–2009 Q4
                             2009 Q4–2010 Q4






                           -20,000     -15,000     -10,000      -5,000        0        5,000      10,000
Source: MARC and REMI (Regional Economic Models Inc.)

                                      Housing Index by Metro Area

Source: Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight

Because of the depth, breadth and length of the          As bad as this recession is, Kansas City is
recession, it is no surprise that all parts of the       expected to rebound slightly faster than the U.S.
nation, are feeling its impact. Kansas City is no        as a whole. Many Sunbelt metros saw housing
exception. The region is expected to mirror the          values rise dramatically between 2002 and 2006
national economy as it contracts throughout              before the housing bubble popped. The Office of
most of 2009 before showing some slow growth             Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight estimates
rates in the fourth quarter and into 2010. On the        that home values in Las Vegas have declined 37
employment front, the region is expected to lose         percent since the end of 2006. Miami saw a 25
approximately 50,000 jobs between the middle of          percent decline. Kansas City area homes only
2008 and 2010.                                           declined 2 percent, so area homeowners have
These employment losses will be felt across all          not experienced the sudden loss of wealth to the
industries, with the exception of government             degree that homeowners in some other parts of
employment, which is expected to see modest              the country have.
growth over the next two years. The service              Also, Kansas City’s major banks have traditionally
industry makes up more than 40 percent of the            been more conservative in their lending practices.
region’s total employment, and typically leads           This serves them well in the current environment,
all industries in employment growth. During              as Kansas City banks are less exposed to the
this recession, services are expected to lose over       financial problems caused by questionable
15,000 jobs, more than any other industry. Job           mortgages.
losses of over 5,000 are expected in each of the         Additionally, the region’s greater stability can be
following industries: manufacturing, construction,       attributed to some basic characteristics of Kansas
retail and finance. Modest employment growth             City’s economy, including its relatively low cost
is expected in 2010, led by the service industry,        of living, its above-average labor productivity and
which should gain of about 7,000 jobs.                   its association with basic industries such as food
                                                         production and distribution.

Structure of the Economy and Labor Force                 Additional high-intensity employment corridors
Geographically, the Kansas City region no longer         include the I-35 corridor to the southwest through
has a single center of economic activity. Instead,       Johnson County, the I-435/College Boulevard
the activity is stretched out along corridors that       corridor running east-west in south Johnson
tend to follow the Interstate highway system.            County, and the I-29 corridor running northeast
                                                         from downtown to the airport. These corridors
Employment is most concentrated in the original          and their respective employment levels are shown
Central Business corridor, a spine that runs from        in the map and table on the next page.
the Missouri River on the north to the Country
Club Plaza area on the south.

                                  Employment Density, 2000

Source: InfoUSA, edited and mapped by MARC

                          KC Region Major Employment Corridors

Source: MARC, Kansas City Star

               Employment in High-Intensity Employment Corridors

 Source: InfoUSA, 2000 Census, tabulated by MARC. TAZ stands for Transportation Analysis Zone as defined
 for the 2000 Census. Though the two sources use different methods — InfoUSA surveys businesses about their
 payrolls while the Census asks residents about their principal job — the two sources produce similar results.

As in most areas of the country, workers in the                                 dropped to 39 percent. Those with a bachelor’s
Kansas City region are becoming more educated.                                  degree or higher increased from roughly a quarter
As recently as 1990, about half the region’s adults                             of the population to one-third.
had not completed any college. By 2006, that had

      Educational Attainment, 1990 and 2006 (Metropolitan Kansas City)

                                                       Graduate or
                                                          degree                              Less than High
                                                            8%                                   School

                               Bachelor's degree


                                                                                                        High School

                                      Some College No


                                                 Graduate or
                                             professional degree                     Less than High School
                                                     11%                                      11%

                             Bachelor's degree

                                                                                                         High School

                                 Associate's degree

                                                                   Some College No

    Source: 1990 Census and 2006 American Community Survey, US Census Bureau

Most of the region’s employees work in       Transportation and production occupations round
service-related occupations, led by office   out the top five largest categories for the region,
and administrative support, sales, and       indicating the region retains some strength in its
food preparation and serving occupations.    historic industrial base.

            Occupational Employment, 2006 (Metropolitan Kansas City)

    Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

A more interesting picture emerges if we examine                that occupation. If local growth matches national
the occupational structure relative to the U.S.,                growth, the change in share is zero. If the
both in terms of growth and in terms of degree                  occupation grows faster locally than nationally (or
of concentration. Location quotients measure                    if it declines less rapidly in the case of shrinking
the degree of relative concentration — that is,                 occupations), then the local share of that
an occupation’s share of the local labor market                 occupation’s employment will grow. Conversely,
relative to its share of the national labor market.             the local share diminishes when either national
For example, if locally 20 percent of workers are               growth exceeds local growth or decline nationally
employed in a given occupation, while nationally                is less than decline locally.
the share is 10 percent, this yields a location                 Placing location quotient on the y-axis and
quotient of 2.                                                  percent change in share on the x-axis, the
To measure growth in an occupation locally                      following picture of the region’s occupational
versus nationally, one can examine changes in                   structure emerges:
the local share of the national employment in

      Relative Occupational Concentration (2006) and Growth, 1999-2006

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics. The average annual wages are classified into four groups, high (greater than $50,000,
shown in red), middle (between $35,000 and $50,000, shown in orange), low-middle (between $25,000 and $35,000,
shown in green) and low (less than $25,000, shown in blue). Legal occupations are not shown because they appear to
have undergone some kind of definitional change between 1999 and 2001.

The Kansas City region’s total occupational             significance taking place there, to Columbia,
employment is reflected by the size of the              Missouri. This corridor contains 100 businesses
“bubble.” In addition, occupational wages are           whose parent companies comprise one-third of
classified by color, with higher incomes shown          the total animal health market. The most recent
in “hotter” colors and lower incomes shown in           success was the announcement of a new $40
“cooler” ones.                                          million lab in Olathe, Kansas, for Fort Dodge
The four quadrants are classified into areas of         Animal Health focusing on the research and
strength, weakness, opportunities and threats.          development of new vaccines and medicines.
Strengths are where the region has a relatively         The region’s other opportunities may not truly
high concentration in occupations that are              reflect regional strengths, however. Growth
growing more rapidly here than average.                 in protective services and social services, for
Weaknesses are the opposite — both low                  example, may indicate that the problems of
growth and low specialization. The region has           crime and social isolation here are growing faster
opportunities in occupations that are growing           here than elsewhere.
more rapidly here than average, but still have          The region’s largest specialization is in computer
a lower than average degree of concentration.           occupations. This is largely the result of DST,
Conversely, the region is threatened most by            a firm performing a large portion of the data
occupations in which it has a significant               processing for the financial industry, and Cerner,
specialty, but in which it is performing worse          a leading firm in the move to computerize health
than the nation.                                        records. In addition, Garmin, the nation’s leading
Based on this classification, it appears the Kansas     supplier of GPS equipment, employs significant
City region has neither exceptional strengths nor       numbers of programmers to increase the ease
exceptional weaknesses. Its strongest occupations       of use and market penetration of their devices.
are architects and engineers, reflecting a              While the region retains a significant specialty
concentration of such firms locally, as well as         in computer occupations, those occupations are
arts and entertainment, reflecting the presence         unexpectedly growing slower than the nation.
of Hallmark’s headquarters and associated               Now that the decline in management occupations
spin-off firms.                                         has turned what was only a threat into an actual
The region’s weakness of greatest concern is            weakness, the decline in the relative growth of
management occupations, which are high-paying           computer occupations makes their performance
occupations growing significantly slower here           the region’s biggest current threat.
than nationally. In addition, while not shown           Additionally, it is worrisome that the region’s
on the chart, as recently as 2001, management           second largest specialization, that of business and
occupations were more concentrated here than            financial occupations, is also growing slower than
nationally — similar to business and financial          here than nationally. The threat posed by these
occupations — whereas by 2006, they were less.          two sectors is magnified by the fact that they are
This is probably due to the downsizing occurring        also among the region’s highest-paid occupations,
at Sprint-Nextel, but other regional headquarters       as is its biggest weakness, management
have also struggled or vanished, such as Interstate     occupations.
Bakeries and Farmland Industries.                       The local workforce investment strategies
The region’s largest opportunity is in life sciences.   discussed within the CEDS, referred to as the
Though this sector is still a smaller-than-average      One KC WIRED Region Industry Profile, were
employer here compared to other parts of the            jointly developed by the Missouri Economic
nation, it is growing much faster and its location      Research and Information Center and the
quotient is increasing. In large part, this is due to   Kansas Department of Commerce’s Division of
the multi-billion dollar endowment of the Stowers       Workforce Development.
Institute and an economic development strategy
that has focused on creating an animal health
corridor stretching from Manhattan, Kansas,
drawing on the agricultural research of national

A similar analysis can be conducted for industries.                                 responsible for 25 percent of the region’s total
The services industry is the largest employer in                                    output.
the Kansas City economy with 41 percent of                                          The service industry is followed by the finance,
the total. Government and retail follow with 13                                     insurance and real estate industry, with 19
percent and 11 percent, respectively. No other                                      percent of the region’s output. Even though
sector has more than 10 percent of the region’s                                     manufacturing accounts for just 6 percent of the
employment.                                                                         region’s employment, its high level of productivity
Output, which is roughly equivalent to sales,                                       compared to services results in a 19 percent share
shows a somewhat different picture. The services                                    of output, matching that of the finance, insurance
industry is still the largest sector, but it is only                                and real estate sector. A similar story holds true

                           Estimated Employment by Industry, 2006
                            Employment by Industry
                                                                                  Other   Manuufacturing
                                                                                   2%          6%






                            Source: MARC, REMI
                            FIRE = Finance, Insurance and Real
                            TPU = Transportation and Public Utilities

                         Source: REMI model, MARC

                                      Estimated Output by Industry, 2006
                           Output by Industry



                                                     18.8%                                                   Information

                           Source: MARC, REMI
                                                                         Retail            Wholesale
                           FIRE = Finance, Insurance and Real            6.6%               6.9%
                           TPU = Transportation and Public Utilities

                          Source: REMI model, MARC

for the information industry, which includes                                                                          The Kansas City region’s biggest threat comes
telecommunications. Despite the troubles of                                                                           from the information industry. The region has the
Sprint-Nextel, information still accounts for 13                                                                      highest location quotient in this sector among
percent of the region’s total output, even though it                                                                  large metropolitan areas in the U.S. due to the
only employs 4 percent of its workers.                                                                                presence of Sprint-Nextel’s operations center in
Using the same kind of graph for industries as                                                                        suburban Overland Park, Kansas, which currently
was used for occupations to examine strengths,                                                                        employs 13,000 people. This industry is highly
weaknesses, opportunities and threats, what is                                                                        competitive and, since 2001, has seen some
immediately apparent is that over the 2001-2006                                                                       consolidation nationally. In the Kansas City
period, no industry was a source of significant                                                                       region, the Information sector lost over 10,000
strength. The “bubbles” in the graph below are                                                                        jobs between 2001 and 2006, most of which have
decidedly weighted to left, signifying more threats                                                                   been at Sprint-Nextel.
and weaknesses during this period than strengths
and opportunities.

  Relative Industry Concentration (2006) and Employment Growth, 2001-2006
                                                                                      Kansas City Economy 2001-2006

                            Threats - High Specialization, Low Growth                                                                                             Strengths - High Specialization, High Growth



  Location Quotient

                                                                                      Fed Civilian
                                                              Transp, Wrhsng.
                                                                                                                              Finance, Ins.
                                                                                                 Arts, Enter, Rec
                                                               Wholesale                                                             Prof, Tech Svcs
                                     Mgmt. of Co.

                                                                                Health Care                      State & Local Gov

                                                                                                                0.8                                                                                  Mfg.
                                                                                                 Fed Military                                 Educational Svcs.


                           Weaknesses - Low Specialization, Low Growth                                                                                    Opportunities - Low Specialization, High Growth

                      -15.00%                       -10.00%                  -5.00%                               0.00%                             5.00%                          10.00%                        15.00%
                                                                                                Change in National Share

Source: MARC, REMI.

Due to its centrality, the transportation and          Special Initiatives
warehousing industry remains another area of           Two community development efforts are
specialization for the region. Unfortunately, it       bringing local officials together to support
too is categorized as a threat since transportation    economic development in older portions of
employment growth has not kept up with the rest        the metropolitan area.
of the nation. However, both BNSF and Kansas
City Southern railways are investing heavily in        The first effort, the First Suburbs Coalition, was
constructing new intermodal freight centers.           initiated in 2002 by the Mid-America Regional
Once completed, this threat should return to the       Council to help local officials with common
strengths quadrant.                                    community challenges share information.
Even some rapidly growing industries have              First suburbs are communities where a majority
underperformed the nation. The health care             of the housing was built just after World War II
industry appears to be growing slower than the         and limited undeveloped land exists within
nation despite adding some 10,000 jobs since           city boundaries.
2001. Moreover, this industry does not comprise        These communities are now experiencing some of
as large a share of the regional economy,              the issues that have plagued core cities, including
compared to the rest of the nation, despite serving    businesses moving out and declining retail sales,
as a regional health center for the surrounding        increases in rental housing, stagnant or declining
rural areas. This implies that either health care is   housing values, and issues related to maintaining
delivered more efficiently here, or service levels     their infrastructure.
may be lower than in other metropolitan areas
                                                       Neighborhoods with these issues do not
around the country.
                                                       always fall neatly within a given community
Surprisingly, manufacturing appears to be the          so, for example, the cities of Independence
region’s biggest opportunity. It is important to       and Overland Park have large sections of their
realize, however, that local manufacturing’s           communities that are classified as first suburbs,
superior performance relative to national growth       but they also have sections that are growing and
trends is the result of its employment levels          considered new suburbs. Core cities, such as
declining slower here than nationally. In fact,        Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas,
the industry lost 3,000 jobs between 2001 and          also have neighborhoods that fall into the first
2006. Nonetheless, the region’s strength in            suburb categorization. The coalition has grown
manufacturing springs from its relatively high         in the number of participating communities. The
rate of productivity, with workers here producing      First Suburbs Coalition consists of the following
about 40 percent more output per hour than the         communities:
national average. This productivity continues to
                                                       Kansas                 Missouri
be rewarded by area manufacturers, even those
in the process of downsizing nationally. For           Fairway                Gladstone
example, Ford has closed or idled 10 plants in the     Merriam                Grandview
last several years, and has plans to do the same       Mission                Independence
for six more. However, Ford chose Kansas City’s        Mission Hills          North Kansas City
Claycomo plant as one of the five that will get        Mission Woods          Raytown
new “flexible” body shops that allow it to produce     Overland Park          Riverside
more than one model on the same production             Prairie Village        Sugar Creek
line. This makes it highly likely that Ford will not   Roeland Park
close the Claycomo plant within the foreseeable        Westwood
future. In addition, the region has several            Westwood Hills
initiatives to promote advanced manufacturing,
which uses technology to overcome the labor cost
advantage in developing countries.

In aggregate, almost 50 percent of the housing        has helped leverage more than $4.5 million
in First Suburbs communities was built between        in cleanup and more than $100 million in
1940 and 1970. Coalition members represent            redevelopment funding to restore urban area
almost 25 percent of the metropolitan area’s          brownfields properties.
population.                                           The city of Kansas City, Mo., has focused on the
The First Suburbs Coalition has identified            Central Industrial District at the confluence of
three key issues that form the basis for the          the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. One of the more
organization’s agenda:                                successful projects is the Westside Industrial Park,
•	 Modernizing housing stock, which was               which includes the transformation of a 22-acre
   principally built in the years following the       rail yard and historic railroad roundhouse.
   second World War. This housing stock is             The two communities have assessed over 350
   often smaller than current standards, does not     properties for redevelopment potential. A number
   contain the amenities that are expected in a       of the region’s first suburbs are evaluating older
   modern home, may have been built with lower        manufacturing and warehousing properties to
   quality materials, and often were built on a lot   determine if brownfields programs could assist
   that allows little room for expansion.             in the reuse and redevelopment of vacant or
•	 Retaining and attracting businesses that           underutilized properties.
   serve their communities. Retail businesses,
                                                      Comparison to Peer Metros
   in particular, have moved to more modern
   suburban locations stripping first suburbs of      The prior analysis compares the region to the U.S.
   services and revenue.                              It is also instructive to compare its performance
                                                      against a set of peer metros. These peers were
•	 Maintaining and upgrading old infrastructure
                                                      defined by the Brookings Institution after
   is a key issue for first suburbs. This task is
                                                      conducted a cluster analysis for CEOs for Cities.
   especially difficult when revenue is stagnant or
                                                      MARC incorporated the peer definition into its
                                                      comprehensive set of indicators, Metro Outlook
The First Suburbs Coalition meets quarterly, and      (accessible at
has produced an Idea Book to provide guidance
                                                      The peer metros identified by Brookings are:
to residents who want to modernize the older
modest homes in these communities. A new              •	 Denver
Green Remodeling Idea Book has recently been          •	 Indianapolis
released. The Coalition has worked with an area
                                                      •	 Minneapolis
credit union, Community America, to offer a low-
interest home equity loan to help homeowners          •	 Omaha
with improvements. The Coalition has developed        •	 Salt Lake City
a marketing campaign to promote the older
                                                      Brookings also suggested including Austin as a
suburbs as a location for residents and businesses.
                                                      metro that is in a cluster performing higher than
The second regional effort is the work to identify    Kansas City’s, and St. Louis as an example of a
and promote reinvestment in brownfields.              metro performing in a cluster lower than Kansas
Brownfields are older industrial properties that      City’s.
were contaminated with hazardous chemicals as
                                                      In addition, depending on data availability or
part of the business activity at the site. Many of
                                                      to provide clearer upper and lower bounds to
these properties are in economically depressed
                                                      the data, we sometimes also include Dallas as
parts of the region, and reinvestment in the
                                                      an example of a larger metro with no land
properties is made more challenging due to the
                                                      constraints and Portland as an example of a
environmental mediation that is required.
                                                      metro making a concerted effort to create a
The Unified Government of Wyandotte County/           more compact urban form.
Kansas City, Kansas, has worked with the city
of Kansas City, Missouri, on a Brownfields
Assessment Demonstration Project, which

In 2006, the Kansas City region’s median                                               Those higher median incomes in Denver and
household income was approximately $50,000.                                            Minneapolis are at least partially offset by higher
Most of its peers also had a median income of                                          costs of living. Omaha has the lowest cost of
approximately $50,000. The exceptions are                                              living, followed by Kansas City.
Denver and Minneapolis, with median household
incomes of $55,000 and $60,000, respectively.

                                2006 Median Household Income (Dollars)
                                       Median household income (dollars)




























                 Source: US Census Bureau, 2006 American Community Survey

                                                 2004 Cost ofLiving Index Index
                                                        Cost of






                           Omaha        Kansas City Indianapolis   Dallas       Salt Lake    Austin     St. Louis       Denver   Minneapoli   Portland
                                                                                  City                                           s-St. Paul

              Source: ACCRA

In particular, housing costs are significantly higher      Not only is housing relatively inexpensive in
relative to median incomes in Minneapolis,                 metropolitan Kansas City, residents rate its
Denver and Austin, where roughly 70 percent of             neighborhoods highly.
housing is affordable by the median household.             On a scale of one to 10, a higher proportion of
By contrast, nearly 90 percent of the housing in           residents give their neighborhood a “10” than in
the Kansas City region is affordable by the                any of the region’s peers.
median household, a figure exceeded only
by Indianapolis.

                                      Housing Cost Index, 2004

                Source: National Association of Homebuilders, Housing Opportunity Index

                                   Neighborhood Self-Rating, 2005

                Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Housing Survey, 2005 for Kansas
                City, latest available for other metros

In addition to inexpensive, high-quality                                    economic performance relative to its peers.
neighborhoods, it is also easy to get around                                Though employment grew faster in the Kansas
metropolitan Kansas City by car. Traffic                                    City region than the U.S. average during the
congestion, as measured by the amount of time                               1990s, this rate of growth was still below that of
delayed in traffic, is significantly lower here than                        every peer except for St. Louis. This trend has
among the peer metros.                                                      continued through the first half of the 2000s
While the region ranks high in these quality-of-                            as well.
life factors, the story changes when examining

                            Weeks of Work Delayed in Traffic, 2003

               Source: Texas Transportation Institute

                               Change in Total Non-Farm Employment,
                                           2000-2005 and
                               1990-2000,Employment Change 1990-2005







                          A ustin   Salt Lake City   Denver   M inneapolis-St.   Indianapolis   Omaha   Kansas City   St. Louis
                                                                   P aul

                                                                 1990-2000       2000-2005

               Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

The Kansas City region’s biggest industrial                                       Due to the Kansas City region’s centrality,
specialty is information. It is home to the                                       transportation has been one of its historical
operational headquarters of Sprint-Nextel (and the                                strengths. Here too, however, its 1990s
World Headquarters of Sprint prior to their 2004                                  performance placed it in the middle of its peers,
merger). Even so, its 1990s performance placed                                    while its performance since 2000 means that only
it only in the middle of its peers, and the 10,000                                the St. Louis area added fewer transportation jobs
jobs shed by Sprint-Nextel since 2000 means                                       over the 1990-2005 period.
the region added the fewest jobs over the entire
1990-2005 period among its peers.

                                         Change in Information Employment,
                                        1990-2000, 2000-2005 and 1990-2005
                                            Change in Information Sector Employment









                                  Denver      Austin   Salt Lake   Minneapolis-      Omaha      Indianapolis      St. Louis   Kansas City
                                                         City        St. Paul

                                                               1990-2000     2000-05     1990-2005

              Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

                                       Change in Transportation Employment,
                                       1990-2000, 2000-2005 and 1990-2005
                                      Change in Transportation Sector Employment







                              Indianapolis   Denver    Salt Lake       Austin          Omaha       Minneapolis-     Kansas City     St. Louis
                                                          City                                       St. Paul
                                                                   1990-2000       2000-05     Total

              Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

By contrast, an emerging strength seems to be the                         Future success in this sector may hinge on the
field professional and technical services. Not only                       region’s innovation capacity. Here, the data is
did the Kansas City region perform in the middle                          mixed, at best. The Kansas City area’s percentage
of its peers during the 1990s, since then it has                          of residents with a bachelor’s degree or higher
added the most jobs in this sector.                                       places it in the middle of its peers, though
                                                                          significantly behind Austin, Denver
                                                                          and Minneapolis.

                       Change in Professional/Technical Services
                   Employment, 1990-2000, 2000-2005 and 1990-2005
                            Change in Professional-Technical Services Sector Employment







                           Denver       Austin        Mpls-St.Paul    Kansas City    Salt Lake City       St. Louis       Omaha

                                                              90-2000     2000-05   Overall

               Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

                                Percent of Population Age 25 or Over
                                     with at Least a Bachelor’s Degree
                         Percent of Population Age 25 or Over with a Bachelor's Degree or Higher









                          Austin     Denver      Minneapolis- Kansas City      Omaha          Salt Lake    Indianapolis   St. Louis
                                                   St. Paul                                     City

            Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000

A key component of innovation capacity is a                          Another key component of innovation capacity is
region’s ability to generate business startups.                      a region’s ability to foster entrepreneurship. The
Again, the Kansas City area’s rate of creating new                   data here are only available by state, but it is clear
firms (the heavy blue line with diamond markers                      that Kansas and Missouri lag behind the states
in the chart below) places it in the middle of its                   containing the region’s peers in their success in
peers, though significantly behind Austin, Denver                    generating entrepreneurs, with Missouri last and
and Salt Lake City.                                                  Kansas third to last.

                            Firm Births Per 10,000 Existing Enterprises
                                             Firm Birth per Exisitng Enterprise

                                                                                                                Kansas City
                                                                                                                St. Louis
           140.0                                                                                                Denver
           120.0                                                                                                Minneapolis-St. Paul
            80.0                                                                                                Omaha
                                                                                                                Salt Lake City



                    1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

         Source: Small Business Administration

                               Entrepreneurs Per 100,000 People, 2005
                                     Entrepreneurs per 100,000 People, 2005




























            Source: Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity, State Report, 2005,
            Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

Patents are a measure of the inventiveness of a                        Venture capital flows to where the promising
region’s residents, businesses and universities.                       new ideas and products are being developed.
Unfortunately, those in the Kansas City area                           Unfortunately, this market-based measure of
generate fewer of patents than any of its peers,                       innovation potential also shows the Kansas City
with the exception of Omaha.                                           region to be underperforming relative to its peers,
                                                                       with the exception of Indianapolis.

                                                 Total Patents, 2003

            Source: Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School. Total patents
            calculated by MARC by multiplying together the reported patents per employee and total
            employees for 2003

                               Venture Capital Investments as a Percent
                                   of Gross Metropolitan Product
                          Venture capital invested as a share of gross metropolitan product










                      Austin     Denver   Portland   Minneapolis    St. Louis   Dallas   Salt Lake   Kansas   Indianapolis
                                                                                           City        City

            Source: Progressive Policy Institute, Metropolitan New Economy Index

Nonetheless, much of a region’s capacity to                                                   In addition, the region’s workforce retains an
innovate comes from its ability to attract those                                              edge in productivity. Kansas City ranks third in
people with the highest innovation propensity,                                                manufacturing productivity, behind Austin and
and this is typically young, unmarried college                                                Portland. The region cannot rest on its laurels,
graduates. Here the Kansas City region fares                                                  however. It was ranked second in 1997. Between
better. Though still in the middle of its peer group                                          1997 and 2002, Portland passed Kansas City and
of metros, it attracts this demographic at rates                                              Indianapolis is following closely behind.
approaching the leaders — Portland, Denver
and Dallas — and significantly above the rest of
its peers.

                            Net Migration Rate of the Young, Unmarried,
                            Percent of Young (25-39), Single, College Educated Residents
                                           Who Educated, 1995-2000
                                       College Migrated In (1995-2000)






                        Portland      Denver       Dallas-Ft.      Kansas City Indianapolis Minneapolis-       Salt Lake     Austin      Omaha         St. Louis
                                                    Worth                                     St. Paul           City

            Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

                    Manufacturing Productivity: Output per Production
                             Worker Hour, 1997 and 2002
                                   Manufacturing Productivity
                                                                   Output per Production Worker Hour






                             Austin     Portland     Kansas City      Indianapolis   Dallas        St. Louis   Minneapolis   Denver   Salt Lake City   Omaha

                                                                                      1997         2002

             Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 and 2002 Censuses of Manufacturing

The endowment of the Stowers Institute                           to research and development in the region. The
and the creation of the Kansas City Area                         creation of the Kansas Biosciences Institute will
Life Sciences Institute have resulted in a                       enable the region to continue its progress in this
rapidly increasing level of funding related                      highly competitive field.

                    Funding for Life Sciences, Metropolitan Kansas City

              Source: Kansas City Area Life Sciences Institute

Identification of Strategic Opportunities
With nearly 2 million people, the quality of life                living and high labor productivity. As a result,
in the Kansas City continues to allow it to attract              the region is focusing its efforts on building and
residents. The ease of getting around and low cost               attracting advanced manufacturing companies that
of housing relative to incomes are strong selling                use leading-edge technologies to produce globally
points, as are its tree-lined boulevards and great               cost-competitive goods. This supported by its
neighborhoods. Importantly, the region is finding                AIM-KC initiative to bridge the gaps between
there are still advantages to its historical strengths.          the needs of advanced manufacturers and the
Capitalizing on the region’s role in logistics as                capabilities and interests of the current workforce.
the nation’s second largest rail hub, significant                The center part of the region, in particular
truck freight operations and its vast supply of                  its downtown, is also experiencing a rebirth.
developable land in the center of the country,                   The combination of increased levels of higher
Kansas City Southern and BNFS railways are                       income housing, the completion of big projects
building state-of-the-art intermodal facilities in               such as the Sprint Arena, the Kansas City Live
the southern part of the metropolitan area. In                   entertainment district and organic growth such
particular, Kansas City Southern’s access to the                 as the arts district know as the Crossroads have
Pacific Ocean through Mexico, combined with                      increasingly turned downtown into a nighttime as
the congestion of western U.S. ports, means                      well as daytime destination.
Kansas City will play an expanding role in                       Though currently experiencing tough times,
international trade, especially with China.                      Sprint-Nextel continues to be an early adopter of
Centrality has also played a role in manufacturing               Wi-Max, the technology capable of giving whole
efficiency, along with the relatively low cost of                cities wireless broadband access to the Internet.

                   Missouri Total Combined Truck Freight Flows, 1998

Source: Missouri Department of Economic Development

This positions it for a rebound, though the           genes and proteins that control fundamental
extent depends upon its ability to execute this       processes in living cells. Created by Jim and
strategy while simultaneously improving its           Virginia Stowers, cancer survivors and founders
customer relations and the performance of its         of American Century Investments, the Stowers
existing network.                                     Institute opened its doors to the first scientific
The region’s historic role in agriculture has         research teams in November 2000 after
positioned it as part of a growing life sciences      completion of a state-of-the-art research facility
industry. What used to be viewed as relic of          in Kansas City, Missouri. Seven years later, the
Kansas City’s “cow-town” days is now part of          Institute accommodates 24 independent research
a burgeoning animal health corridor stretching        programs. It has been estimated that that the
from Manhattan, Kansas, to Columbia, Missouri         endowment given by Jim and Virginia Stowers
— home to companies that comprise one-third           matches the $3 billion in public funding recently
of the world-wide animal health industry. In          committed to by the entire state of California.
addition, the Kansas Bioscience Authority is          To capitalize on this investment, the community
investing heavily in the area, resulting in Fort      created Kansas City Area Life Sciences Institute
Dodge Animal Health, a billion dollar company,        (KCALSI) to help improve the area’s capacity to
deciding to consolidate its scientists in a new $40   commercialize the new technologies
million lab in the KBA’s research park. Moreover,     being developed.
Kansas State University is in the running for the     Together, these efforts focus the region’s
national center on bioterrorism.                      investments so they are simultaneously consistent
Complementing animal health is the work in            with its historic strengths and future-oriented,
human health by the Stowers Institute for Medical     enhancing metropolitan Kansas City’s capacity to
Research, which conducts basic research on            play a stronger role in the U.S. and
                                                      global economies.

  Vision and Goals for Regional Economic Prosperity

        he Kansas City region is a diverse                2. High levels and use of human capacity
        community, with 1.8 million residents in            •	 This begins with universal quality education
        urban, suburban and rural places across                that not only leaves no child behind, but
over 4,400 square miles. The region is located in              also enables all children to reach their
the nation’s heartland, and has prospered due to               full potential.
its location and strategic assets. The region, like
many urban centers across the United States, is             •	 To ensure that children enter school ready
being affected by changing global demographic,                 to learn and that parents are actively
economic and environmental factors.                            involved in their children’s learning requires
                                                               strong family support systems.
The region’s assets were historically tied to its
location and its transportation infrastructure.             •	 Existing racial disparities mean that a large
Overlapping studies and plans prepared for                     segment of the population is underutilized.
the Kansas City region all agree that the U.S.                 Instead of being uncomfortable with
and regional economies are now driven by                       differences, we need to develop a culture
innovation. The region is in competition                       that embraces diversity as a source of
with other regions in the U.S. and the entire                  strength, resilience and innovation.
world. The future economy is dependent upon               3. Inherent attractiveness of place
attracting and retaining talented people. At the             and amenities
metropolitan level, talented people choose to
live in regions with unique, high-quality natural           •	 Virtually all regions have some great
and built features (attractiveness of place) where             suburbs. But great regions also have a
institutions create opportunities to participate in a          vital urban center that gives the area a
competitive economy.                                           unique identity and all regional residents
                                                               something to be proud of.
Through a regional indicators project, Metro
Outlook, a set of well defined goals was framed             •	 World-class cultural and recreational
for the region. These goals are sequenced in                   opportunities also create a sense of place
relationship to each other and have been framed                in a region. While often associated with
to reflect a vision for development of the region.             the urban center, such amenities may
The goals include:                                             also be located in suburban, natural or
                                                               historic areas.
1. Economic competitiveness rooted in
                                                            •	 What’s most important is a region where all
   innovative capacity                                         parts are healthy. So in addition, the best
   •	 Such competitiveness requires regions to                 regions also have thriving first suburbs —
      specialize in what they do best, creating                the areas with the oldest post-World War II
      highly developed clusters of activity where              housing — along with vital downtowns and
      competing firms spur each other to higher                growing new suburbs.
      levels of performance.
                                                            •	 All regions experience growth along the
   •	 University excellence is at the root of most             interface between urban development
      basic innovations. It is also an attraction for          and rural places. These areas and the
      young, talented student-entrepreneurs and                many small communities on the fringe of
      the seed capital to nourish them.                        the region’s urban development should

     encourage sustainable economic growth                    policy. In addition, average citizens may
     that values agricultural and natural resources           be more willing to accept risk and change
     while increasing economic and social                     than those citizens their leaders most often
     opportunities for small community residents.             hear from.
4. Social cohesion                                     6. Efficiency in the use of resources
  •	 Communities with a high level of trust                 •	 In the long run, economic competitiveness
     across geographic and social boundaries                   must operate within natural limits.
     are better able to understand and reconcile               Moreover, a healthy natural environment
     differing points of view.                                 can be a significant attraction to talented
  •	 This enables them to reach agreement on                   people.
     actions and policies that serve the common             •	 In addition, greater efficiency ultimately
     good. This agreement supports broader                     means lower costs and increased capacity
     housing choices for residents and respect                 for investing in the future. In particular,
     for differing races and cultures. In turn, this           strong mobility and accessibility networks
     increases the ability of local communities to             can help save time and energy costs and,
     attract sustainable development.                          in addition, increase the sense of place and
                                                               level of social cohesion.
5. Strategic decision-making capacity
                                                       The region’s efforts to achieve these goals will
  •	 Making strategic regional decisions also
                                                       be dependent upon both public and private
     requires effective leadership institutions
                                                       actions. Some of the key regional partners
     to develop a policy agenda and garner
                                                       involved in work toward these goals are described
     the support necessary to successfully
                                                       in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 outlines specific projects,
     implement it.
                                                       programs and activities to achieve these goals. In
  •	 That support is easier to obtain if the region    addition, the specific action strategies outlined in
     possesses an engaged citizenry able to            Chapter 6 are tied directly to the goals outlined
     influence policy. While discussions may           in this chapter.
     lead to compromise, the end result is
     usually a better and more widely embraced

Community and Private Sector Participation

       he Kansas City area has a history of public   “under utilized, under built, under recognized
       and private sector cooperation when it        and under energized.” Residents knew the region
       comes to economic development. The            had a lot to offer, but not everyone in other areas
Mid-America Regional Council (MARC) works            shared that perception.
within the region to provide leaders with tools      In the 1970s, area leaders decided that the
to develop a great region, while the Kansas City     region needed a major ongoing public relations
Area Development Council (KCADC) markets             campaign. By 1976, the time had come to
the region to the outside world. Together, these     capitalize on Kansas City’s image. It was time to
two organizations represent a platform for the       directly compete with other cities for firms that
community to come together and discuss the           were expanding or relocating. It was time to turn
future development of the Kansas City region.        publicity into jobs and visitors into investments.
                                                     Private leaders decided the way to do this was
Mid-America Regional Council
                                                     to create an autonomous but affiliated economic
MARC seeks to build a stronger regional              development organization, which became known
community through cooperation, leadership            as the Kansas City Area Development Council,
and planning. Through MARC’s leadership, area        representing 18 counties in the region.
jurisdictions and diverse community interests sit
                                                     In 1994, KCADC launched the Smart
down together to address the region’s problems
                                                     Cities campaign marketing the region as a
and identify opportunities for cooperative
                                                     telecommunications and high-tech hub. It set the
solutions. These efforts, in turn, enhance the
                                                     standard across the nation for how to brand a city.
effectiveness of local government.
                                                     In 2004, KCADC launched its current OneKC and
As a voluntary association, MARC strives to          ThinkKC campaigns. The campaigns took city
foster better understanding and cooperation on       branding to a whole new level as more than 250
issues that extend beyond the jurisdiction of a      companies and communities used the brand in
single city, county or state. These issues include   their own marketing efforts. To date, KCADC
transportation, early education, aging services,     has attracted more than 500 new companies to
emergency services, public safety and 9-1-1,         the region.
environmental issues and a host of others.
MARC plays an active leadership role in              OneKC WIRED
strengthening the metropolitan community by          OneKC WIRED includes many strategic partners,
providing:                                           such as AIM-KC (Alliance for Innovation in
  •	 A forum for addressing regional objectives      Manufacturing — Kansas City), working closely
     and diverse community issues;                   with industry and community leaders who
                                                     understand the importance of manufacturing
  •	 Long-range planning and public policy           and the role it has in the future of the region,
     coordination; and                               and the nation.
  •	 Technical assistance and services to            Other partners include:
     enhance the effectiveness of local
     government.                                     •	 The Full Employment Council, a business-led,
                                                        private, nonprofit corporation with a mission to
Kansas City Area Development Council                    obtain private- and public-sector employment
                                                        for the unemployed and underemployed
As early as the late 1960s, Kansas City’s private
                                                        residents of the Greater Kansas City area.
sector leaders expressed that Kansas City was

•	 Heartland Works, a private, nonprofit             both states. The report will help Kansas City-area
   organization headquartered in Topeka,             leaders gain a better understanding of the region’s
   responsible for administering the U.S.            economy and provide a benchmark for many of
   Department of Labor’s Workforce Investment        the One KC WIRED initiatives.
   Act programs in the counties that make up
   the Kansas Local Workforce Investment             Other Organizations
   Board Area 2.                                     In addition to the KCADC, the region is served by
•	 The OneKC Regional Workforce Council,             many local economic development organizations,
   serving as a regional advisory body to position   chambers of commerce and 120 city and nine
   the public workforce system as a relevant         county governments. These public and private
   talent-development pipeline for business          organizations work cooperatively with one
   and economic development across political         another and with the KCADC and MARC to
   jurisdictions in the 18 county bistate region.    advance the goals of a successful region where
                                                     all parts are healthy and strive toward
OneKC WIRED’s Region Industry Profile was
                                                     sustainability. Through regional and local
jointly developed by the Missouri Economic
                                                     planning processes, thousands of area citizens
Research and Information Center and the
                                                     and business representatives guide the
Kansas Department of Commerce’s Division of
                                                     development of land use, economic, and
Workforce Development. This marks the first time
                                                     infrastructure plans and policies.
information of this nature has been exchanged by

       Chapter 5: Strategic Projects, Programs and Activities
  Strategic Projects, Programs and Activities

        he region is made up of nine counties             stakeholders on a set of principles for quality
        and 120 cities, each with its own goals           development in urban, suburban and rural places.
        and strategies. A review of local plans           Local communities, urban and suburban, struggle
and discussions with local officials found that           to maintain existing residential, commercial
most communities have similar themes and                  and industrial places over time. Infrastructure
statements of philosophy that are essential for           needs reinvestment, and changing economic
their communities and the region to achieve a             demands require investments in different
high-performing economy and a high quality of             development options. Old industrial areas require
life for metro area residents. Local community            environmental mediation, while developed areas
goals represent components of the region’s goals          often require environmental restoration. Common
and local effort enhances regional opportunities          themes and objectives among the Kansas City
for success.                                              area’s local governments include:
Consistent Themes Across Local                              •	 Reaffirm the importance of the region’s
Communities:                                                   urban core and support efforts to
                                                               revitalize the urban core and older built
1. Create and maintain communities that are
                                                               environments. A vital urban center gives the
   attractive places with amenities to meet the
                                                               region a unique identity and a location for
   needs of a diverse population.
                                                               the region’s residents to be proud of. World-
2. Raise the capacity of governmental agencies to              class cultural and recreational opportunities
   make strategic decisions.                                   also create a sense of place. While often
3. Develop and retain human capital to compete                 associated with the urban center, such
   globally.                                                   amenities may also be located in suburban,
                                                               natural or historic areas.
4. Capitalize on the region’s strengths for strategic
   economic development, including creation                 •	 Many older industrial and commercial
   of a world class Life Science/Animal Health                 areas are considered Brownfields, and their
   Industry.                                                   redevelopment requires environmental
                                                               mitigation. These areas could offer new
5. Capitalize on the region’s strengths to build a
                                                               residential and business opportunities in
                                                               unique older buildings and in close-in
   Trade Industry.
                                                               locations. North Kansas City historically
MARC is supporting the efforts of local                        represented Kansas City’s industrial area.
communities to create and maintain places                      It contains the largest percentage of older
                                                               industrial buildings of any city of its size,
that are attractive, with amenities to meet
                                                               and has expressed interest in Brownfield
the needs of a diverse population.                             redevelopment as it adapts the historic use
In 1999, local governmental officials, private-                of these buildings to fit into the
sector development representatives and                         future economy.
environmental group representatives met to                  •	 Sustainability is of growing concern to
discuss how the region could develop and                       many communities, with a number of cities
maintain quality places that were both sustainable             signing the U.S. Conference of Mayors
and economically vibrant. The initiative, Creating             Climate Change Agreement. Sustainability
Quality Places, gained consensus among diverse                 objectives include efforts to address air and

  water quality goals, to conserve the use              in the Kansas City area are considered some
  of energy, to use alternative energy and              of the region’s highest quality places to live.
  alternative fuels, to broaden transportation          Yet these older suburbs have post-WWII
  options for residents and visitors, and               housing that is not meeting the needs of the
  to encourage green building. New                      current marketplace. Specific communities
  development and redevelopment should be               that have identified redevelopment as a
  designed in ways that allow for quality over          principle economic development strategy
  the long-term.                                        include Mission, Merriam, Roeland Park,
•	 Downtown redevelopment is a consistent               Raytown, Independence, North Kansas
   theme in cities of every size across                 City, Gladstone, Prairie Village, Platte City
   the region. Many communities pursue                  and the Unified Government of Wyandotte
   downtown redevelopment to maintain                   County/Kansas City, Kan.
   or recreate a sense of place for their          The Kansas City region experienced over $4
   residents and to take advantage of existing     billion in construction activity in 2007, with one-
   commercial areas for economic activity.         fourth in infrastructure investments, 39 percent
   Specific communities that have expressed        in non-residential development and 37 percent
   interest in downtown redevelopment              in residential construction. While development
   include Bonner Springs, Blue Springs,           is down from earlier this decade, the Kansas City
   Excelsior Springs, Garden City, Grain           region continues to experience job growth and
   Valley, Grandview, Harrisonville, Kearney,      economic expansion. The Downtown Council
   Leavenworth, Lee’s Summit, Liberty, Oak         reported that construction investment in 2007
   Grove, Olathe, Peculiar, Pleasant Hill,         for 51 projects totaled $3.5 billion, including
   Raytown, Richmond, Smithville, Spring Hill,     the Sprint Center, the Power and Light (retail)
   and Weston.                                     District, the Convention Center expansion, the
•	 The Kansas City region was built on its         NCAA Basketball experience, and 2.7 million
   heritage, cultural and environmental            square feet of office space. An additional 25
   assets, and opportunities exist to promote      projects valued at $3.4 billionare underway or
   those assets for the tourism industry. The      in the pipeline, including a new performing arts
   Kansas City area is part of a new National      center, the Federal Reserve Bank (completed
   Heritage Area, the Freedom’s Frontier           early 2008), new federal office buildings, new
   National Heritage Area. Local organizations     housing and hotels, expansion of Children’s
   are working to link activity centers with       Mercy Hospital, and major office and retail
   transportation alternatives, create great       development. Kansas City, Kan., has continued to
   streets, and create a new generation of         be a leader in development in the past year, with
   regional amenities that recognize culture       construction underway near the Kansas Speedway
   as commerce.                                    for additional retail, entertainment and hotels.
                                                   That part of the metro area has become a major
•	 Protecting and restoring the region’s highest   tourist destination.
   quality natural resources. A new Natural
   Resources Inventory is available to local       Development in the smaller communities
   officials to guide development decisions        throughout the region is on a smaller scale, but
   in ways that protect important natural          significant in total impact. The activities listed
   resources and help them choose appropriate      for smaller communities are varied and represent
   development areas.                              the potential for the creation of an average of
                                                   430 construction-related jobs annually. This
•	 Reinvestment in aging infrastructure to serve   average investment is expected to be the result
   existing development properly and to allow      of successful implementation of ongoing projects
   for economic expansion. This is a challenge     generally representing $240 million in annual
   for all sizes of communities — urban,           public investments on the local level. Sources of
   suburban and rural.                             funding for past and potential investments include
•	 Promote quality communities with older          state income tax credits and grants from likely
   established neighborhoods. The first suburbs    sources such as CDBG, SRF, EDA, and

EDI to encourage new residential and                     annually to help local officials gain skills
commercial investments.                                  and knowledge to better manage their
Local, state, and federal transportation funding         communities and address growth and
for infrastructure decisions will support private        other economic development-related
reinvestment. Energy conservation investments            challenges. The GTI Leadership Academy
are expected to make better use of limited               offers an annual leadership program and
resources throughout the region. The job creation        certified managers program to increase
associated with private investments per year for         the leadership capacity available in
historic preservation-related activities is 28 jobs      communities of all sizes. These leadership
per $1 million in private investment. Downtown           programs support building the capacity for
redevelopment in small cities throughout the             governmental and civic leaders to make
region will create 33 jobs per $1 million in             strategic regional decisions. Other training
private investment and tourism and will create           programs through GTI also support small
310 jobs per 100,000 day-trip tourists to visit          communities, including courses offered
the area.                                                through the Academy for Sustainable
                                                         Communities, which has leadership,
MARC is providing leadership to raise the                technical and awareness programs. A
capacity of smaller units of government to               training program series for planning and
take advantage of regional opportunities and             zoning commissioners offers courses to
address economic challenges.                             help volunteers in local communities
                                                         increase their capacity to regulate economic
The Brookings Institution notes that the overall         development and land use development.
rates of population growth or decline for                By bringing local officials together for
metropolitan counties often mask the growth that         leadership, technical and awareness level
goes on within certain geographic parts inside           trainings, relationships among officials
these counties. In the Kansas City region, many          are built and strengthened. Communities
of the smaller outlying cities are experiencing          with high levels of trust across geographic
ongoing unprecedented growth.                            boundaries and with diverse populations
The metropolitan region is growing, some areas           are better able to understand and reconcile
more than others, but the impacts from growth            differing points view. Local officials are
are present in the need for infrastructure, revised      better able to make connections to others,
development regulations and growth policies,             and increase their ability to identify and
and protection of natural resources. The patterns        solve common problems.
of growth raise issues of infill development           •	 Long-Range Planning — MARC is preparing
versus sprawl; the dichotomy between the                  a new long-range transportation plan for
outward urban expansion of a metro area’s built           the Kansas City region, which must be
environment and rural land use; and how to                adopted in 2009. A foundation of the
pay for resulting infrastructure requirements and         long-range plan is a set of demographic
the amenities desired by residents in growing             and economic forecasts, outlining where
communities. The region’s small cities indicate           and at what intensity future development
that they need larger, more experienced staff             may occur. Local officials have participated
resources and increased revenues. These small             in the development of the forecasts,
cities need growth-related development tools for          using a technical tool, “Paint the Town,”
better planning and response to development               that allows local officials to consider
concerns, and help in identifying revenue sources         alternative growth scenarios for the
for other city operations and infrastructure. MARC        region. MARC was awarded a grant from
provides or plans to offer more focused attention         the Federal Highway Administration to
to assist these communities, including:                   better integrate environmental protection
  •	 Government Training Institute (GTI)                  goals into the region’s transportation
     Training Program — The regional training             work. Using the forecast information and
     program provides over 200 classes                    introducing the goals of social, economic

  and environmental sustainability, MARC               to attract employers. MARC offers grant
  will work with its Board of Directors and            writing assistance to small cities by helping
  various committees to develop principles             local officials determine how specific
  and strategies for better managing growth            needs could be addressed, seeking grant
  and economic development over the                    opportunities, preparing grant applications
  next 30 years. The vision may take the               and administering awarded grants. Many of
  form of a “cores and corridors” strategy,            the grants are for public infrastructure that
  with development focused along major                 could support economic activity. MARC will
  transportation corridors and at key                  continue to offer these services. In addition,
  intersections. MARC will update the region’s         MARC will assist small cities with Certified
  public transit plan, Smart Moves, to ensure          Site Planning. Certified Site Planning is
  that connecting workers to employment                intended to provide targeted assistance to
  locations is a key objective. The updated            the area’s cities that will enable them to
  Smart Moves plan incorporates recent                 compete in site location activities occurring
  planning at the local level, particularly by         in the region. Through the Certified Site
  Kansas City, Mo., which is working on                Planning program, Stage 1 assistance would
  a light rail plan. The transit plan will be          identify potential industrial/commercial
  designed to support redevelopment in older           sites; Stage 2 assistance would quantify the
  corridors, particularly to take advantage of         infrastructure needed to prepare the site
  transit-oriented development opportunities.          for development; and Stage 3 assistance
•	 Citizen Engagement — MARC worked                    would evaluate a community’s readiness
   with a number of local and regional                 for attracting the targeted industry clusters
   organizations to launch a citizen                   they desire. The following communities
   engagement program, One KC Voice, in                have indicated that they need help
   2005. MARC will continue to focus on                with identifying commercial/industrial
   building citizen engagement in regional and         development areas within their cities:
   local discussions on the region’s physical          Cleveland, Garden City, Oak Grove,
   form and improving connection between               Platte County, Kearney, Independence,
   regional organizations. Support for policy          and Platte City.
   and community decisions is easier to           MARC has engaged local officials in groups such
   obtain if the region possesses an engaged      as the Edge Cities, First Suburbs, County Mayor
   citizenry able to influence public policy.     Forums and elected officials meetings, where
   While discussions may lead to compromise,      local community representatives come together to
   the end result is usually a better and more    formulate priorities and strategies for addressing
   widely embraced policy. In addition,           both regional and local economic challenges.
   average citizens may be more willing to        Because this section is focused on planning and
   accept risk and change than those citizens     supporting activities to better utilize construction
   their leaders most often hear from.            dollars and improved investment decisions,
•	 Local Economic Development Planning            job creation and funding sources are not
   and Certified Site Planning — Many             included here.
   small communities require assistance in
                                                  Develop and retain the human capital
   preparing local economic development
                                                  necessary for area firms to be sufficiently
   plans, or in identifying action steps to
   help them realize their economic goals.        innovative to complete globally, while using
   MARC will help small cities outline their      resources efficiently and sustainable.
   economic development goals, through            Many policy and spending decisions are targeted
   comprehensive and economic development         at improving community institutions themselves.
   plans, and in identify opportunities to        These decisions typically direct investments
   advance those goals. Two specific activities   to two areas — people and place. Investment
   will be supported, including grant writing/    in people (like schools, health care and job
   administration and development of tools        support) raises the level of human capital in the

community, while an investment in place (like           and economic development to meet the region’s
roads, sewers, and housing and community                current and future needs. One KC WIRED is
centers) raises the level of physical capital. As       initially targeting the high-demand industries of
wealth (i.e., human and physical capital) rises,        advanced manufacturing, biotechnology, and
these policy and investment decision make the           healthcare; but will continue to assess regional
community even more attractive to individuals           and industry trends and explore strategies that
and families. Existing racial disparities mean that a   enhance the region’s competitiveness.
large segment of the population is underutilized.       The One KC WIRED projects are organized into five
We need to develop a culture that embraces              major categories:
diversity as a source of strength, resilience and
innovation.                                               •	 Building Capacity: Meeting Today’s
                                                             Workforce Needs to increase the pool of
Every community strives to provide a universal               highly skilled, educated and trained talent
quality education that enables all children to               capable of entering the knowledge-based
reach their full potential. In the Kansas City               workplace.
region, six area school districts earned gold
medals; three earned blue ribbons as measured             •	 Expanding Skill Sets of Current Workforce:
by Expansion Magazine. Demographics for the                  Incumbent Worker Training to allow
region indicated that Kansas City possesses a well-          existing employees to gain training to
educated, extremely productive workforce; in                 keep their skills current with changing
fact production workers in Kansas City contribute            technologies
40 percent more value added per hour than the             •	 Developing the Educational Continuum:
national average. Our largest challenge will be              The Workforce of Tomorrow by providing
in making the transition from a goods-producing              enhanced math and science educational
economy to an economy rooted in information                  opportunities for children and youth.
based services.                                           •	 Creating Infrastructure and New Platforms:
The Kansas City metro area competed nationally               New Economies to take advantage of
with more than 100 regions for a WIRED                       emerging technologies.
(Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic                •	 Regionalism: Thinking, Acting, Working and
Development) grant from the U.S. Department                  Growing as One KC through public-private
of Labor. The region was among 13 awarded a                  partnerships, collaborative programs and
$15 million WIRED grant. WIRED is part of our                services, and coordinated marketing.
nation’s global competitiveness strategy to build
strong regional economies supported by a highly-        Innovation is a process, and sustainable
skilled workforce. MARC was the applicant for           transformations take time to build. One KC
the U.S. Departmetn of Labor grant to support           WIRED is leveraging existing regional resources
One KC WIRED.                                           and relationships to design, demonstrate and
                                                        disseminate innovative transformations in
One KC WIRED is an innovative approach to               workforce development throughout the region.
regional workforce and economic development             The rate at which initiatives move from the
— one that recognizes the new reality that a            demonstration phase to dissemination will vary.
highly skilled, educated and trained workforce          In some cases, broad dissemination — both
is the essential foundation of a strong regional        geographic and to other industry sectors — may
economy. Through One KC WIRED, the                      not occur until after the initial grant period.
region has created a dynamic, entrepreneurial           A growing regional alliance is committed to
partnership strategically designed to drive             sustaining these efforts in the Kansas City region
significant economic and workforce development          beyond the period of the grant, including key
transformation within an 18-county bistate              leaders from business and industry, education and
region. The initiative’s partners are integrating       training, economic development, state and local
and building upon what were once independent            government, and the philanthropic and
activities to develop a comprehensive system of         civic communities.
workforce development, education and training,

The Metro Outlook study prepared by MARC              The University of Missouri created the Center
identified the following economic development         for Regional Competitiveness in 2006 with the
strategies as important to creating a high quality    goal of becoming the nation’s leader in regional
innovative workforce to serve the Kansas              competitiveness and regional development
City region.                                          policy. The Center aims to provide the decision
Develop a coordinated workforce development           tools and leadership mechanisms to support
strategy.                                             Missouri regions compete in the global
                                                      economy. Together with other institutions of
   •	 Perform a comprehensive diagnostic of           higher education in the Kansas City region, the
      existing regional workforce programs on         Center will conduct a comprehensive study on
      both sides of the state line, identifying who   Kansas City’s place in the global economy, craft
      is doing what, who is being served, and         a strategy to spur innovation and host a major
      who is being left behind and why.               international conference on regional innovation.
   •	 Engage an umbrella group of local industry      The Center’s work will support the Kansas City
      groups, workforce development leads and         region’s Economic Development District goals
      educational institutions in an ongoing          and objectives.
      dialogue on how they can work together to
      remedy weaknesses and gaps.                     Kansas City Area Life Science Institute is
                                                      providing the leadership to capitalize on the
   •	 Ensure the system continually meets the skill
      needs of local industry.                        region’s strengths for strategic economic
                                                      development as a world class Life Science/
   •	 Provide clear “career ladders” of training
                                                      Animal Health Industry Center.
      and educational opportunities to help
      employees ascend from low-to high skilled       The Kansas City Area Life Sciences Institute
      occupations.                                    (KCALSI) is a non-profit organization assisting
                                                      with the transformation of Kansas City into a
   •	 Connect minority youth to jobs to
                                                      center for excellence in life sciences research and
      gain skills, experience and knowledge
                                                      development. KCALSI and its stakeholder institutions
      concerning the needs of employers.
                                                      share an ambitious goal — to make new discoveries
Break down racial disparities in income and           in aging and related diseases, neuro-degenerative
assets.                                               and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infectious
   •	 Improve access to higher education.             diseases and encourage related business
   •	 Develop focused campaigns to boost
      minority enrollment and ensure that             In the animal health and nutrition industry, the
      minority students have the resources to         Greater Kansas City area is a national leader,
      complete their training or degrees.             accounting for nearly 34 percent of total sales in the
                                                      $16.8 billion global animal health market. Companies
   •	 Establish regional prosperity campaigns to      and universities in the Kansas City metro area lead
      build the assets of low-income and              the nation in animal health and nutrition research,
      minority residents.                             innovation, business functions and production.
   •	 Organize a major effort to market the           Key players in the Kansas City region’s business,
      availability of earned income tax credits to    education, scientific and government communities
      low-income residents.                           have joined together to cultivate a climate of
   •	 Organize a major effort to market the           opportunity for companies competing in and
      availability of earned income tax credits to    supporting the animal health and nutrition industry.
      low-income residents.                           Kansas City’s historical strength in agricultural
   •	 Package federal and state supports and          markets helped to lay the groundwork for its
      use online screening tools to determine         current leadership position in animal health.
      programs eligibility and facilitate             There are more than 13,000 trained employees
      enrollment.                                     working in the animal health industry in the

Greater Kansas City Area. The universities and           •	 Develop programs to prepare workers for
technical training programs in the Kansas City              high-skilled jobs.
region produce more livestock veterinarians,             •	 Boost research capacity at KU Medical
animal science professionals and technicians than           Center and UMKC.
any other region of the United States. Kansas City
is located within 300 miles of five of the leading          – Adopt the recommendations of the
veterinary schools in the U.S., plus local colleges           Blue Ribbon Task Force which focus
provide more than 40,000 new graduates every                  on building research capacity at the
year. Additionally, the Greater Kansas City area              University of Kansas Medical Center.
hosts the headquarters of over 37 global leaders            – Grow leadership at the University
in the animal health industry, representing four of           of Missouri–Kansas City (UMKC) to
the 10 largest global animal health interests.                enhance life science research capacity.
Entrepreneur Magazine ranks Kansas City the            Both Missouri and Kansas have developed
number one place to start and grow a business in       incentive programs to attract life science
the Midwest and No. 11 nationally. The Kansas          companies to the region to market the ideas
City region is cited as being logistics-friendly to    resulting from the research occurring in the
European investment. The Metro Outlook study           region. This industry cluster relies heavily on
prepared by MARC identified the following              the acquisition of research grants awarded in the
economic development strategies as important           area to support innovative ideas and solutions to
to enhancing life sciences to serve the Kansas         human and animal conditions.
City region:
                                                       Smart Port is in place to capitalize on the
Boost the Region’s Innovative Capacity
                                                       region’s strengths to build a Transportation/
  •	 Recognize and leverage industry strengths         Logistics/International Trade Industry.
     and firm legacies.
                                                       The Kansas City region’s economic development
  •	 Thoroughly examine unique specializations         promotion organization, the Kansas City Area
     and niches as well as obstacles to growth.        Development Council, promotes the Kansas City
  •	 Assess where economic development                 area as an ideal location for logistics facilities.
     dollars are spent.                                Two major intermodal facilities are currently
  •	 Realign current investments to support            under development — one in and near Gardner,
     entrepreneurship and innovation.                  Kan., in the southwest portion of the region, and
                                                       one at the former Richards Gebaur Air Force Base
Establish collaborative vision and plan for            property in South Kansas City, Mo. Both offer
bolstering local commercialization and                 opportunities for major distribution facilities to
entrepreneurship                                       take advantage of rail and highway access.
  •	 Area universities, research institutions          Kansas City Smart Port is a nonprofit economic
     business alliances, and state and local           development organization formed to promote
     political leaders must come together to           and enhance the Kansas City metro area’s
     articulate a unified vision and strategic         status as America’s inland port solution. Smart
     plan aimed at taking the region’s research        Port has two main focuses in its mission. The
     capacity to the next level.                       first focus is to grow the area’s transportation
  •	 Establish cooperative organizations, such         industry by attracting businesses with significant
     as research consortia and entrepreneurial         transportation and logistics elements. Second,
     support networks.                                 Kansas City Smart Port strives to make it cheaper,
  •	 Cultivate a local network of venture              faster, more efficient and secure for companies to
     capitalists and angel investor.s                  move goods to, from and through the Kansas
                                                       City area.
  •	 Fund incubator facilities.

Today, international trade is emerging as an          waterway; its location at the intersection of three
important inter-jurisdictional issue in the Midwest   interstate highways; and its identification as the
region. The 1998 Mid-Continent Trade Way              least congested major urban area in the nation.
Study reinforced this reality. This study found       Smart Port is focusing on attracting investment
that a significant amount of international cargo is   from companies with significant transportation
already processed in or passes through the Kansas     and logistics elements, such as distribution
City region. In addition, NAFTA trade in Kansas       centers, warehouses, third-party logistic providers,
and Missouri is growing, and opportunities exist      and manufacturing.
to provide value-added services for the processing
of NAFTA goods. The study also showed that the        Smart Port is working to improve the Kansas
area needed a single organization with a sole         City area’s ITS infrastructure by first analyzing
focus of growing the transportation industry. That    the needs of the industry and then developing
study encouraged area business and civic leaders      architectural designs and test projects to meet
to form KC Smart Port.                                those needs. Smart Port is working to bring
                                                      additional service such foreign customs offices,
The region’s economic advantages, strengths           to the region to help businesses of all sizes move
and opportunities include a strong multi-modal        their goods both domestically and internationally.
transportation infrastructure, including its
designation as the second largest rail hub and        Both Missouri and Kansas have developed
largest rail center in the U.S. by tonnage; its       incentive programs to support transportation
location as the heart of rail corridors spanning      dependent industries to the area. A
coast to coast across the U.S. and extending          comprehensive review of state taxes and
to Canada and Mexico, which offers NAFTA              incentives available may be found on the Kansas
opportunities due to the congestion of Western        City Area Development Council web site at
U.S. ports; its expanding role in trade with
China; its location on the largest navigable inland   TaxProfile_main.php.

                   Chapter 6 CEDS Programs and
       Chapter 5: Strategic Projects, Action Plan Activities
 CEDS Action Plan

       he Comprehensive Economic Development            Additional data was collected through a survey
       Strategy (CEDS) document was created             that was distributed to the nine-county service
       by the Mid-America Regional Council as           area’s economic development leadership and
part of a region-wide effort to assess, define, and     is incorporated in the objectives and strategy
accomplish the economic development goals of            statements within the Action Plan. The identified
the region. In turn, the CEDS helps to serve as         goals are designed to capitalize on the area’s
a guide for regional economic and community             assets and to improve the quality of life in the
development efforts by outlining the overarching        MARC Region. On the following pages, the goals,
elements, goals, objectives, and policies               objectives and strategies are divided into major
formulated by business and community leaders.           categories according to the priorities listed above.
This chapter explores the goals, objectives, and        Each identified element includes a list of
strategies that were formulated through a regional      performance measurements to ensure that
indicators project, Metro Outlook, a process for        progress is made on a consistent basis. To ensure
framing a set of well defined goals for the region.     these priorities are realized, the Economic
These overarching priorities are:                       Development District Strategic Committee
•	 Promote economic development and                     has identified benchmarks they consider to be
   opportunity.                                         desirable and essential for economic development
                                                        throughout the region. This list will be reviewed,
•	 Foster effective transportation access.              revised and amended on an annual basis as
•	 Enhance and protect the environment.                 activities are accomplished and priorities change.
•	 Maximize effective development and use of            Furthermore, both Kansas and Missouri economic
   the workforce consistent with any applicable         development initiatives and priorities will be key
   state or local workforce investment strategy.        considerations in regional and local efforts. In
•	 Promote the use of technology in economic            particular, recent work by federal agencies and
   development, including access to high-speed          the states of Missouri and Kansas to implement
   telecommunications.                                  the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
                                                        (ARRA) offer opportunities for the Kansas City
•	 Balance resources through sound management           region to use federal dollars for economic
   of physical development.                             recovery consistent with this plan.

1. Promoting economic development and opportunity
 Goal for Regional
                                     Objectives                  Activities/Strategies                Timeframe
Economic Prosperity
Create a region that offers   Revitalize the urban          Local communities continue to      Ongoing
attractive places and         core and older built          pursue opportunities to support
amenities                     environments                  reinvestment. MARC offers
                                                            training and technical assistance.
Create a region that offers   Support Downtown              Local communities drive the            Ongoing
attractive places and         Redevelopment                 activities associated with
amenities                                                   downtown redevelopment.
Create a region that offers   Build on heritage, cultural   Support the Freedom Frontier           Ongoing
attractive places and         and environmental assets      National Heritage Area.
amenities                     of the region                 Promote heritage tourism as a
                                                            regional economic development
                                                            Support preservation of
                                                            important natural resources to
                                                            attract a skilled labor force to the
Create a region that          Reinvest in aging             Local Communities continue to          Ongoing
supports efficiency in the    infrastructure to allow for   pursue opportunities to support
use of resources              economic expansion            reinvestment.
Create a region that        Increase leadership             Provide leadership training to         Ongoing
enables strategic decision- capacity; develop policy        local officials.
making capacity             agenda
Create a region that          Design multi-modal transit Update the region’s Smart                 Complete an
supports efficiency in the    system and encourage       Moves Plan and develop new                update of the
use of resources              related development        Long-Range Transportation                 region’s long-range
                                                         Plan, both tied to economic               transportation plan
                                                         development goals.                        and Smart Moves
                                                                                                   plan by June 2010
Create a region that          Certified Site Planning       Help a number of small cities          Complete
supports economic                                           initiate certified site planning in    initial certified
competitiveness                                             cooperation with local utilities.      site planning
                                                                                                   assistance to three
                                                                                                   communities by
                                                                                                   December 2009
Create a region that          Life Science/Animal           KCADC leads the region in              Ongoing
supports economic             Health Industry               the attraction/expansion of
competitiveness               Transportation/Logistics/     companies, job creation and
                              International Trade           new investment and works with
                              Industry                      local communities regarding
                                                            location decisions.
Create a region that          Revitalize the urban          Support the design and                 Ongoing.
supports economic             core and older built          implementation of a Green              Complete project
competitiveness               environments                  Impact Zone in a distressed            design and initial
                                                            portion of Kansas City’s urban         implementation by
                                                            core as a demonstration of how         December 2010.
                                                            effective targeting of resources
                                                            and strong partnerships can
                                                            reduce unemployment and
                                                            support reinvestment.

2. Fostering effective transportation access
  Goal for Regional
                                    Objectives                 Activities/Strategies           Timeframe
 Economic Prosperity
Create a region that         Reinvest in aging             Help local communities           Ongoing
supports efficiency in the   infrastructure to allow for   identify grant resources and
use of resources             economic expansion            develop funding strategies for
                                                           infrastructure improvements.
Create a region that         Design multi-modal transit Update the region’s Smart           Complete an
supports efficiency in the   system and encourage       Moves Plan and develop new          update of the
use of resources             related development        Long-Range Transportation           region’s long-range
                                                        Plan, both tied to economic         transportation plan
                                                        development goals.                  and Smart Moves
                                                                                            plan by June 2010
Create a region that         Implement regional “cores Update the region’s Smart            Complete an
supports efficiency in the   and corridors” strategy   Moves Plan and develop new           update of the
use of resources                                       Long-Range Transportation            region’s long-range
                                                       Plan, both tied to economic          transportation plan
                                                       development goals.                   and Smart Moves
                                                                                            plan by June 2010.
                                                                                            Regional Forecast
                                                                                            Committee will
                                                                                            complete a new
                                                                                            long-range forecast
                                                                                            for the region
                                                                                            based on a “cores
                                                                                            and corridors”
                                                                                            strategy by
                                                                                            December 2009.
Create a region that         Transportation/Logistics/     KCADC leads the region in        Ongoing
supports economic            International Trade           the attraction/expansion of
competitiveness              Industry                      companies, job creation and
                                                           new investment and works with
                                                           local communities regarding
                                                           location decisions.

3. Enhancing and protecting the environment
  Goal for Regional
                                     Objectives                  Activities/Strategies               Timeframe
 Economic Prosperity
Create a region that          Brownfield redevelopment Help small cities identify                  Ongoing
supports efficiency in the                             brownfields opportunities and
use of resources                                       seek federal funding to address
                                                       mitigation and reuse.
Create a region that          Sustainability efforts to     Work with regional and local           Ongoing
supports efficiency in the    address air and water         organizations to address
use of resources              quality goals                 environmental protection goals.
Create a region that offers   Build on heritage, cultural   Support the Freedom Frontier           Ongoing
attractive places and         and environmental assets      National Heritage Area.
amenities                     of the region                 Promote heritage tourism as a
                                                            regional economic development
                                                            Support preservation of
                                                            important natural resources to
                                                            attract a skilled labor force to the
Create a region that          Transportation/Logistics/     KCADC leads the region in              Ongoing
supports economic             International Trade           the attraction/expansion of
competitiveness               Industry                      companies, job creation and
                                                            new investment and works with
                                                            local communities regarding
                                                            location decisions.

4. Maximizing effective development and use of the workforce consistent with
any applicable state or local workforce investment strategy
  Goal for Regional
                                     Objectives                  Activities/Strategies               Timeframe
 Economic Prosperity
Create a region that          Develop and Retain            One KC Wired will continue to          December 2010
provides for high levels      Human Capital                 work with regional and local
and use of human                                            organizations and businesses
capacity                                                    to strengthen the job training
                                                            and job placement services and
                                                            systems in the region.
                                                            Promote quality early education,
                                                            K-12 and higher education
                                                            resources to enable the region to
                                                            build an educated workforce.
Create a region that          Life Science/Animal           KCADC leads the region in              Ongoing
supports economic             Health Industry               the attraction/expansion of
competitiveness                                             companies, job creation and
                                                            new investment and works with
                                                            local communities regarding
                                                            location decisions.

5. Promoting the use of technology in economic development, including access
to high-speed telecommunications
  Goal for Regional
                                     Objectives                  Activities/Strategies                Timeframe
 Economic Prosperity
Create a region that          Reinvest in aging              Help small cities seek funding        December 2010
supports efficiency in the    infrastructure to allow for    to address inadequate
use of resources              economic expansion             infrastructure in support of
                                                             economic expansion
Create a region that          Life Science/Animal            KCADC leads the region in             Ongoing
supports economic             Health Industry                the attraction/expansion of
competitiveness               Transportation/Logistics/      companies, job creation and
                              International Trade            new investment and works with
                              Industry                       local communities regarding
                                                             location decisions.

6. Balancing resources through sound management of physical development
  Goal for Regional
                                     Objectives                  Activities/Strategies                Timeframe
 Economic Prosperity
Create a region that offers   Revitalize the urban           Encourage redevelopment               Ongoing
attractive places and         core and older built           by Community Development
amenities                     environments                   Corporations and local
                                                             governments as a way to
                                                             promote sustainable practices
                                                             and encourage economic
Create a region that offers   Support Downtown               Help small cities plan and            Ongoing
attractive places and         Redevelopment                  secure grants for enhancements
amenities                                                    to their downtown areas.
Create a region that offers   Protection of high quality     Work with local officials to    Ongoing
attractive places and         natural resources              identify high quality natural
amenities                                                    resources and adopt regulatory
                                                             measures such as stream setback
                                                             ordinances to protect those
Create a region that offers   Promote quality                Work with local officials through Ongoing
attractive places and         communities with               the First Suburbs Coalition
amenities                     older established              to maintain and restore older
                              neighborhoods                  housing, retail and other
                                                             employment locations.
Create a region that          Build regional citizenship     Support the region’s One KC           Ongoing
provides for high levels                                     Voice program and encourage
and use of human                                             its use by public and private
capacity                                                     organizations to engage citizens
                                                             in shaping public policy.
Create a region that          Certified Site Planning        Help a number of small cities         Complete
supports economic                                            initiate certified site planning in   initial certified
competitiveness                                              cooperation with local utilities.     site planning
                                                                                                   assistance to three
                                                                                                   communities by
                                                                                                   December 2009

                   Chapter 6 CEDS Programs and
       Chapter 5: Strategic Projects, Action Plan Activities
  Performance Measures

        o evaluate the progress of the CEDS, MARC       2. Providing assistance with project development,
        staff will meet annually with representatives      resource identification and implementation
        of the region’s economic development               strategies to achieve development priorities.
organizations. They will be encouraged to bring         3. Providing grant writing assistance to support
other interested individuals from the region to            developments and help with compliance with
ensure a broad representation of interests. During         grant regulations.
the meeting, MARC and the planning group will
                                                        4. Providing assistance to cities in the completion
go through the goals and actions of the CEDS
                                                           of certified site planning in cooperation with
for the region and document progress on each
                                                           local utilities.
activity. Also during the meeting, organizations
will be asked about any significant changes or          5. Encouraging the use of brownfield programs to
opportunities that have surfaced in the past year.         address mitigation and reuse opportunities
Based on these changes, they will be asked to           6. Updating the CEDS as needed.
identify any new goals or projects that have been
                                                        Measurements will include:
developed since the development of the original
CEDS.                                                   •	 The number of communities assisted with
                                                           project development strategies (pre-funding
The meetings will be held in the spring of each
year and a follow-up report will be submitted to
the Economic Development Administration on or           •	 The number of communities assisted with
before June 30 of each year. The report will be            grant applications as well as projects finalized
available for review by those that participated in         regardless of funding source. Information also
the planning process as well as the general public.        includes the amount of grant, matching funds,
                                                           the number of residents affected, the result of
The methods that MARC will use to support
                                                           the grant-funded project, and jobs created.
progress are:
                                                        (See tables on following page.)
1. Providing best practices, training, and
   resources to communities related to
   development objectives.

                          Individual Community Response Measurements
                                                                                       Changes in
                                   # Jobs  # Jobs      Number of    Private Sector
    Types of Investments                                                             the Economic
                                  Created Retained    Investments    Investment
Urban Core Redevelopment
Brownfields Reinvestment
Downtown Redevelopment
Tourism Industry Related
Natural Resources Protected
Reinvestment in Aging
Transit-Related development
Certified Site Planning
Life Science/Animal Health
Related Investments
Transportation/ Logistics/
International Trade Industry
Related Investments

                               MARC/Partner Agency Measurements
                                                                                 # Communities
         Types of Participation                      # Attending
Participation in Government Training
Institute Programs/Leadership Academy
Citizen Engagement
Local Government Capacity Building
Regional Workforce Programs
Access to Education

                           References and Bibliography
                          References and Bibliography

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Center for Regional Competitiveness
Entrepreneur Magazine
Expansion Magazine
Home Builders Association of Greater Kansas City
Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School
Johnson County Sun Newspaper
KC Animal Health Corridor Initiative
Kansas City Area Development Council
Kansas City Area Development Council Researcher Sheri Gormley
Kansas City Area Life Science Institute
Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kan., police departments, through the UMKC Center of Economic
Information, FBI Uniform Crime Reports, Kansas Bureau of Investigations
Kansas City, Mo. Brownfields Office
The Kansas City Star
KC Smart Port
Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity, State Report, 2005, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation
Land records of Johnson, Leavenworth, Wyandotte, Clay and Jackson Counties
Metro Outlook, January 2007,
Mid-America Regional Council History, First Suburbs Coalition
National Association of Homebuilders, Housing Opportunity Index
Regional Plan Association, “America 2050: A Prospectus,” New York: September 2006
REMI model, MARC
Small Business Administration
Strategy to Become America’s Green Region (MARC, The Civic Council of Greater Kansas City, Greater
Kansas City Chamber of Commerce, Bridging the Gap, the Kansas City Area Development Council,
Kansas City, Mo., and Johnson County, Kan.)
Survey of Communities within the district regarding economic development activity:
    Belton Corporation for Economic Development (Cass County, Mo.), Exec. Director Art Ruiz
    City of Basehor (Leavenworth County, Kan.)
    City of Blue Springs (Jackson County, Mo.), Asst. to City Administrator Amanda B. Smith
    City of Cleveland (Cass County, Mo.), Mayor Patricia Masterson
    City of Drexel (Cass County, Mo.), City Administrator Michael Fisher
    City of Garden City (Cass County, Mo.), City Administrator Dave Larcom
    City of Gardner (Johnson County, Kan.), City Administer Stewart Fairburn
    City of Grandview (Jackson County, Mo.), Economic Development Director Alan Kenyon
    City of Harrisonville (Cass County, Mo.), Community Development Director Rick DeLuca
    City of Independence (Jackson County, Mo.), Senior Planner Mary Hunt
    City of Kearney (Clay County, Mo.), Community Development Director David Pavlich
    City of Lansing (Leavenworth County, Kan.)
    City of Leavenworth (Leavenworth County, Kan.)
    City of Leawood (Johnson County, Kan.)
    City of Liberty (Clay County, Mo.), Community Development Director Steve Anderson
    City of Merriam (Johnson County, Kan.), Community Development Director Dennis Enslinger

   City of Mission Hills (Johnson County, Kan.)
   City of Oak Grove (Jackson County, Mo.)
   City of Peculiar (Cass County, Mo.), City Administrator Brad Ratliff
   City of Platte City (Platte County, Mo.), City Administrator Keith Moody
   City of Pleasant Hill (Cass County, Mo.), City Administrator Mark Randall
   City of Pleasant Valley (Clay County, Mo.),
   City of Prairie Village (Johnson County, Kan.), Asst. City Administrator Doug Luther
   City of Riverside (Platte County, Mo.), Economic Development Director Brent Miles
   City of Roeland Park (Johnson County, Kan.), City Administrator John Carter
   City of Shawnee (Johnson County, Kan.), Community Development Director Paul Chaffee
   City of Smithville (Clay County, Mo.)
   Kansas City Smart Port, President, Chris Gutierrez
   Miami County, Kan., Economic Development Director Janet McCrae
   Platte County, Mo. EDC, Administrative Assistant Diane Jones
Texas Transportation Institute
Think KC Greater KC Profile
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Internal Revenue Service


MARC Community Services Corporation Board
Government Representatives
   Gary Mallory, Presiding Commissioner, Cass County, Mo.
   Tom Cooley, Commissioner, Unified Government of Wyandotte County, Kansas City, Kan.
   Mike Sanders, County Executive, Jackson County, Mo.
   Mark Funkhouser, Mayor, Kansas City, Mo.
   Betty Knight, Presiding Commissioner, Platte County, Mo.
   Ed Quick, Presiding Commissioner, Clay County, Mo.
   Jeff Adams, Presiding Commissioner, Ray County, Mo.
   Annabeth Surbaugh, Commission Chair, Johnson County, Kan.
   Clyde Graeber, Commission Chair, Leavenworth County, Kan.
   Jim Wise, Commission Chair, Miami County, Kan.
Non-Government Representatives
   Jim Schultz, Small Business Owner, Schultz Insurance
   Ron Shaffer, Small Business Owner, RLS Architects
   Curt Skoog, Director of Business Development, H&R Block
   Marge Vogt, Nurse Practitioner, Reproductive Resource Center
   Karen Messerli, Hospital Administrator, St. Luke’s Hospital
   Stakeholder Organization Representatives
      Jim Plunkett, Board Member, Platte County Economic Development Corporation

Strategic Committee Roster
Private Sector Representatives
   Mark Dawson, Economic Development Director/Business Development, KCP&L
   John Englemann, Economic Development Director/Business Development, KCP&L
   Merley McMurray, Community Relations Manager/Minority Group Representative, KCP&L

Representatives of Other Economic Interests
   Jeff Samborski (Public Official — Business Development), Economic Development
      Director, North Kansas City, Mo.
   Thelma Crawford (Workforce Development), Regional Workforce Development Area
      Manager, State of Missouri

County Profile: Johnson County, Kan.
Population 2006:               516,731
Households 2006:               200,899
Employment 2005:               394,242

                  Population by Race                                            Population by Age
                                  Number        Percent                                       Number    Percent
 White                              456,564        88.4%   Under 5 years:                      37,480      7.3%
 Black                               19,505         3.8%   5 to 17 years:                      95,636      18.5%
 American Indian / AK Native          1,261         0.2%   18 to 29 years:                     78,378      15.2%
 Asian                               20,000         3.9%   30 to 49 years:                    161,270      31.2%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                 75       0.0%   50 to 64 years:                     92,587      17.9%
 Other Race                           9,901         1.9%   65 years and over:                  97,938      19.0%
 Two or more races                    9,425         1.8%
 Hispanic*                           29,262         5.7%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                   Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                         $69,817                                      Number    Percent
 Median Household Income White                   $72,056   Population 25+                     338,251
                                                           Bachelor’s Degree                  113,816      33.6%
 Median Household Income Black                   $47,109
 Non-Hispanic                                              Master’s Degree                     41,467      12.3%

 Median Household Income Hispanic                $46,917   Professional School Degree          11,360      3.4%

 Population in Poverty                            25,058   Doctorate Degree                     4,621      1.4%

 Poverty Rate                                       4.9%   Bachelor’s or Higher               171,264      50.6%

Johnson County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company
Natural Gas                   Kansas Gas Service, Atmos
Water                         Kansas City, MO Water; Johnson County Water District 1
Wastewater                    Unified Wastewater District
Solid Waste                   Deffenbaugh; Republic; Town & Country; L & K Disposal; Gardner Disposal
                              Service; City of Olathe; Weldon Sanitation Services
Police                        County Sheriff, Bonner Springs PD; Fairway Pd; Leawood PD; Merriam PD;
                              Olathe PD; Prairie Village PD; Roeland Park PD; Shawnee Mission School
                              Police; Westwood PD; Gardner PD; Johnson County Park PD; Lenexa PD;
                              Mission PD; Overland Park PD; Lake Quivira PD; Shawnee PD; Spring Hill
Fire                          Overland Park Fire, Johnson Co Consolidated #2, Olathe Fire, Shawnee Fire,
                              Lenexa Fire, Leawood Fire; Johnson County Fire District #1, #3; Merrian FD
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell; Everest; Time Warner
Internet                      Everest, Time Warner Cable
Hospital                      Menorah, Overland Park Regional, Shawnee Mission Medical, St. Luke’s
                              South, Olathe Medical Center
Airport                       Johnson County Executive Airport, New Century Air Center; Burbank Airport;
                              Cedar Air Park; Flying V Airport; Gardner Municipal ; Hermon Farm Airport;
                              Hillside Airport; Kansas City Suburban Airpark; Konitz Airport; Mission Road
                              Landing Strip; Neumanns Airport
Major Transportation Routes   Interstate 35 and 435; US 56, 69 and 169; Kansas 7 and 10.
Railroad                      Union Pacific RR, BNSF RR
Industrial Parks              New Century AirCenter; Griffin Industrial Park; Bonner Springs Industrial
                              Park; Congleton Industrial Park; Crossroads Industrial Park; Lenexa Industrial
                              Park; Lackman Business Center; Triangle Industrial Park
Major Employers               Ash Grove Cement Co. (350); AT&T (362); Black & Veatch (3,600); Blue
                              Valley School District (2,124); Blue Valley School District (2,249); Blue
                              Valley School District (2249); Capital One Home Loans (465); Children’s
                              Mercy Hospital (400); City of Overland Park (889); Deffenbaugh Industries,
                              Inc. (1,200); Deluxe Financial Services (500); Embarq (4,500); Encore
                              Receivable Management (900); FAA/Air Route Traffic Control Center (570);
                              Farmers Insurance - First Response Center (800); FedEx Ground Package
                              System, Inc. (500); Ferrell Gas (597); First Star Banking (750); Garmin
                              International (925); GE Card Services (709); Gear For Sports, Inc. (1100);
                              Honeywell Aerospace Electronic Systems (1,300); Huhtamaki (300); Intervet,
                              Inc. (200); JC Penney Catalog Logistics (1200); Johnson County Community
                              College (873); Johnson County Community College (950); Johnson County
                              Government (2,350); McCray Lumber Company (320); Menorah Medical
                              Center (720); Midland Loan Services (471); Millennium Marketing (700);
                              MMC Corp. (650); Olathe Medical Center (1,600); Olathe School District
                              (3,328); Overland Park Regional Medical Center (1,134); Overland Park
                              Regional Medical Center (2,000); Physicians Reference Laboratory (440);
                                                                                      continued on next page

Johnson County Utilities and Other Services, continued
Major Employers, continued   Prescription Solutions (600); Prism Business Media (350); Quest Diagnostics
                             (2626); Quintiles Transnational Corporation (710); Shawnee Mission Medical
                             Center (1,829); Shawnee Mission School District (3,900); Shawnee Mission
                             School District (4,035); Sprint/Nextel (14,500); Swiss Re (850); Sysco Food
                             Services (725); T-Mobile (600); TransAm Trucking (1,000); United Parcel
                             Service (800); United Parcel Service of America, Inc. (1,734); Valley View
                             Bancshares, inc. (750); Valley View Financial Group (719); Waddell &
                             Reed Financial (857); Wal-Mart Super Center (500); Wells Fargo (750); YRC
                             Worldwide (2,600); Zurich North America Commercial (900)
Park and Recreation          Shawnee Mission Park, Heritage Park, Overland Park Arboretum, Deanna
                             Rose Farmstead; Antioch Park; Ernie Miller Park; Sunflower Nature Park;
                             Stanley Nature Park; Prairie Oak Nature Center
Educational Facilities       University of Kansas, Mid-America Nazarene College, Johnson County
                             Community College; Brown Mackey College
Tourist Attractions          Carlsen Center of Johnson County Community College Nerman Museum of
                             Art; Johnson County Museum of History; Wonderscope Children’s Museum;
                             Mahaffie Farmstead
Economic Development         Johnson County, Overland Park EDC, Lenexa EDC, Olathe EDC

County Profile: Leavenworth County, Kan.
Population 2006:               74,177
Households 2006:               24,343
Employment 2005:               35,209

                  Population by Race                                                Population by Age
                                  Number       Percent                                            Number      Percent
 White                               62,257       83.9%        Under 5 years:                       4,577       6.2%
 Black                                6,961        9.4%        5 to 17 years:                      14,697      19.8%
 American Indian / AK Native            544        0.7%        18 to 29 years:                     11,490      15.5%
 Asian                                1,255        1.7%        30 to 49 years:                     23,429      31.6%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                 0         0%        50 to 64 years:                     12,855      17.3%
 Other Race                           1,315        1.8%        65 years and over:                  12,937      17.4%
 Two or more races                    1,845        2.5%
 Hispanic*                           3,075         4.1%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                       Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                        $54,627                                           Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                  $55,959        Population 25+                      47,930
                                                               Bachelor’s Degree                    6,903      14.4%
 Median Household Income Black                  $48,874
 Non-Hispanic                                                  Master’s Degree                      4,528       9.4%

 Median Household Income Hispanic               $45,782        Professional School Degree               755     1.6%

 Population in Poverty                            7,342        Doctorate Degree                         285     0.6%

 Poverty Rate                                   10.75%         Bachelor’s or Higher                12,471      26.0%

Leavenworth County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company, Westar Energy
Natural Gas                   Kansas Gas Service
Water                         Rural Water Districts, Suburban Water District; Consolidated Rural Water
                              District #1
Wastewater                    Leavenworth County Sewer District # 1, Basehor Wastewater Plant
Solid Waste                   A-1 Disposal; Leavenworth County; Deffenbaugh
Police                        County Sheriff; Leavenworth Police; Lansing PD; Basehor PD; Tonganoxie PD
Fire                          Leavenworth County FD; Easton Township Fire Department; Fairmount
                              Township FD; Kickapoo Township FD; Reno Township FD; Sherman
                              Township FD; Stranger Township FD; Tonganoxie Township FD; Tonganoxie
                              City FD
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell, AT&T
Internet                      Time Warner Cable
Hospital                      Cushing Hospital; Dwight D. Eisenhower Dept. of Veteran Affairs Medical
                              Hospital; Saint John’s
Airport                       Ft. Leavenworth Army Airfield; Blasers Airport; Bovinair; Dorei Airport; High
                              Crest Air Park; Neu Field; Northern Landing Strip; Olhausen Landing Strip
Major Transportation Routes   Interstate 70; US 73, 24 and 40; Kansas 7
Railroad                      Union Pacific RR, BNSF RR
Industrial Parks              Leavenworth Industrial Park; Gary E. Carlson Leavenworth Area Business
                              Center; Urban Hess Business Center; Lansing Business Center
Major Employers               Eisenhower Veterans Affairs Medical Center (725); Fort Leavenworth (5,601);
                              Hallmark Cards, Inc. (647); Lansing Correctional Facility (700); Lansing
                              Correctional Facility (700); Leavenworth USD #453 (829); Northrop-
                              Grumman, Information Technologies (589); U.S. Federal Penitentiary (550);
                              VA Medical Center (750);
Park and Recreation           Leavenworth County State Park; Leavenworth State Fishing Lake and Wild
                              Life Area; Miller Bicentennial Park; Riverfront Park; Leavenworth Landing
Educational Facilities        St. Mary’s College; Kansas City Kansas Community College
Tourist Attractions           Ft. Leavenworth; Carnegie Arts Center ; C.W. Parker Carousel Museum, The
                              Carroll Mansion, Richard Allen Cultural Center; Historic Riverfront Town
                              Leavenworth; Frontier Army Museum; Performing Arts Center; First City
                              Museum; Historic Leavenworth County Courthouse
Economic Development          Leavenworth County Development Corporation

County Profile: Miami County, Kan.
Population 2006:                30,451
Households 2006:                11,480
Employment 2005:                15,901

                  Population by Race                                                 Population by Age
                                  Number        Percent                                            Number      Percent
 White                               29,053        95.4%        Under 5 years:                       2,152       7.1%
 Black                                   315        1.0%        5 to 17 years:                       5,728      18.8%
 American Indian / AK Native             174        0.6%        18 to 29 years:                      4,833      15.9%
 Asian                                   264        0.9%        30 to 49 years:                      8,707      28.6%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                 11       0.0%        50 to 64 years:                      5,997      19.7%
 Other Race                              232        0.8%        65 years and over:                   3,034      10.0%
 Two or more races                       402        1.3%
 Hispanic*                               555        1.8%

 *Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                        Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                         $60,573                                           Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                   $60,996        Population 25+                      19,840
                                                                Bachelor’s Degree                    2,762      13.9%
 Median Household Income Black                   $42,050
                                                                Master’s Degree                      1,078       5.4%
                                                                Professional School Degree               300     1.5%
 Median Household Income Hispanic                    NA
                                                                Doctorate Degree                         75      0.4%
 Population in Poverty                             1,961
                                                                Bachelor’s or Higher                 4,215      21.2%
 Poverty Rate                                       6.6%

Miami County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company; Kansas Municipal Energy Agency
Natural Gas                   Kansas Gas Service
Water                         Rural Water District #2
Wastewater                    Louisburg Wastewater Treatment Plant; Osawatomie WWTP
Solid Waste                   L&K Disposal; Deffenbaugh
Police                        Miami County Sheriff’s Office, Louisburg PD; Paolo PD; Osawatomie PD
Fire                          Rural Fire Station District #1; Louisburg Fire Station; Paolo FD; Fontana Fire
                              Station; Osawatomie Fire Station; Wellsville Fire Station
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell
Hospital                      Miami County Medical Center
Airport                       Miami County Airport; Harry Bivins Airport; Hayden Farm Airport; Crosswind
                              Airfield; Hayden Farm Airport; Hurt Airport; Jeserick Airport; Majeski Airport;
                              Osawatomie-Paola Municipal Airport
Major Transportation Routes   Interstate 35; US 69 and 169; Kansas 7 and 68
Railroad                      Union Pacific RR, BNSF RR
Industrial Parks              Paola Industrial Park
Major Employers               Debrick Truck Lines, Trucking/Transportation, 95; Miami County
                              Government, Government, 200; Miami County Medical Center, Health Care,
                              180; Paola School District, Education, 600; Tri-Ko Inc., Mental Health Care,
                              135; Triangle Builders, General Construction, 50; Wal-Mart, Retail Sales, 370;
Park and Recreation           Miami State Fishing Lake and Wildlife Area; Miami County State Park;
                              Hillsdale Lake
Educational Facilities        Fort Scott Community College; Pittsburg State University Technology Institute
Tourist Attractions           Louisburg Cider Mill; Powell Observatory
Economic Development          Miami County

County Profile: Wyandotte County, Kan.
Population 2006:               155,509
Households 2006:                58,167
Employment 2005:                91,851

                  Population by Race                                                Population by Age
                                  Number       Percent                                            Number      Percent
 White                               89,870       57.8%        Under 5 years:                      13,868       8.9%
 Black                               40,778       26.2%        5 to 17 years:                      31,314      20.1%
 American Indian / AK Native          1,105        0.7%        18 to 29 years:                     24,798      15.9%
 Asian                                2,392        1.5%        30 to 49 years:                     44,547      28.6%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                 0       0.0%        50 to 64 years:                     24,665      15.9%
 Other Race                          16,596       10.7%        65 years and over:                  30,680      19.7%
 Two or more races                    4,768        3.1%
 Hispanic*                           34,677       22.3%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                       Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                        $36,660                                           Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                  $43,532        Population 25+                      95,851
                                                               Bachelor’s Degree                    9,721      10.1%
 Median Household Income Black                  $26,675
 Non-Hispanic                                                  Master’s Degree                      3,070       3.2%

 Median Household Income Hispanic               $32,304        Professional School Degree           1,064       1.1%

 Population in Poverty                           29,147        Doctorate Degree                         778     0.8%

 Poverty Rate                                    19.08%        Bachelor’s or Higher                14,633      15.3%

Wyandotte County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Board of Public Utilities; KCPL; Westar
Natural Gas                   Atmos Energy
Water                         Board of Public Utilities
Wastewater                    Kaw Point WWTP; Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 20
Solid Waste                   Deffenbaugh
Police                        County Sheriff; KCK PD; Bonner Springs, PD
Fire                          Kansas City, KS Fire; Bonner Springs Fire; Edwardsville Fire
Telephone                     AT & T
Internet                      Time Warner Cable
Hospital                      University of Kansas Medical Center; Bethany Hospital; Douglass Hospital;
                              Providence Hospital
Airport                       Fairfax Municipal; Hancock Landing; Kellys Landing Field; Providence
Major Transportation Routes   Interstate 70, 635 and 35; US 24, 40 and 69; Kansas 5, 7 and 32.
Railroad                      Union Pacific RR, BNSF RR
Industrial Parks              Argentine Industrial Park; Cambridge Business Center
Major Employers               Armour Swift-Eckrich (500); Associated Wholesale Grocers (1,300); Bulk Mail
                              Center (600); Burlington Northern Santa Fe (1,200); General Motors (3,350);
                              Keebler Foods (550); Owens Corning (525); Swift Transportation (650);
                              Teletech (600); Union Pacific (750); United Parcel Service (900); University
                              of Kansas Medical Center ();
Park and Recreation           Wyandotte County Lake; Wyandotte County Park; Pierson Park; Sunflower
                              Hill Golf Course
Educational Facilities        University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS Community College,
                              Donnelly College
Tourist Attractions           NASCAR, Legends Shopping Area, Community America Minor League
                              Baseball Park; Schlitterbahn Water Resort and Vacation Village (Opens
                              Summer 2009)
Economic Development          Wyandotte County Economic Development Corporation

County Profile: Cass County, Mo.
Population 2006:               95,781
Households 2006:               35,543
Employment 2005:               37,222

                  Population by Race                                               Population by Age
                                  Number      Percent                                            Number      Percent
 White                               88,355      92.2%        Under 5 years:                       6,481       6.8%
 Black                                2,599       2.7%        5 to 17 years:                      17,988      18.8%
 American Indian / AK Native            819       0.9%        18 to 29 years:                     15,977      16.7%
 Asian                                  850       0.9%        30 to 49 years:                     27,813      29.0%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander              328       0.3%        50 to 64 years:                     16,422      17.1%
 Other Race                           1,026       1.1%        65 years and over:                  20,958      21.9%
 Two or more races                    1,804       1.9%
 Hispanic*                            2,938       3.1%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                      Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                       $55,223                                           Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                 $55,606        Population 25+                      62,234
                                                              Bachelor’s Degree                    8,307      13.3%
 Median Household Income Black                 $56,588
 Non-Hispanic                                                 Master’s Degree                      3,014       4.8%

 Median Household Income Hispanic              $51,018        Professional School Degree               544     0.9%

 Population in Poverty                           6,232        Doctorate Degree                         103     0.2%

 Poverty Rate                                    6.57%        Bachelor’s or Higher                11,968      19.2%

Cass County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company, Aquila, Osage Valley Electric
                              Cooperative Assoc.; City of Harrisonville Municipal Utilities
Natural Gas                   Missouri Public Service, Atmos Energy Corp.
Water                         Kansas City, Mo., Water; public water districts, municipal
Wastewater                    Peculiar Waste Water; Dogwood Energy Facility
Solid Waste                   Town & County Disposal; Deffenbaugh; Willeys; Hyden Hauling
Police                        County Sheriff, Belton Police Department (PD), Raymore PD, Harrisonville
                              PD, Pleasant Hill PD; Archie PD; Cleveland PD; Drexel PD; East Lynne PD;
                              Garden City PD; Lake Annette PD; Lake Winnebago PD; Peculiar PD
Fire                          Archie Volunteer Fire Department (FD); Belton; Central Cass County Fire
                              Protection District (FPD); Creighton FPD; Dolan-West Dolan FPD Drexel
                              Community FPD; East Lynne-Gunn City FPD; Harrisonville FD; Mount
                              Pleasant FPD; Northeast Cass Rural FPD; Pleasant Hill Fire & Rescue; South
                              Metro FPD; West Peculiar FPD; Western Cass FPD
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell; Cass County Telephone, MO-KAN Telephone, Sprint
Cable & Internet              Comcast; Time Warner;
Hospital                      Research Belton Hospital; Cass Medical Center
Airport                       Bishops Landing Airport; Breed Ranch Airport; Flying G Airport; Flying M
                              Rach Airport; Harrisonville Landing Strip; Hart Airport; Hilltop Airport; Inter-
                              State Airport; Lawrence Smith Memorial Airport; Leos Angus Ranch Airport;
                              May Airport; McDonnell Airport; Raymore Int’l Airport; Research Belton
                              Hospital Heliport; Richters Airport; Riordan Airport; Roth Farms Airport;
                              Villnave Airport; West Aero Ranch Airport
Major Transportation Routes   U. S. 71; Missouri 7, 2, 58 and 291.
Railroad                      Union Pacific RR, Kansas City Southern RR, MNA
Industrial Parks              SWC Broadmoor and Municipal Circle; Peculiar Industrial Park
Major Employers               Quik ‘N Tasty Distribution Center (291); ROM Corporation; Sioux Chief
                              Manufacturing (350); Wal-Mart Distribution Center (500)
Park and Recreation           Lake Harrisonville; North Park
Educational Facilities        University of Missouri Extension – Cass County
Tourist Attractions           Cass County Courthouse; Cass County Historical Society, Cass County Public
Economic Development          Cass County Economic Development Corporation

County Profile: Clay County, Mo.
Population 2006:               206,957
Households 2006:                78,624
Employment 2005:               118,680

                  Population by Race                                                Population by Age
                                  Number       Percent                                            Number      Percent
 White                              187,077       90.4%        Under 5 years:                      15,341       7.4%
 Black                                7,341        3.5%        5 to 17 years:                      37,224      18.0%
 American Indian / AK Native             205       0.1%        18 to 29 years:                     33,128      16.0%
 Asian                                4,121        2.0%        30 to 49 years:                     62,948      30.4%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                 0       0.0%        50 to 64 years:                     36,255      17.5%
 Other Race                           3,217        1.6%        65 years and over:                  41,096      19.9%
 Two or more races                    4,996        2.4%
 Hispanic*                            9,428        4.6%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                       Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                        $53,448                                           Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                  $53,950        Population 25+                     137,431
                                                               Bachelor’s Degree                   27,443      20.0%
 Median Household Income Black                  $27,644
 Non-Hispanic                                                  Master’s Degree                      8,560       6.2%

 Median Household Income Hispanic               $50,965        Professional School Degree           1,941       1.4%

 Population in Poverty                           15,133        Doctorate Degree                         586     0.4%

 Poverty Rate                                     7.43%        Bachelor’s or Higher                38,530      28.0%

Clay County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company; Platte-Clay Cooperative; Union
                              Electric Company; Aquila; Ameren UE
Natural Gas                   Missouri Gas Energy; Missouri Public Service Energy One
Water                         Kansas City, MO; Municipal; Clay County PWSD
Wastewater                    Smithville WWTF
Solid Waste                   Deffenbaugh; Matthys Hauling; Red Gate Disposal
Police                        County Sheriff; Birmingham PD; Claycomo PD; Excelsior Springs PD;
                              Gladstone Public Safety Dept.; Holt PD; Kearney PD; Lawson PD; Liberty
                              PD; Mosby PD; NKC PD; Oakview PD; Pleasant Valley PD; Randolph PD;
                              Smithville PD
Fire                          Kansas City FD; Liberty FD; North Kansas City FD; Gladstone Public Safety;
                              Excelsior Springs FD; Kearney FD; Smithville FD, Avondale Volunteer FD;
                              Claycomo FD; Fishing River Fire FPD; Holt FPD; Pleasant Valley FD
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell; Sprint; AT & T
Internet                      AT&T; Sprint
Hospital                      North Kansas City Hospital, Liberty Hospital, St. Luke’s Northland
Airport                       Kansas City Downtown Airport, Clay County Regional Airport; Dunham
                              Private Airport; Kitty Hawk Estates Airport; Liberty Airport; Liberty Landing
                              Airport; Norman Fann Farm Airport; NKC Hospital Heliport; North Patrol
                              Division Station Heliport; Royal Wood Aerodome Aiport
Major Transportation Routes   Interstate 29, Interstate 35, Interstate 435, US 69 and 169; Missouri 291, 152,
Railroad                      Union Pacific RR, ICE
Industrial Parks              Liberty Industrial Park; Heartland Meadows; Executive Park/Northland
Hunt Midwest
Major Employers               Ameristar Casino (2,316); Cerner Corporation (3,300); Ford Motor Company
                              (5,700); Hallmark Cards 91,265); Harrah’s North Kansas City Casino (1,600);
                              Liberty Hospital (975); Liberty School District (1,343); North Kansas City
                              Hospital (3,000); North Kansas City School District (2,667); R R Donnelly
                              (522); Union-Pacific Railroad (1,500); Worlds of Fun (2,100)
Park and Recreation           Hodge Park, Smithville Lake; Watkins Mill State Park; Maple Woods Nature
Educational Facilities        William Jewell College, Maplewoods Community College, North Kansas City
                              School District, Liberty School District, Smithville School District, Excelsior
                              Springs School District, Kearney School District
Tourist Attractions           Worlds of Fun/Oceans of Fun, Smithville Lake, Jesse James Farm, Elms Hotel
                              (Excelsior Springs), Harrah’s Casino, Watkins Woolen Mill State Historic Site;
                              Historic Liberty Jail, Clay County Museum and Historical Society
Economic Development          Clay County Economic Development Corporation

County Profile: Jackson County, Mo.
Population 2006:               664,078
Households 2006:               273,445
Employment 2005:               457,662

                  Population by Race                                                Population by Age
                                  Number       Percent                                            Number    Percent
 White                              460,236       69.3%        Under 5 years:                      50,717      7.6%
 Black                              153,793       23.2%        5 to 17 years:                     120,976      18.2%
 American Indian / AK Native          2,490        0.4%        18 to 29 years:                     99,208      14.9%
 Asian                                9,414        1.4%        30 to 49 years:                    195,309      29.4%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander               400       0.1%        50 to 64 years:                    116,938      17.6%
 Other Race                          22,053        3.3%        65 years and over:                 152,826      23.0%
 Two or more races                   15,692        2.4%
 Hispanic*                           47,180        7.1%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                       Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                        $44,211                                           Number    Percent
 Median Household Income White                  $50,820        Population 25+                     437,733
                                                               Bachelor’s Degree                   75,119      17.2%
 Median Household Income Black                  $36,970
 Non-Hispanic                                                  Master’s Degree                     28,977      6.6%

 Median Household Income Hispanic               $32,999        Professional School Degree           7,075      1.6%

 Population in Poverty                          101,140        Doctorate Degree                     3,396      0.8%

 Poverty Rate                                    15.47%        Bachelor’s or Higher               114,567      26.2%

Jackson County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company; Independence Power;Aquila;
Natural Gas                   Missouri Gas Energy
Water                         Kansas City, MO Water; Independence Water; Raytown, Jackson County
                              Municipal, public water districts
Wastewater                    Blue Springs, Sni-A-Bar WWTF; LBVSD, Atherton Plant

Solid Waste                   Deffenbaugh; Republic Waste; Town & Country; AAA Disposal
Police                        County Sheriff; Kansas City PD; Blue Springs PD; Buckner PD; Grain Valley
                              PD; Grandview PD; Greenwood PD; Independence PD; Lake Lotawana PD;
                              Lake Tapawingo PD; Lee’s Summit PD; Lone Jack PD; Raytown PD; Sugar
                              Creek PD
Fire                          Kansas City FD, Independence FD, Raytown FD, Grandview FD, Lee’s
                              Summit FD, Central Jackson County FD, Ft. Osage FD; Central Jackson
                              County FPD; Emergency Mutual Aid Rescue Squad; Inter-City FPD; Lake
                              City Army Ammunition Plant FD; Lone Jack Community FPD; Long Lane
                              Community Volunteer FD; Lotawana FPD; Prairie Township FPD; Sni-Valley
                              FPD; Sugar Creek FD
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell; Sprint; AT & T; Birch Telecom; Everest
Internet                      Comcast; Embarq; AT&T; Time Warner
Hospital                      Truman Medical Center, St. Luke’s Plaza, St. Luke’s East Lee’s Summit,
                              Centerpoint, St. Joseph; Research; St. Mary’s; Children’s Mercy Hospital;
                              Crittenton Hospital Main Campus; Two Rivers Psychiatric Hospital; Veterans
                              Hospital Medical Center, Truman Medical Center-Lakewood
Airport                       Lee’s Summit Municipal Airport; East Kansas City Airport; Heart Airport;
                              Independence Memorial Airport; KCMO Police Dept. Helicopter/
                              Maintenance Facility Heliport; Research Medical Center Heliport; Saint
                              Luke’s Hospital Heliport; Saint Joseph Life Flight Heliport; Stafford Airport;
                              Stevinson Farm Airport; Thomas Airport; VA Medical Center Heliport
Major Transportation Routes   Interstates 70, 35, 435, 635, 470, 670; Missouri 7; US 24, 40, 71 and 50;
                              Missouri 7, 78, 150, 210, 291, 350..
Railroad                      BNSF RR, Union Pacific RR, Kansas City Southern RR
Industrial Parks              Carefree Industrial Park; Downtown Industrial Park; Leeds Industrial Park
Major Employers               Alliant Techsystems, Inc. (1,984); AMC (587); American Century Investments,
                              Inc. (1,540); Aquila, Inc. (1,079); Assurant Employee Benefits (1,038); AT&T
                              (4,000+); Bayer CropScience, Core Technologies Center (800); BG Service
                              solutions (1,750); Black & Veatch (2,600); Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Kansas
                              City (1,026); Burns & McDonnell (1,483); Butler Manufacturing Co. (507);
                              Carondelet Health (2,098); Children’s Mercy Hospital (3,417); City of Kansas
                              City, MO (4,400); Clarkson Construction Company (1,070); Commerce
                              Bancshares, Inc. (2,400); Dickinson Financial Corp. ¬Bank Midwest(560);
                              DST Systems, Inc. (5,100); Federal Government (18,471); GE Insurance
                              Solutions (750); Great Plains Energy, Inc.–KCPL (1,710); H & R Block, Inc.
                              (1,299); Hallmark Cards, Inc. (4,500); HCA, Midwest Division (10,828);
                              HNTB Corp. (575); Honeywell Fed. Mfg. & Technologies (2,718); IBM (900);
                                                                                       continued on next page

Jackson County Utilities and Other Services, continued
Major Employers, continued   Internal Revenue Service (2,800); J.E. Dunn Construction (2,000); Kansas City
                             Life Insurance Co. (588); Kansas City Star Co. (1,300); Kohl’s (450); Lockton
                             Companies (746); NovaStar Financial (696); Peterson Manufacturing Co.,
                             Inc. (996); Quintiles Transnational Corp. (1,151); Saint Joseph Health Center
                             (1,008); Saint Luke’s Health System (4,633); Saint Luke’s Hospital of Kansas
                             City (2,597); Sanofi-Aventis (570); Shook Hardy & Bacon (1,063); State of
                             Missouri (6,723); State Street (1,100); Time Warner Cable (890); Transamerica
                             Occidental Life Insurance Co. (700); Truman Medical Center, Inc. (2,909);
                             UMB Financial Corp. (2,433); University of Missouri-Kansas City (2,799)
Park and Recreation          Kansas City Zoo, Swope Park, Penn Valley Park, Loose Park, Fleming Park
                             (Lake Jacomo), Longview Lake, Blue Springs Lake, James A. Reed Wildlife
                             Area; Lakeside Nature Center; Martha LaFite Thompson Nature Sanctuary;
                             Discovery Center (MDC); Burr Oak Woods Conservation Nature Center;
                             Powell Gardens; Loose Park; Lee’s Summit Legacy Park
Educational Facilities       University of MO-KC; Rockhurst College; Avila College; Penn Valley
                             Community College; Longview Community College; Blue River Community
                             College; Pioneer Community College; American Osteopathic College of
                             Anesthesiologists; Business and Technology College of the MCC; Calvary
                             Bible College; Central Michigan Univ.; Cleveland Chiropractic College;
                             Columbia College of KC; DeVry Univ.; Friends Univ.; Graceland Univ.; Heart
                             of America Christian College; Kansas City Art Institute; Kansas city Baptist
                             College; KC College of Legal Studies; Keller Grad. School of Management;
                             Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary; National American University;
                             Nazarene Theological Seminary; Penn Valley Community College; Saint
                             Luke’s College; Saint Paul School of Theology; Sanford-Brown College; Univ.
                             of Health Sciences; Univ. of Phoenix; Vatterott College; Webster Univ.
Tourist Attractions          Union Station, Liberty Memorial, Truman Library, Truman Home, Country
                             Club Plaza, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kemper Contemporary Art
                             Gallery, Kansas City Zoo, Truman Sports Complex, Sprint Center, Power and
                             Light District, The Plaza; Worlds of Fun and Oceans of Fun, Hallmark Visitors
                             Center; Arabia Steamboat Museum; American Jazz Museum; American Royal
                             Museum and Visitor Center; Negro Leagues Baseball Museum; Toy and
                             Miniature Museum of Kansas City
Economic Development         Jackson County Economic Development Corporation, Kansas City Economic
Organizations                Development Corporation, Independence Economic Development
                             Corporation, Blue Springs Economic Development Corporation, Lee’s Summit
                             Economic Development Corporation

County Profile: Platte County, Mo.
Population 2006:               83,061
Households 2006:               33,080
Employment 2005:               48,669

                  Population by Race                                          Population by Age
                                  Number      Percent                                       Number      Percent
 White                               74,195      89.3%   Under 5 years:                       5,203       6.3%
 Black                                3,221       3.9%   5 to 17 years:                      14,980      18.0%
 American Indian / AK Native            289       0.3%   18 to 29 years:                     13,327      16.0%
 Asian                                1,204       1.4%   30 to 49 years:                     25,568      30.8%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander              382       0.5%   50 to 64 years:                     16,061      19.3%
 Other Race                           1,836       2.2%   65 years and over:                  14,496      17.5%
 Two or more races                    1,934       2.3%
 Hispanic*                            3,237       3.8%
*Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                 Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                       $62,402                                      Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                 $64,941   Population 25+                      55,808
                                                         Bachelor’s Degree                   13,804      24.7%
 Median Household Income Black                 $30,200
 Non-Hispanic                                            Master’s Degree                      5,452       9.8%

 Median Household Income Hispanic              $37,577   Professional School Degree           1,467       2.6%

 Population in Poverty                           5,648   Doctorate Degree                         241     0.4%

 Poverty Rate                                    6.85%   Bachelor’s or Higher                20,964      37.6%

Platte County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Kansas City Power and Light Company
Natural Gas                   Missouri Public Service; Missouri Gas Energy
Water                         Kansas City, MO Water; public water districts
Wastewater                    Clemstone Sewer District WWTF; MDNR, Weston Bend State Park

Solid Waste                   Deffenbaugh; Republic
Police                        County Sheriff, Kansas City, MO PD, Riverside Public Safety; Camden Point
                              PD; Dearborn PD; Edgerton PD; Ferrelview PD; Houston Lake PD; Lake
                              Waukomis PD; Parkville PD; Platte City PD; Platte Woods PD; Tracey PD;
                              Weatherby Lake PD; Weston PD
Fire                          South Platte FD, Kansas City, MO FD, Riverside Public Safety; Camden Point
                              FPD; Central Platte FPD; Dearborn Area FPD; Edgerton-Trimble FPD; Fire
                              Rescue Squad of Platte County; Lake Waukomis Dept. of Public Safety; West
                              Platte FPD
Telephone                     AT & T
Internet                      Time Warner Cable
Hospital                      St. Luke’s Northland
Airport                       Kansas City International Airport; Elton Field; Flintlock Field; North Platte
                              Airpark; Vandahl Airport
Major Transportation Routes   Interstate 29, 635 and 435; US 69; Missouri 9, 152, 92 and 45
Railroad                      BNSF RR
Industrial Parks              KCI Business AirPark, Riverside Business Park; Airworld Industrial Park
Major Employers               Accent Teleservices (250); ADT Security Services, Inc. (850); Aetna Rx Home
                              Delivery (503); Alpine North (202); American Airlines Aviation (1,400);
                              Argosy Riverside Casino (972); CitiCards (2,139); CRB Consulting Engineers
                              (105); Dairy Farmers of America (220); DeLaval (150); Embassy Suites (164);
                              Farmland Foods (450); FedEx Aviation (168); Haldex Brake (200); Harley-
                              Davidson Motor Company (900); HMS Host (160); K & Company (155);
                              Kansas City Airport Hilton (168); Kansas City Aviation Department (425);
                              Kansas City Marriott (200); Knappco/Civacon (142); Laidlaw Transit (170);
                              McCormick Distilling Company (135); National Weather/Aviation Ctr./Central
                              Regional HQ (143); Park Hill School District (1,328); Park University (396);
                              Platte County Government (271); Platte County R3 Schools (330); Saint
                              Luke’s Northland Hospital (847); Sony (220); Southwest Airlines Aviation
                              (310); Woodbridge Foam (242); World Travel Partners (350); Worldspan
Park and Recreation           English Landing Park; Missouri Riverfront Trail; Green Hills of Platte Wildlife
                              Reserve; Weston Bend State Park; Snow Creek Ski & Board Area
Educational Facilities        Park University; University of Missouri Extension-Platte County; Western
                              Missouri University
Tourist Attractions           Historic Weston; Camden Point Baptist Church Cemetery; Harley-Davidson
                              Final Assembly Plant and Visitors Center; TWA Museum Chapter of the
                              Platte County Historical Society; United Federation of Doll Clubs Museum;
                              Ben Ferrel Platte County Museum; Historic Square District; Argosy Riverside
Economic Development          Platte County Economic Development Corporation

County Profile: Ray County, Mo.
Population 2006:                23,537
Households 2006:                 9,246
Employment 2005:                11,593

                  Population by Race                                             Population by Age
                                  Number        Percent                                        Number      Percent
 White                               22,848        97.1%    Under 5 years:                       1,470       6.2%
 Black                                   221        0.9%    5 to 17 years:                       4,403      18.7%
 American Indian / AK Native               48       0.2%    18 to 29 years:                      3,613      15.4%
 Asian                                     39       0.2%    30 to 49 years:                      6,503      27.6%
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                 15       0.1%    50 to 64 years:                      4,971      21.1%
 Other Race                                35       0.1%    65 years and over:                   2,577      10.9%
 Two or more races                       331        1.4%
 Hispanic*                               476        2.0%

 *Hispanic can be of any race

                         Income                                    Educational Attainment (Age 25 and up)
 Median Household Income                         $49,797                                       Number      Percent
 Median Household Income White                   $50,015    Population 25+                      19,840
                                                            Bachelor’s Degree                    1,100       7.1%
 Median Household Income Black                   $17,232
                                                            Master’s Degree                          598     3.8%
                                                            Professional School Degree               203     1.3%
 Median Household Income Hispanic                    NA
                                                            Doctorate Degree                         41      0.3%
 Population in Poverty                             2,356
                                                            Bachelor’s or Higher                 1,942      12.5%
 Poverty Rate                                    10.01%

Ray County Utilities and Other Services
Electricity                   Aquila; Union Electric Company; Platte-Clay Cooperative
Natural Gas                   Missouri Gas Energy; Aquila Networks
Water                         Ray County public water districts; Municipal
Wastewater                    Richmond North WWTF; Lawson WWTF
Solid Waste                   AAA Disposal Service; Heartland Waste; Republic
Police                        County Sheriff; City police: Crystal Lakes PD; Hardin PD; Henrietta PD;
                              Homestead Village PD; Orrick PD; Richmond PD
Fire                          Richmond FD; Volunteer departments: Hardin FPD; Lawson FPD; Orrick
                              FPD; Stet Rural FPD; Wood Heights FPD
Telephone                     Southwestern Bell, Sprint, Century Telephone
Internet                      Embarq; Comcast
Hospital                      Ray County Memorial
Airport                       Carpenter Airport; Curtis Field; Excelsior Springs Memorial Airport; Lexington
                              Municipal Airport; Martins Airport
Major Transportation Routes   Missouri 10, 13 and 210
Railroad                      NS, BNSF RR, ICE
Industrial Parks              Richmond Business Community Industrial Park
Major Employers               Bank Midwest, Financial institution, 22; Hunt Midwest/Green Quarries, Rock
                              quarry, 175; ORBSEAL, Inc., Manufacturing, 350; Pacific Epoxy Polymer,
                              Manufacturing, 40; Ray Carroll Grain Growers, Propane gas, fertilizer plant,
                              111; Ray County Div. of Family Services, Public agency, 20; Ray County
                              Memorial Hospital, Health care, 216; Richmond IGA, Grocery store, 60;
                              Richmond R-XVI Schools, Education, 220; Shirkey Leisure Acres, Nursing
                              home, 130; Taber Products, Printing/sealants, 13; Wal-Mart, Discount retailer,
Park and Recreation           Maurice Roberts Park
Educational Facilities        University of Missouri Extension – Ray County
Tourist Attractions           Richmond Courthouse; Farris Theater; Ray County Fairgrounds and Museum;
                              Shirkey Gold Course
Economic Development          Kansas City Area Development Corporation

600 Broadway, Suite 200 | Kansas City, MO 64105
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