LESSON PLAN by v1Nibn1t

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 15

									                                                Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

                                       LESSON PLAN

                                           PART I

Title: The Outer Planets
Instructional Methods
     Informal Lecture with Discussion, Individual Writing and Reflection, Individual and Group
     Activities, Small Group Discussion, Internet Research, and Reading
Materials
     Exploring Space: The High Frontier
     Activities Worksheets
Resources
     PowerPoint Presentation on Instructor Guide (IG) CD
     Computer with Internet Access
     Classroom Performance System (CPS)
Student Preparation:
     Reading Assignment: Chapter 3, Lesson 3: The Outer Planets
     Homework Assignment: Chapter 3, Lesson 4
Assessment/Evaluation:
     CPS Questions
     CPS Vocabulary on IG CD
     Quick Write
     Discussion/Questions
     CPS Test Files on IG CD

National Science Education Standards (NSES)
   Content Standard B: Physical Science
    Structure and properties of matter
    Motions and forces
    Conservation of energy and the increase in disorder
   Content Standard D: Earth and Space Science
    The origin and evolution of the universe
   Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
    Science as a human endeavor
    Nature of scientific knowledge
National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS●S) (Technology Activity)
    6. Technology Operations and Concepts
     a. Understand and use technology systems
     b. Select and use applications effectively and productively

Lesson Objectives:
1. Know about Jupiter
2. Know about Saturn
3. Know about Uranus
4. Know about Neptune


                               Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                             175
                                                  Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System


Samples of Behavior/Main Points:
1. Describe the view of Jupiter as seen from Earth and from space
2. Explain Jupiter’s differential rotation
3. Describe the composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere
4. Identify the three groups of moons that orbit Jupiter
5. Describe Saturn’s size, mass, and density
6. Describe Saturn’s speed of rotation and solar orbit
7. Identify Titan as the largest of Saturn’s 60 moons
8. Describe the small particles that form Saturn’s rings
9. Describe the two factors that led Herschel to discover the planet Uranus
10. Describe Uranus’s motion and the tilt of its equatorial plane
11. Describe the length of the solar orbit of Uranus
12. Explain how Uranus’s moons act as shepherds for the particles of its rings
13. Explain what caused scientists to search for Neptune
14. Describe Neptune’s wind speeds and differential rotation
15. Describe the unusual orbits of Neptune’s two major moons

Strategy: This lesson covers the four outermost planets of the Solar System – Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus and Neptune – providing an in-depth look at specific features of each one.

Preparation:
 Review the entire lesson plan (recommend trial run through PowerPoint, Internet URLs, and
   use of CPS)
 Gather any materials necessary for the activities
 Make copies of all activity worksheets for the students
 Have computers with Internet connection available, if possible
 Thoroughly read the technology enrichment activity and complete any pre-class preparation
   for it

Part IIA—Exploration: Begin the lesson with the CPS self-assessment and focusing questions.
Then complete the Quick Write reading/writing activity. During the presentation, provide a
mini-lecture to introduce an overview of the lesson content then check for learning using the
CPS.

Part IIB—Engagement: Use all or some of the following activities with CPS if applicable;
review them for detailed instructions:

1.   Knowledge Review/Crossword Puzzle: The Outer Planets Puzzle
2.   Individual Reflection Activity: Jovian Rings & Moons
3.   Group Application Activity: Planet Profiles
4.   Technology Enrichment: Alien Safari

Part IIC—Wrap-Up: Review the material, and then reinforce it with the CPS review and transfer
of learning questions to judge the student’s comprehension of the material


                                Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                               176
                                                   Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System


Evaluation: Refer to the IG CD for the lesson test files

Lesson Outline:

1. Part IIA—Exploration (25 min)
    a. Overview
    b. Quick Write
    c. Informal Lecture

2. Part IIB—Engagement (50 min)
    a. Activities
    b. Assessments

3. Part IIC—Wrap-Up (15 min)
    a. Review
    b. Conclusion




                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                                177
                                                   Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System


                                             PART II

                                 PART IIA—EXPLORATION

ATTENTION
Many people know that Saturn has rings. Did you know
that Saturn isn’t the only planet with rings though? All
four of the planets that we are going to study today actually
have rings and moons.

CPS Warm – Up Questions (1 – 2)
Note for teacher: Ask the following question using the
CPS:

1. How much information do you already know about this
   topic area?
       a. Expert – I have done a lot of reading in this area
           already.
       b. Above Average – I have learned some
           information about this topic.
       c. Moderate – I know a little about this topic.
       d. Rookie – I am a blank slate…but ready to learn.

2. Jupiter’s volume is how much larger than Earth’s?
      a. 1,200
      b. 1,400 (p. 117)
      c. 1,600
      d. 1,800

MOTIVATION
The Jovian planets are the four planets that are farthest
from the Sun – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Today, you will explore them and learn more about each
one.

LESSON OVERVIEW
Today, we’ll cover the following topics:
1. Jupiter
2. Saturn
3. Uranus
4. Neptune




                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                                178
                                                   Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

QUICK WRITE WITH CPS
Note to teacher: Have the students read/review the opening
story in the lesson. Then have them write a response to the
Quick Write on a separate piece of paper. Use “Pick a
Student” button in CPS to select 2 -3 students to share their
answers.

Can you think of an experience in your own life, or in
someone else’s, where something that you observed turned
out to be very different from what you thought it was?
What does that experience suggest about the mindset a
scientist must have to deal with new data and observations?

(Note to teacher: Use “Pick a Student” button in CPS)

PRESENTATION

1. Jupiter

   a. Jupiter as Seen From Earth and From Space

       (1) Jupiter is the Solar System’s largest planet.

       (2) Jupiter has 318 times the mass of Earth.
           Jupiter’s diameter is about 11 times that of
           Earth. And so its volume is 1,400 times that of
           Earth.

       (3) It takes Jupiter nearly 12 Earth years to cycle
           around the Sun. But it spins around on its axis
           once every nine hours, 55 minutes.

   b. Jupiter’s Rotation

       (1) Jupiter has light- and dark-colored bands
           parallel to its equator. The bands near the
           equator move slightly faster than those around
           the poles.

       (2) The phenomenon of different parts of a planet
           having different periods of rotation is known as
           differential rotation. It indicates that Jupiter’s
           visible surface isn’t solid. It must be partially
           fluid.



                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                                179
                                              Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

   (3) Another thing to notice about the planet: It’s
       somewhat oblate, or flattened at the poles. This
       is an effect of Jupiter’s swift rotation.

c. The Composition of Jupiter’s Atmosphere

   (1) The Galileo spacecraft found Jupiter’s
       atmosphere to be about 90 percent hydrogen and
       10 percent helium, with small amounts of
       methane, ammonia and water vapor. Galileo
       also found small amounts of certain heavier
       elements – carbon, nitrogen and sulfur.

   (2) Jupiter may have helium rain “showers” in its
       upper atmosphere, with neon dissolving in
       helium raindrops under certain conditions.

   (3) The spacecraft’s probe found that three so-
       called “noble” gases – argon, krypton and xenon
       – are two to three times as prevalent on Jupiter
       as in the Sun. The only way for Jupiter to get
       such quantities of these gases would be to trap
       them by condensation or freezing.

   (4) A protoplanet is a hypothetical whirling
       gaseous mass within a giant cloud of gas and
       dust that rotates around a sun and becomes a
       planet. New data, however, suggest that the
       material that makes up Jupiter must have come
       from a much colder place than Jupiter’s current
       location.

d. Jupiter’s Three Groups of Moons

   (1) As of 2009, the family of Jupiter’s known
       moons numbers 63. The first four orbit very
       close to Jupiter. They are called fragmented
       moonlets.

   (2) The second group is the four Galilean satellites:
       Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They are
       about the same size as Earth’s Moon. Their
       orbits are nearly perfect circles.

   (3) The third group consists of the remaining 55
       moons. Many of these orbit clockwise, unlike

                            Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                           180
                                                  Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

            most objects in the Solar System, and their
            orbits are fairly eccentric. Astronomers
            speculate that these moons are captured
            asteroids.

2. Saturn

   a. The astronomer Galileo first observed Saturn in
      1610.

      (1) He didn’t know what to make of the “bumps” he
          saw on either side of Saturn.

      (2) Some 50 years later the Dutch physicist and
          astronomer Christian Huygens recognized that
          the “ears” on Saturn were really rings.

   b. Saturn’s Size, Mass, and Density

      (1) Saturn is not much smaller in diameter than
          Jupiter. But it’s only half as dense. It has only
          0.7 the density of water.

      (2) Saturn likely has a less dense core and less
          liquid metallic hydrogen than Jupiter does.

      (3) Saturn’s atmosphere is like that of Jupiter and
          the Sun: about 96 percent hydrogen, 3 percent
          helium, and 1 percent heavier materials.

   c. Saturn’s Speed of Rotation and Solar Orbit

      (1) Saturn takes 29.5 Earth years to orbit the Sun. It
          rotates on its axis in 10 hours, 39 minutes.

      (2) Saturn is also oblate, more so than any other
          planet. This is because it doesn’t have enough
          gravitational force to keep a more-spherical
          shape.

      (3) Saturn’s rings are in the plane of its equator, and
          the planet tilts 27 degrees with respect to its
          orbital plane.

      (4) So as both Earth and Saturn orbit the Sun,
          earthlings will sometimes see the edge of

                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                               181
                                                 Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

         Saturn’s rings, and at other points during
         Saturn’s orbit they will observe the rings’ “top”
         and “underside.”

  d. Titan, Saturn’s Largest Moon

     (1) Titan is the largest of Saturn’s more than 60
         moons.

     (2) It’s second largest in the Solar System, after
         Ganymede, Jupiter’s largest moon.

     (3) Data from the Huygens probe suggest that at
         one point, Titan had an atmosphere five times as
         dense as it is today. That implies that Titan is
         losing material from the top of its atmosphere
         into space.

  e. The Particles That Form Saturn’s Rings

     (1) The rings are made up of chunks of water ice
         and smaller bits of rock and organic matter.

     (2) There’s a lot of empty space between the chunks
         too.

3. Uranus

  a. What Led Herschel to Discover the Planet Uranus

     (1) Herschel noticed that this object did not appear
         as a point of light, as stars do.

     (2) Over the period of a few nights, it moved. That
         suggested a different kind of celestial object,
         one evidently much closer to Earth than anyone
         had realized.

     (3) Herschel realized he had discovered a new
         planet; it was the first discovery of a new planet
         in recorded history.

  b. The Motion of Uranus and the Tilt of Its Equatorial
     Plane

     (1) Uranus takes 84 Earth years to orbit the Sun.

                               Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                              182
                                                  Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System


     (2) What’s unique about Uranus: It’s axis is tilted
         90 degrees to its orbital plane. It spins on its
         side.

     (3) Because of its tilt, the poles on Uranus alternate
         between 42 years of sunlight and 42 years of
         darkness.

  c. How Uranus’s Moons Act as Shepherds for the
     Particles of Its Ring

     (1) It wasn’t until 1977 that scientists made the first
         reliable determination of Uranus’s diameter.
         They used an occultation – the passing of one
         astronomical object in front of another – to do
         this. It revealed that the planet has five rings;
         these rings are narrow, with well-defined edges.

     (2) According to Kepler’s law, the inner moon will
         orbit faster than the ring’s particles. As it passes
         individual particles it pulls them along, giving
         them an energy boost. This tends to push them
         away from the planet, making them orbit it
         slightly farther away.

     (3) Similarly, particles passing the outer moon are
         slowed somewhat while doing so. This tends to
         make them move closer to the planet.

4. Neptune

  a. What Made Scientists Search for Neptune

     (1) Uranus wasn’t behaving quite the way Newton’s
         laws predicted.

     (2) Most astronomers thought another planet was
         somehow disturbing Uranus’s orbit.

  b. Neptune’s Wind Speeds and Differential Rotation

     (1) Neptune experiences differential rotation – to an
         extreme degree. Near the equator, it rotates in
         18 hours, but near the poles, its rotation takes
         about 12 hours.

                               Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                               183
                                                 Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System


       (2) Neptune’s magnetic field rotates every 16 hours
           and seven minutes, so scientists consider this
           period the basic “day” on Neptune.

       (3) Voyager 2 images revealed a Great Dark Spot
           on Neptune’s surface; like Jupiter’s Great Red
           Spot, it was as big as Earth, was essentially a
           storm system, and had extremely high-speed
           winds.

       (4) Neptune shows signs of much stronger weather
           patterns than Uranus. Hubble’s observations of
           strong winds and storm systems suggest that
           Neptune has an annual cycle of seasons.

   c. The Unusual Orbits of Neptune’s Two Major
      Moons

       (1) Triton, the largest moon, and the seventh-largest
           in the Solar System, revolves clockwise around
           its planet.

       (2) Nereid, the other major moon of Neptune,
           revolves in the “correct” direction –
           counterclockwise. But it has the most eccentric
           orbit of any known moon in the Solar System.
           This means that its distance from Neptune
           varies widely over the course of its orbit.

CPS Learning Check Questions (3 - 4)
Note to teacher: Ask the following questions using the
CPS:

3. Which of these is Saturn’s largest moon?
     a. Ganymede
     b. Titan (p. 123)
     c. Triton
     d. Nereid

4. Who discovered the planet Uranus?
     a. Galileo
     b. John C. Adams
     c. Johann Galle
     d. Herschel (p. 124)


                                Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                               184
                                                   Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

                                 PART IIB—ENGAGEMENT

Note to Teacher: All student handouts and answer keys for
the activities are following the “Checkpoints” answers at
the end of the lesson.

Activity 1: The Outer Planets Puzzle

Instructions for the teacher:

1. This is an individual activity. It enables the student to
   review the vocabulary and other terms from the lesson
   by completing a crossword puzzle.

2. Hand out the copies of the student worksheet located at
   the end of this lesson.

3. Instruct students complete the crossword puzzle using
   vocabulary words and other terms from the lesson.
   They may refer to pages 116-130 in the textbook.

4. Allow about 15 minutes for this activity.

5. Briefly review the correct answers.

Instructions for students:

Complete the crossword puzzle using vocabulary words
and other terms from the lesson. You may use your
textbook pages 116-130.


Activity 2: Jovian Rings & Moons

Instructions for the teacher:

1. This is an individual activity. It enables the student to
   learn some of the similarities and differences between
   the Jovian planets.

2. Hand out the copies of the student worksheet located at
   the end of this lesson.

3. Instruct students to use their textbook to complete the
   worksheet.


                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                                185
                                                   Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

4. Use the CPS to select 2-3 students to share their
   answers. Then briefly review the correct answers.

Instructions for students:

Two things that the Jovian planets have in common are the
fact that they all have rings and they all have moons.
Answer the questions about the rings and the moons of the
four outer planets.


Activity 3: Planet Profiles

Instructions for the teacher:

1. This is a small group activity that enables students to
   review all the data presented about the planets by
   creating study guides for NASA.

2. Divide class into groups of 3-5 students.

3. Hand out the copies of the student worksheet located at
   the end of this lesson.

4. Provide materials such as construction paper, colored
   pencils and pens, rulers, etc.

5. Encourage students to be creative but remind them that
   their final product needs to be clean and usable.

6. Have each group share their Planet Profiles.

Instructions for students:

1.   Create a profile sheet for each of the planets in our
     Solar System. These could be distributed to students
     studying astronomy as a study aide.

2.   Make sure to include all pertinent data, pictures, and
     what makes that planet unique.

3.   Your final product should be easy to read and help
     other students learn as much as possible about the
     planets in our Solar System.



                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                                186
                                                   Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

4.   Be prepared to share your final product with the other
     groups.


Technology Enrichment: Alien Safari

Instructions for the teacher:

1. This is a small group activity that enables students to
   learn more about extreme conditions on Earth where
   organisms live and how that might lead to answers
   about life on other planets.

2. Prior to class, check to ensure this URL is working
   properly:
   http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/AlienSafari_launch_page
   .html

3. Students will visit the interactive Alien Safari website,
   and answer question on the worksheet.

4. Divide class into groups of 3-5 students.

5. Hand out the worksheet located at the end of this
   lesson.

6. Briefly review the correct answers. Note: Some of the
   answers on the worksheet are not mentioned aloud by
   the narrator but are listed in writing during the
   segment. Check to ensure the visual media plays when
   you are launching the Alien Safari.

Instructions for students:

Launch the Alien Safari. As you select each Life Zone,
listen carefully and fill in the chart. Work with your group
to complete the questions.




                                 Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                                187
                                                  Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

                                   PART IIC—WRAP UP


REVIEW
 The four planets farthest from the Sun are called the
  Jovian planets.
 All of the Jovian planets have rings and multiple
  moons.
 Scientists are still discovering information about these
  planets.

CPS Review Questions (5 - 6)
Note to teacher: Have the students write a response on a
sheet of paper. Then use the “Pick a Student” button in
CPS to select 2 -3 students to share their answers with the
class.

5. What made scientists search for Neptune?
   Most astronomers thought another planet was somehow
   disturbing Uranus’s orbit.

(Note to teacher: Use “Pick a Student” button in CPS)

6. What is something you learned today that you had
   never heard of before?

(Note to teacher: Use “Pick a Student” button in CPS)

SUMMARY
In this lesson we discussed the following:
1. Jupiter
2. Saturn
3. Uranus
4. Neptune


REMOTIVATION
The Jovian Planets are fascinating subjects of study. In the
study of astronomy, it is important to understand some of
the features of these Outer Planets and how they are
different from the Terrestrial Planets.

CLOSURE
Today, you have learned about The Outer Planets. Next,
you’ll learn about Dwarf Planets, Comets, Asteroids, and
Kuiper Belt Objects.

                                Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                               188
                                          Chapter Three, The Sun and the Solar System

er and food to survive.




                          Lesson Three, The Outer Planets

                                       189

								
To top