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8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 Theme Motion and Forces Number of Days 3 Weeks – CBA # 2 Overview The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. That motion can be measured and represented on a graph. Prior Knowledge 6.8A compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy ;Supporting Standard 6.8B Identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces. 6.8C Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements. Supporting Standard 6.8D Measure and graph changes in motion; Supporting Standard 6.8E Investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force to move an object 7.7A Contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still. Supporting Standard 7.7C Demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in everyday life, such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism Misconceptions Students erroneously think that velocity and speed are the same. Concepts of distance, velocity, and acceleration are often confused with one another. Students erroneously think acceleration is an increase in speed only. Students may thing that time interval and instant of time are the same thing. (They are not the same, however). Student Expectations (Science and ELPS) Teaching Targets Newton’s Laws of Motion 8.6C Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, ● First Law: Any object in motion will stay in motion, and any object at rest will stay at law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as rest, until it is acted on by an unbalanced force. This law is also referred to as the in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, law of inertia. Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches; Readiness Standard 8.6A demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the TSW know that the motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces speed or direction of an object's motion; Readiness Standard acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. Forces on an object can change its shape or orientation. 1 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared. Examples: A moving observer versus a stationary observer; observers facing different directions; and cm for short distances but km for long distances. ● Second Law: The net force on an object equals the object’s mass multiplied by its acceleration (Force = mass x acceleration). 8.6 B differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration; and Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes. Changing direction and slowing Supporting Standard down are examples of acceleration. Newton’s Second law: The net force on an object equals the object’s mass multiplied by its acceleration (Force = mass x acceleration). Newton’s second law (F= ma) is a powerful tool for making predictions about motion. For example, if you know how big a force is and what size mass it acts on you can predict how fast an object will accelerate. 8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger predict trends. change in motion. Example of these proportional and inversely proportional relationships can include a large truck requiring more force to slow down from a given speed to a stop than does a small truck and a ball pushed with a given force having a greater change in motion if the force is greater. The velocity of an object is its speed in a particular direction. An object’s velocity changes when it speeds up, slows down, or changes direction. Velocity is an object’s speed in a particular direction, so a greater speed means a greater velocity, Speed is the change in distance divided by time. The unit for speed is meters per second (m/s). The students must be able to communicate understanding of speed that is presented in different formats (verbally, graphically, textually, mathematically) ● Third Law: When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal but opposite force on the first object. For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the 2 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction. Examples of interacting objects can include a book resting on a table; and skaters facing one another with hands together, then pushing off of one another. ELPS & 4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading Students will show comprehension text/graphic sources about Newton’s laws Resources skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making through inferential skills such as making connections between vehicle restraints, connections between the big ideas, drawing inferences and sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, rocket launches conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding and Newton’s laws. supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs; 5F – Write using a variety of grade –appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English acquired Writing in Science – Analyze a Motion Graph Students write to analyze a motion graph and create a story or scenario that describes changes in motion such as distance, time and speed. Writing in Science – Newton’s Laws Comic Strip Students read a comic strip to identify and explain real world applications of Newton’s laws of motion. Key Vocabulary: Word Wall- Forces and Motion Force, unbalanced forces, motion, speed, direction, velocity, acceleration, inertia, action- reaction and application of Newton’s laws: inertia, law of force and acceleration, law of action-reaction. Word Wall – Force & Motion with Visuals Same terms as listed above. Includes visual support. Forces - vocabulary word sort Card sort with vocabulary, description and illustration. Required Theme Activities Focus Points How do forces affect motion- mini lab Mini lab on the motion of an object depends on whether balanced or unbalanced forces act on it. How is speed related to acceleration- mini lab The students will try to figure out what happens if the distance they walk each second increases and use this lab to demonstrate acceleration. 3 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 In what ways can velocity change –launch lab Students look at a motion graph, decide what type of motion occurs and try to walk a path according to the motion shown on the graph. How do opposite forces compare –launch lab Students will describe the relationship between the force readings on two spring scales. Is momentum conserved during collision mini lab (PreAP only) Students will try to explain the momentum is conserved during collision of two marbles. Law and Order The students will conduct a lab activity to investigate all three laws of motion in action. Law and Order Questions Supporting Resources Focus Points Motion and Forces – Speed, velocity and acceleration How do speed and velocity differ? What is acceleration? Motion Bingo Students will demonstrate, observe, and quantify changes in an object’s motion. Motion Bingo Questions Kamico pages 199-205 Practice calculating speed th 8 grade supplemental material: http://www.classzone.com/cz/index.htm Newton’s First Law – Content Practice A Digital Lesson- Motion and Speed Newton’s First Law – content Practice B Animation – Newton’s Second Law Newton’s Fist Law – Content vocabulary Animation – Action Reaction Forces Newton’s First Law – Key concepts Average Speed video clip Newton’s First Law – Notebook Newton’s First Law – reading essential Unbalanced Forces and Inertia Ping-Pong Demonstration Engage the students in the concept of forces. http://rubble.ultralab.net/simulations/nb_friction4.htm - Friction Video Video Clips that shows Friction – Excellent! Clips Forces Worksheet The students will be able to define and explain how forces are related to motion. Understanding Forces Worksheet The students will be able to identify forces that are present using different Unbalanced Forces = Net Force scenarios. Force and Motion Notes – PowerPoint 4 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 Warm-Up – Motion – PowerPoint Which Way? How Fast? Which Way? How Fast? Questions First Law: Law of Inertia First Law: Law of Inertia Newton’s First Law of Motion Students will explain their observations in terms of Newton’s First law. Real Life Applications to Newton’s First Law Real life applications to Newton’s First Law Newton’s First Law of Motion Part II Physics in Sports Connections – Newtons’ First Law – video clip http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/NewPhysic Games and power points s/newtons_1.html http://science.pppst.com/motion.html Egg Drop Inertia Demonstration Exciting demonstrations of inertia. Have students make predictions and explain how Old Tablecloth Trick - Inertia Demonstration inertia is demonstrated with these activities. Inertia Crash Test Dummies Investigation Students investigate how mass affects inertia. Students build a ramp, use a toy car and a crash dummy made of clay to demonstrate the law of inertia. Students will then investigate the application of the law of action-reaction by using vehicle restraints on their crash test dummy. Second Law: - Acceleration Second Law – Acceleration Acceleration Content Practice a Practice Worksheets Acceleration Content Practice b Acceleration Science notebook Students will explain their observations in terms of Newton’s Second Law. Amusement Pak Physics – enrichment Trilling Bellringer 3 Students will understand that less massive objects will have a greater acceleration. Ways an object can accelerate –focus on content Students will investigate the effect of an increase in mass have on the force needed Newton’s Second Law of Motion Lab to move an object. Make sure students can manipulate variable for F=ma (solve for m and solve for a) Acceleration Lab Demonstration Acceleration Motion Stations: Acceleration Mass Calculating Average Acceleration – Video 5 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 Newton’s Second Law Notes Acceleration Notes (TEA) Acceleration or Not – Powerpoint Check for student understanding of acceleration using this powerpoint of visual Newton’s Law of Force & Acceleration representations of real-world events. Third Law: Action-Reaction Third Law – Action –Reaction 3-2-1 blastoff Bellringer 4 Practice Worksheets Ball Toss page Keely science probes Action and Reaction Forces focus on content Newton’s third law content practice a Worksheet – Use to understand relationship between force, mass and acceleration. Newton’s third Law content practice b Newton’s third Law reading essentials Newton’s third law science notebook Newton’s third law school to home Your life with Newton Challenge Balloon Rockets Students will investigate that when there is a force on one thing in one direction, Motion Stations: Action and Reaction another force is acting on something else in another direction. In a balloon rocket the gas pushes against the rocket and the rocket pushes back just as hard against Newton’s Third Law Notes the gas. http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/NewPhysics/ Physics in Sports Connections – Newtons’ third Law – video clip newtons_3.html Rocket Racer – 3 Law - PreAP rd Students make vehicle (rocket racer) from everyday materials and use it to demonstrate the law of action-reaction. Materials could be provided for students to Texas Science – Glencoe Science – Chapter 6 – pages 152 – 159 make at home. Book: Stop Faking it! Force and Motion - from NSTA press by William C Robertson, Ph Instructional Focus Activities IFA – 6.8C,D Graph changes in motion Warm-up questions IFA – 6.8D Graph Changes in Motion IFA – 8.6A Unbalanced Forces Change Motion IFA – 8.6C Newton’s Law of Inertia 6 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 IFA – 8.6C Law of Force & Acceleration IFA – 8.6A net force IFA – 8.6A balanced forces IFA – 8.6A balanced forces2 IFA – 8.6A balanced forces3 IFA – 8.6B acceleration IFA – 8.6B speed IFA – 8.6B velocity IFA – 8.6C Newton Law Assessment Focus Points Pre-Assessment Questions – Unbalanced Forces Short response questions to assess student understanding of 6.8B 3-2-1 Blastoff! Warm-up questions – Real-world applications of Newton’s Laws. Amusement Park Physics Thrilling! Look Ma – One hand Exit Ticket – Newton’s Laws Newton’s Laws (1 and 3 ) questions st rd Practice Questions – Newton’s Laws Multiple choice questions Speed, velocity, acceleration questions Note: In some of these pdf files, the documents are upside-down. Go to “view” then Newton’s Law Question “rotate view” within the document to view right-side-up. Unbalanced forces change in Motion question Unbalanced forces change in Motion question2 Key Questions: What are the possible results if an unbalanced force acted upon a moving object? Compare and contrast speed, velocity, and acceleration. Analyze and discuss multiple representations of the constant velocity model including graphical and diagrammatic representations. Choose a situation where Newton’s laws can be illustrated and describe its application. 7 8th Grade Science Curriculum First Semester Galena Park ISD 2012-2013 8