# Unit7 Forces MotionCurriculum 10 12 2012 2013 002 by 1yG682

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```									         8th Grade Science Curriculum                                      First Semester                                    Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

Theme                  Motion and Forces

Number of Days           3 Weeks – CBA # 2
Overview                  The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed.
That motion can be measured and represented on a graph.

Prior Knowledge              6.8A       compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy ;Supporting Standard

6.8B       Identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces.

6.8C       Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements. Supporting Standard

6.8D       Measure and graph changes in motion; Supporting Standard

6.8E       Investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force to move an object

7.7A       Contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a
box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still. Supporting Standard

7.7C       Demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in everyday life, such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and
geotropism

Misconceptions         Students erroneously think that velocity and speed are the same.
 Concepts of distance, velocity, and acceleration are often confused with one another.
 Students erroneously think acceleration is an increase in speed only.
 Students may thing that time interval and instant of time are the same thing. (They are not the same, however).
Student Expectations (Science and ELPS)                                         Teaching Targets
Newton’s Laws of Motion
8.6C    Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, ● First Law: Any object in motion will stay in motion, and any object at rest will stay at
law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as       rest, until it is acted on by an unbalanced force. This law is also referred to as the
in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides,         law of inertia.
Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches;

8.6A     demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the            TSW know that the motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces
speed or direction of an object's motion; Readiness Standard           acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change.
 Forces on an object can change its shape or orientation.

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8th Grade Science Curriculum                                     First Semester                                  Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

 All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described
in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order
to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared.
Examples: A moving observer versus a stationary observer; observers facing
different directions; and cm for short distances but km for long distances.

● Second Law: The net force on an object equals the object’s mass multiplied by its
acceleration (Force = mass x acceleration).

8.6 B     differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration; and       Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes. Changing direction and slowing
Supporting Standard                                                   down are examples of acceleration.
 Newton’s Second law: The net force on an object equals the object’s mass
multiplied by its acceleration (Force = mass x acceleration).
 Newton’s second law (F= ma) is a powerful tool for making predictions about
motion. For example, if you know how big a force is and what size mass it acts on
you can predict how fast an object will accelerate.
8.2E      Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations,                 The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the
communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and            same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger
predict trends.                                                     change in motion.
 Example of these proportional and inversely proportional relationships can include a
large truck requiring more force to slow down from a given speed to a stop than
does a small truck and a ball pushed with a given force having a greater change in
motion if the force is greater.
 The velocity of an object is its speed in a particular direction.
 An object’s velocity changes when it speeds up, slows down, or changes direction.
 Velocity is an object’s speed in a particular direction, so a greater speed means a
greater velocity,
 Speed is the change in distance divided by time. The unit for speed is meters per
second (m/s).
 The students must be able to communicate understanding of speed that is
presented in different formats (verbally, graphically, textually, mathematically)

● Third Law: When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object
exerts an equal but opposite force on the first object.

 For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the

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8th Grade Science Curriculum                                      First Semester                                    Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the
first, but in the opposite direction.
 Examples of interacting objects can include a book resting on a table; and skaters
facing one another with hands together, then pushing off of one another.

ELPS &       4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading              Students will show comprehension text/graphic sources about Newton’s laws
Resources    skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making     through inferential skills such as making connections between vehicle restraints,
connections between the big ideas, drawing inferences and             sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, rocket launches
conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding                and Newton’s laws.
supporting text evidence commensurate with content area
needs;
5F – Write using a variety of grade –appropriate sentence
lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases,
clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more
English acquired

Writing in Science – Analyze a Motion Graph                          Students write to analyze a motion graph and create a story or scenario that
describes changes in motion such as distance, time and speed.
Writing in Science – Newton’s Laws Comic Strip
 Students read a comic strip to identify and explain real world applications of
Newton’s laws of motion.

Key Vocabulary:
Word Wall- Forces and Motion                                                     Force, unbalanced forces, motion, speed, direction, velocity, acceleration, inertia,
action- reaction and application of Newton’s laws: inertia, law of force and
acceleration, law of action-reaction.
Word Wall – Force & Motion with Visuals                                            Same terms as listed above. Includes visual support.
Forces - vocabulary word sort                                                      Card sort with vocabulary, description and illustration.

Required Theme Activities                                                        Focus Points

How do forces affect motion- mini lab                                            Mini lab on the motion of an object depends on whether balanced or unbalanced
forces act on it.

How is speed related to acceleration- mini lab                                   The students will try to figure out what happens if the distance they walk each second
increases and use this lab to demonstrate acceleration.

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8th Grade Science Curriculum                                        First Semester                                   Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

In what ways can velocity change –launch lab                                     Students look at a motion graph, decide what type of motion occurs and try to walk a
path according to the motion shown on the graph.

How do opposite forces compare –launch lab                                       Students will describe the relationship between the force readings on two spring
scales.

Is momentum conserved during collision mini lab (PreAP only)                     Students will try to explain the momentum is conserved during collision of two
marbles.

Law and Order                                                                    The students will conduct a lab activity to investigate all three laws of motion in action.
Law and Order Questions

Supporting Resources                                                            Focus Points

Motion and Forces – Speed, velocity and acceleration                            How do speed and velocity differ?
What is acceleration?
Motion Bingo                                                                    Students will demonstrate, observe, and quantify changes in an object’s motion.
Motion Bingo Questions                                                          Kamico pages 199-205
Practice calculating speed
th
http://www.classzone.com/cz/index.htm

Newton’s First Law – Content Practice A                                         Digital Lesson- Motion and Speed
Newton’s First Law – content Practice B                                         Animation – Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s Fist Law – Content vocabulary                                          Animation – Action Reaction Forces
Newton’s First Law – Key concepts                                               Average Speed video clip
Newton’s First Law – Notebook
Newton’s First Law – reading essential
Unbalanced Forces and Inertia
 Ping-Pong Demonstration                                                        Engage the students in the concept of forces.

 http://rubble.ultralab.net/simulations/nb_friction4.htm - Friction Video       Video Clips that shows Friction – Excellent!
Clips
 Forces Worksheet                                                               The students will be able to define and explain how forces are related to motion.
 Understanding Forces Worksheet                                                 The students will be able to identify forces that are present using different
 Unbalanced Forces = Net Force                                                   scenarios.
 Force and Motion Notes – PowerPoint

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8th Grade Science Curriculum                                   First Semester                                   Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

 Warm-Up – Motion – PowerPoint
Which Way? How Fast?
Which Way? How Fast? Questions

First Law: Law of Inertia                                                    First Law: Law of Inertia
 Newton’s First Law of Motion                                                Students will explain their observations in terms of Newton’s First law.
 Real Life Applications to Newton’s First Law                                Real life applications to Newton’s First Law
 Newton’s First Law of Motion Part II                                        Physics in Sports Connections – Newtons’ First Law – video clip
 http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/NewPhysic    Games and power points
s/newtons_1.html
 http://science.pppst.com/motion.html
 Egg Drop Inertia Demonstration                                              Exciting demonstrations of inertia. Have students make predictions and explain how
 Old Tablecloth Trick - Inertia Demonstration                                 inertia is demonstrated with these activities.
 Inertia Crash Test Dummies Investigation                                    Students investigate how mass affects inertia. Students build a ramp, use a toy car
and a crash dummy made of clay to demonstrate the law of inertia. Students will
then investigate the application of the law of action-reaction by using vehicle
restraints on their crash test dummy.

Second Law: - Acceleration                                                   Second Law – Acceleration
Acceleration Content Practice a                                               Practice Worksheets
Acceleration Content Practice b
Acceleration Science notebook                                                 Students will explain their observations in terms of Newton’s Second Law.
Amusement Pak Physics – enrichment
Trilling Bellringer 3                                                         Students will understand that less massive objects will have a greater acceleration.
Ways an object can accelerate –focus on content
 Students will investigate the effect of an increase in mass have on the force needed
 Newton’s Second Law of Motion Lab                                            to move an object.
 Make sure students can manipulate variable for F=ma (solve for m and solve for a)
 Acceleration Lab Demonstration

 Acceleration
 Motion Stations: Acceleration Mass
 Calculating Average Acceleration – Video

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8th Grade Science Curriculum                                  First Semester                                Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

   Newton’s Second Law Notes
   Acceleration Notes (TEA)
   Acceleration or Not – Powerpoint                                        Check for student understanding of acceleration using this powerpoint of visual
   Newton’s Law of Force & Acceleration                                     representations of real-world events.

Third Law: Action-Reaction                                                 Third Law – Action –Reaction
3-2-1 blastoff Bellringer 4                                                 Practice Worksheets
Ball Toss page Keely science probes
Action and Reaction Forces focus on content
Newton’s third law content practice a                                       Worksheet – Use to understand relationship between force, mass and acceleration.
Newton’s third Law content practice b
Newton’s third law science notebook
Newton’s third law school to home

 Balloon Rockets                                                           Students will investigate that when there is a force on one thing in one direction,
 Motion Stations: Action and Reaction                                       another force is acting on something else in another direction. In a balloon rocket
the gas pushes against the rocket and the rocket pushes back just as hard against
 Newton’s Third Law Notes                                                   the gas.

 http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/NewPhysics/    Physics in Sports Connections – Newtons’ third Law – video clip
newtons_3.html                                                           
 Rocket Racer – 3 Law - PreAP
rd
 Students make vehicle (rocket racer) from everyday materials and use it to
demonstrate the law of action-reaction. Materials could be provided for students to
Texas Science – Glencoe Science – Chapter 6 – pages 152 – 159                make at home.
Book: Stop Faking it! Force and Motion - from NSTA press by William C
Robertson, Ph

Instructional Focus Activities
IFA – 6.8C,D Graph changes in motion                                        Warm-up questions
IFA – 6.8D Graph Changes in Motion
IFA – 8.6A Unbalanced Forces Change Motion
IFA – 8.6C Newton’s Law of Inertia

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8th Grade Science Curriculum                                    First Semester                                 Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

IFA – 8.6C Law of Force & Acceleration
IFA – 8.6A net force
IFA – 8.6A balanced forces
IFA – 8.6A balanced forces2
IFA – 8.6A balanced forces3
IFA – 8.6B acceleration
IFA – 8.6B speed
IFA – 8.6B velocity
IFA – 8.6C Newton Law

Assessment                                                                    Focus Points

Pre-Assessment Questions – Unbalanced Forces                                   Short response questions to assess student understanding of 6.8B
3-2-1 Blastoff!                                                                Warm-up questions – Real-world applications of Newton’s Laws.
Amusement Park Physics
Thrilling!
Look Ma – One hand

Exit Ticket – Newton’s Laws                                                    Newton’s Laws (1 and 3 ) questions
st      rd

Practice Questions – Newton’s Laws                                             Multiple choice questions
Speed, velocity, acceleration questions                                        Note: In some of these pdf files, the documents are upside-down. Go to “view” then
Newton’s Law Question                                                           “rotate view” within the document to view right-side-up.
Unbalanced forces change in Motion question
Unbalanced forces change in Motion question2

Key Questions:

What are the possible results if an unbalanced force acted upon a moving
object?
Compare and contrast speed, velocity, and acceleration.
Analyze and discuss multiple representations of the constant velocity model
including graphical and diagrammatic representations.
Choose a situation where Newton’s laws can be illustrated and describe its
application.

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8th Grade Science Curriculum   First Semester   Galena Park ISD 2012-2013

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