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					                                               MLA Format
CITATION TIPS

In text

ALL quotes, summaries, and paraphrases MUST be cited. Every source in the Works Cited
MUST appear in the report; every source in the report MUST appear in the Works Cited.

When paraphrasing or summarizing someone else's material, you are required to cite them.
DO NOT begin and end a sentence with quotation marks. Read Integrating Quotations
Use quotation marks for direct quotations, NOT for emphasis.
Report and research papers are primarily the work of the writers; limit the use of quotations.

Place parenthetical citations as close as possible to the relevant material.
Often writers use the author's name in a phrase to introduce the material:
Jonnasen believes that ...            Grabe argues ...             Bandura demonstrates ...

When the author's name is not mentioned in an introductory phrase, include the author's last
name with the page number(s) in parentheses. Do not use any punctuation between the author's
name and the page number(s). Place the period after the parentheses (Jonassen 24).

If the author's name is in the text of the sentence, include only the page number(s) in parentheses.

If the author has written more than one of the sources, the note MUST include a shortened form
of the title unless it is mentioned in the text.
Jonassen explores a variety of ways to use computers ...
(Computers 27-33).

For two or three authors, use all the author's last names in the introductory
phrase or in parentheses.
Pintrich and Schunk examine student motivation . . . .

For four or more authors, use the first author's name and et al. or name all the authors in an
introductory phrase or in parentheses.

For an unknown author, use the full title in the text or in parentheses.
If it is short, use the full title, otherwise use an abbreviated title.
Use Instructional-Design Theories for Instructional-Design Theories and
Models: An Overview of Their Current Status

With quotations of 40 or more words, DO NOT use quotation marks. Set off the quotation in
Block style format (Start quote on new line indented ten spaces. Each subsequent line is also
indented) Block quotations
Works Cited

Type the heading Works Cited centered, one inch from the top of the page.
Do not underline Works Cited; do not use quotation marks.
Double space the references. Use 1 inch margins on all sides. Use 12 point font.
Start each entry along the left margin - indent subsequent lines.
The second line of the citation is indented 5-6 letters.
List sources alphabetically by the author's last name. If the author is unknown, alphabetize by the
first major word in the title.
Use and between authors' names
Last name first, followed by middle name

Underlining is the preferable means for indicating titles of books, magazines, web sites, etc.

Abbreviate all months except May, June, and July.

Capitalize the first letter of all important words, but not articles (the, a, an) or prepositions (of, in,
etc.) unless they appear as the first word.

For most names, place the last name first, and separate with commas, e.g. Jordan, Michael.

Multiple authors: Examples:
· 2 authors - Child, Julia, and Martha Stewart.
· 3 authors - Child, Julia, Martha Stewart, and Jacques Pepin.
· 4 or more authors - Child, Julia, et al.

Publishers’ locations: List the city of publication, publisher’s name, and year of publication. If
several cities are listed in the book, only give the first city listed. If a city outside of the U.S. is
given, include an abbreviation of the country or province.

Publishers’ names: When documenting publishers’ names, an abbreviated form is preferred.
Omit initial articles (A, An, The) at the beginning of the publisher’s name and also omit business
abbreviations (Co., Corp., Inc.). Many publishers’ names may be shortened. Ex: Gale Research,
Inc. should be written as Gale. Oxford University Press will be Oxford UP.

  With quotations of 40 or more words, DO NOT use quotation marks.
  Set off the quotation in Block style format (Start quote on new line
  indented ten spaces. Each subsequent line is also indented)
  Block quotations must be introduced.
  When paraphrasing or summarizing someone else's material, you are required to cite them.
  DO NOT begin and end a sentence with quotation marks.
  Read Integrating Quotations
  Use quotation marks for direct quotations, NOT for emphasis.
  Report and research papers are primarily the work of the writers; limit the use of quotations.
  ALL quotes, summaries, and paraphrases MUST be cited.
In text citations
Place parenthetical citations as close as possible to the relevant material.
Often writers use the author's name in a phrase to introduce the material:
Jonnasen believes that ...
Grabe argues ...
Bandura demonstrates ...

When the author's name is not mentioned in an introductory phrase, include the author's last
name with the page number(s) in parentheses. Do not use any punctuation between the author's
name and the page number(s). Place the period after the parentheses (Jonassen 24).

If the author's name is in the text of the sentence, include only the page number(s) in parentheses.

If the author has written more than one of the sources, the note MUST include a shortened form
of the title unless it is mentioned in the text.
Jonassen explores a variety of ways to use computers ...
(Computers 27-33).

For two or three authors, use all the author's last names in the introductory
phrase or in parentheses.
Pintrich and Schunk examine student motivation ...

For four or more authors, use the first author's name and et al. or name all
the authors in an introductory phrase or in parentheses.

For an unknown author, use the full title in the text or in parentheses.
If it is short, use the full title, otherwise use an abbreviated title.
Use Instructional-Design Theories for Instructional-Design Theories and
Models: An Overview of Their Current Status

Works Cited List

  Type the heading Works Cited centered, one inch from the top of the page.
  Do not underline Works Cited -- do not use quotation marks.
  Double space the references
  Use 1 inch margins on all sides
  Use 12 point font
  Start each entry along the left margin - indent subsequent lines
  The second line of the citation is indented 5 letters
  List sources alphabetically by the author's last name
  If the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first major word in the title
  Use and between authors' names
  Last name first, followed by middle name
  Make sure that everything referenced in your paper is cited on your
  Works Cited page and everything on your Works Cited page is used in your text.
A book with one author
Inlude the author's name, the title of the book - underlined, the city of publication, the publisher,
and the date of publication. Check the title page for this information. Reverse the author's name
for alphabetizing. Include the full titile of the book; in the examlpe below, the title includes a sub
title. For cities like London, New York, or Boston which are well known, include only the name
of the city. If the city is likely to be ambiguous or unknown to the reader, include the name of the
state or country. If several cities are listed on the title page, include only the first. Shorten the
name of the publisher. (Charles Scribner's Sons - Scribner's, Houghton-Mifflin Co. - Houghton,
Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. - Macmillan, McGraw-Hill Inc. - McGraw, St. Martin's Press -
St. Martin's, Oxford University Press - Oxford UP ) Note that periods are placed after each piece
of information.
See MLA Handbook for Writers p. 244

                                 (remember to double space)
Author(s) or editor(s). [If more than 3 authors, use the name

     of the first author and add "et al." for "and others."]

     Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Book with one author:
author                       title
Mondimore, Francis Mark. Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Patients and

                city       publisher        date
     Families. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1999.

Jonassen, David H. Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools for Critical

    Thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1996.

Two or more books by the same author
List books alphabetically by title. Include the name of the author or authors in the first entry. In
subsequent entries, use three hyphens followed by a period.

Jonassen, David H. Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools for Critical

    Thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1996.

--- . Hypertext/Hypermedia. Educational Technology Publications. 1989.

Two or more authors
To cite a book by two or more authors, give the names in the same order as they appear on the
title page. Reverse the name of the first author, add a comma, and give the name of the next
author or authors in the normal order. Place a period after the last name. If the persons listed on
the title page are editors or translators, place a comma after the final name and add the
abbreviation eds. or trans.

Grabe, Mark, and Cindy Grabe. Integrating the Internet for Meaningful

     Learning. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Murphy, G., L. B. Murphy, and T. M. Newcomb. Experimental Social

    Psychology. New York: Harper. 1937.

Pintrich, P. R., and D. H. Schunk. Motivation in Education: Theory,

    Research, & Applications. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1996.

Rabkin, Eric S., Martin H Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds. No Place

    Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Carbondale:

     Southern Illinois UP, 1983.

If there are more than three authors, name only the first and add et al.(and others)

Book with four or more authors:
Nielsen, Niels C., Jr., et al. Religions of the World. 3rd ed.
     New York: St. Martin's, 1992.

Book with no author or editor (begin with title):
Rand McNally Commercial Atlas. Skokie: Rand McNally, 1993.

For a translation:
Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Trans. Constance Garnett. London: Pan, 1972.

For an edited collection:
Carter, Kathryn, and Carole Spitzack, eds. Doing Research on
    Women's Communication. Norwood: Ablex, 1989.

An anthology
Begin with the author or editor followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed. List the title, the
city of publication, the publishing company, and the date of publication.

McRae, Murdo William, ed. The Literature of Science: Perspectives on Popular

     Science Writing. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1993.
Work in an anthology or chapter in a book with an editor
When citing an essay in an anthology/collection:
Begin with the author and title of the piece, enclosed in quotation marks. If the work was
published independently (a play or novel for example) underline the title.Then list the title of the
anthology/collection underlined. If the book has an editor, write Ed. after the title and give the
name. Give the city of publication and the publisher. List the page numbers of the entire article
you are citing.

  author            title of article                     title of anthology / book
Keller, J. M. "Motivational Design of Instruction." Instructional-Design
                                                                        editor
   Theories and Models: An Overview of Their Current Status. Ed. C. M.
city             publisher           date pages of the article
     Reigeluth. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983. 23-32.

Keller, J. M., and T. Kopp, "Applications of the ARCS Model of

    Motivational Design." Instructional Theories in Action: Lessons

    Illustrating Theories and Models. Ed. C. M. Reigeluth. Hillsdale, NJ:

    Lawrence Erlbaum. 1987. 23-32.

Editor or editors

Collins, J. L., and E. A. Sommers, eds. Writing OnLine: Using Computers

    in the Teaching of Writing. Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1984.

Unknown author
Alphabetize by the title. Do not use either Anonymous or Anon. Ignore A, An, or The.

National Geographic Atlas of the World. (1988). Washington, DC: National

     Geographic Society.

A Multivolume work

If you are using two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes
in the work (4 volumes). This information comes after the title or after the editor's name and
before the publication information. Specific references to volume and page numbers (2: 134-37)
belong in the text of the paper.

Blanco, Richard L., ed. The American Revolution, 1775 - 1783: An Encyclopedia.

     2 vols. Hamden: Garland, 1993.
Doyle, Aurthur Conan. The Oxford Sherlock Holmes. Ed. Owen Dudley

     Edwards. 9 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 1993.

A Book in a Series
If the book is part of a series, include the name of the series and the series number followed by a
period before the publication information.

Maravall, Jose Antonio. Culture of the Baroque: Analysis of a Historical

     Structure. Trans. Terry Cochran. Theory and History of Literature. 25.

     Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1986.

Government document
Begin with the author if the name is given. If not, start with the name of the government,
followed by the agency and any subdivision. Give the title - underlined. With congressional
documents, cite the number, session, and house, the type and the number. For the Congressional
Record, give the date and page number. End with the publication information. This is often the
Government Printing Office (GPO).

United States, U. S. Bureau of the Census. Historical Statistics of the United

    States, Colonial Times to 1870. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing

     Office. 1975.

A Pamphlet
Treat a pamphlet as you would a book. Alphabetize by the author's name if it is available; if not,
use the title of the pamphlet.

Best Museums in New York City. New York: Trip Builder, 1993.

Sugar, Bert Randolph, ed. Mecca 1911 Double-Folder Baseball Cards. Mineola:

     Dover, 1991.

                          Articles from print journals

An article in a journal paginated by issue
Some scholarly journals do not number pages continuously throughout an annual volume but
begin each issue on page 1. For such journals, include the issue number. Add a period and the
issue number after the volume number without a space. 11.3 would indicate volume 11, issue 3.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number. issue number (year): page numbers.
Bangert-Drowns, R. L., J. A. Kulik, and C. C. Kulik "Effectiveness of

    Computer-Based Education in Secondary Schools." Journal of

    Computer-Based Instruction 12 (1985): 59-68.

Fletcher, W. E., and J. P. Deeds "Computer Anxiety and Other Factors

    Preventing Computer use Among United States Secondary Agricultural

    Educators." Journal of Agricultural Education 35 (1994):16-21.

Hallin, Daniel C. "Sound Bite News: Television Coverage of Elections, 1968 -

     1988." Journal of Communication 42.2 (1992) : 5 - 24.

Spitzer, D. R. "Motivation: The Neglected Factor in Instructional Design."

    Educational Technology 36 (1996): 45-49.

Some scholarly journals do not use volume numbers. Treat the issue numbers of such journals as
you would volume numbers.

Bowering, George. "Baseball and the Canadian Imagination." Canadian

    Literature 108 (1986) : 115-24.

An article in a journal paginated by volume
Some journals may appear quarterly; these often use continuous pagination. Begin with the
author's name, then the title of the article, the title of the journal - underlined, the volume
number, the date - in parestheses, and the page numbers of the article. The page numbers should
include the complete article, not just the page or pages you cite in the text of your report.

Bandura, A. "Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory." American

    Psychologist 44 (1989): 1175-1184.

Hounshell, P. B., and S. R. Hill Jr. "The Microcomputer and Achievement

     and Attitudes in High School Biology." Journal of Research in Science

    Teaching 26 (1989): 543-549.

Tobias, S. "Anxiety Research in Educational Psychology." Journal of

    Educational Psychology 71 (1979): 573-582.
Magazine article
For weekly magazines, include day, month, and year in that order. Abbreviate all months except
May, June, and July. For monthly magazines, put the month before the year. Separate the date
and page numbers(s) with a colon.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine date: page numbers.
  (Do not include the volume and issue numbers for magazines even if they are listed.)

Bazell, Robert. "Science and Society: Growth Industry." New Republic 15 Mar.

     1993: 13-14.

Berss, M. "Protein Man." Forbes 154, 24 October 1998: 64-66.

Gralla, P. "How to Enter Cyberspace." PC Computing. April 1994: 60-62.

Magazine published every month or two months
Gorrell, Carin. “Christina Ricci’s Primal Scream.” Psychology Today Mar./Apr. 2003: 42-46.

An unsigned article
If no author's name is given, begin with the article title. Do not alphabetize using A, An, or The.

"Dubious Venture." Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64-65.

"What Sort of Person Reads Creative Computing?" Creative Computing

     August 1985: 8, 10.

Newspaper articles
After the author and title of the article, give the name of the newspaper, underlined, without a,
and, or the:
The New York Times = New York Times
Give the name of the city in brackets if it is not part of the title.
Give the date and the edition. Add a colon followed by the section number or letter and then the
page number.
If the article appears on pages which are separated, give the first page followed by a plus sign.

Author (if stated). "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper date, edition: section pages.

"Globalization Often Means That the Fast Track Leads Overseas."

    Washington Post 16 June 1998: A10.

Martin, Claire. "Primary Care System under Attack." Denver Post 3 Jan.

     2000: F1+.
An editorial:
"Stepping Backward." Editorial. Los Angeles Times 4 July 1989: B6.

Sunday New York Times with numbered sections:
Burns, Jonathan F. "Afghans Seek Direct Talks with U.S. on Elections." New York
    Times 6 May 1990, late ed., sec. 4: 22.

Video recordings

Title of Film. Director. Major Performers (if necessary). Original year of release.
     Format. Company name, release year.

Dr. Strangelove. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. Perf. Peter Sellers and George C. Scott. 1966.
    Videocassette. Columbia, 1987.

Television program
Anatomy of a Hate Crime. Perf. Cy Carter and Brendan Fletcher. MTV. 10 Jan. 2001.

                                             Web Sites

Online sources are different from print sources in important ways: they usually don’t have page
numbers, and it can be difficult to determine authorship and composition dates.

 Basic MLA Format for Web Sites

In order to correctly cite online sources, you need the following information:
Author
Title of article
Title of work in which the article appears
Volume, Issue, or other identifying number
Date of publication
The number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other numbered sections
Date of access
Network address (URL)

A typical entry for an online journal would use this format:
Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Name of Periodical volume. issue number (date of
publication): Number of pages/paragraphs, sections. Date of access <URL address>.

 author           title of article                            journal date        pages
Elam, Diane. “Disciplining Woman: Feminism or Women’s Studies.” Surfaces 5 (1995): 11pp.

      access date       <URL>.
     24 June 1998 <http://www.pum.umontreal.ca/revues/surfaces/vol5/elam.html>.
When citing online works in your text, you usually can’t include page numbers, so you would
cite such works using only the author name, as follows:

The popular press has often discussed Women’s Studies programs: There has been a growth “in
Women' s Studies across North America”(Elam).

Author/Editor. "Article Title." Homepage Title. Information

     Supplier (if given). Date. Date of access <URL>.

Web site article with an author:
Hansen, Tom. “On ‘Harlem.’” Modern American Poetry. 9 Sept. 2004
    <http://www.English.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/Hughes/harlem.htm>.

Web site article without an author:
“What Is Acid Rain and What Causes It?” Clean Air Markets-Environmental Issues.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 18 Nov. 2003. 12 Aug. 2004
    <http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/index.html>.

“Stem Cells: A Primer.” National Institutes of Health. NIH. May 2000. 6 July 2003
     <http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm>.

News Web Site
Gupta, Sanjay. "AIDS Cases in the U.S. End Downward Trend."
    CNN.com. Cable News Network. 8 July 2002. 8 Dec. 2003
    <http://www.cnn.com/2002/HEALTH/conditions/07/07/aid/index.htm>.

An article on the WWW

Arnold, M. "Using the Web to Augment Teaching and Learning." 1997,

       November 20. Sept. 13, 1999

       <http://www.curtin.edu.au:80/conference/ASCILITE97/papers/Arnold/Arnold.html>

Brown, A. "Designing for Learning: What are the Essential Features of an

     Effective Online Course?" (1997). April 24, 2000

     <http://cleo.murdoch.edu.au/ajet/ajet13/su97p115.html>

Online magazine article
To cite an article from an online journal, magazine, or newspaper, begin with the author's name.
Give the title of the article in quotation marks, the name of the periodical, underlined, the volume
number or issue number, the date of publication, and the page number(s). End with the access
date and the URL in angle brackets. The access date is included so that the reader will know
which version of the document you have cited.

Bostock, William W. "The Global Corporatisation of Universities: Causes

     and Consequences." AntePodium 3 (1999). 27 Jan. 2000

     <http://www.vuw.ac.nz/atp/articles/bostock.html>

Denning, Peter J. "Business Designs for the New University." Educom

     Review. 31.6 (1996). 23 June 1998 <http://educom.edu/web/pubs/

     review/reviewArticles/31620.html>

Markoff, J. "Voluntary Rules Proposed to help Insure Privacy for Internet

     Users. New York Times. (5 June 1995). 9 June 1999

     <http://www.nytimes.com/library/cyber/week/y05dat.html>

Murphy, H. L. "Saturn's Orbit Still High with Consumers." Marketing News

    Online. (4 March 1997). 13 May 1998 <http://www.ama.org/pubs/

     mn/0818n1.htm>.

Vasquez, John. "Peace and the New World Order" AntePodium 4 (1996).

    <http://www.vuw.ac.nz/atp/articles/vasquez_9507.html>

Online book
Some books are being made available online. Provide the author's name, the title - underlined, if
the online text has not been published before, give the date of the electronic publication and the
name of the sponsoring organization, Include the publication information about the original print
version if they are given in the source (city of publication, publisher, date of publication), include
the date of access and the network address.

Barsky, Robert F. Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. Cambridge: MIT P,

     1997. 8 May 1998 <http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/chomsky/

      intro.html>.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment." Twice-Told Tales.
      Ed. George Parsons Lathrop. Boston: Houghton, 1883. 1 Mar. 1998

      <http://eldred.ne.mediaone.net/nh/dhe.html>

A Document within a Scholarly Project or Information Database

To cite an article ... or a similar short work or document within a project or database, begin the
citation with the author's name and, in quotation marks, the title of the work. If no author is
given, begin the citation with the title of the material, in quotation marks. Continue with the
relevant information for the project or database, the date of access, and the URL; be sure to give
the URL of the specific work or document rather than that of the project or database if they are
different.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume
    number. issue number (date): page numbers. Database
    name. Vendor/supplier of database. Name of Library.
    City, State. date Date of access <URL>.

"Catalan." Si Espana. Ed. Jose Felix Barrio. Vers. 2.0. Oct. 1996. Embassy

     of Spain, Ottawa. 3 Feb. 1998. <http://www.docuweb.ca/SiSpain/

     spanish/language/language/catalan.html>

"City Profile: San Farncisco." CNN Interactive. 19 June 1998. Cable News

     Network. 19 June 1998 <http://www.cnn.com/TRAVEL/CITY.

     GUIDES/WTR/north.america.profiles/nap.sanfrancisco.html>

Dove, Rita. "Lady Freedom among Us." The Electronic Text Center. Ed.

     David Seeman. 1998. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 1998

     <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html>

"Selected Seventeenth-Century Events." Romantic Chronology. Ed. Laura

      Mandell and Alan Liu. Oct 1996. U of California, Santa Barbara.

      22 June 1998 <http://humanitas.ucsb.edu/projects/pack/rom-chrono/

       chronola.htm>

citations copied from Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers 5th ed. pp. 181-182
Source on CD ROM

Some works are published in more than one form. When you cite a publication on CD-ROM, it
is important to state the medium in order to differentiate the source from other print or online
versions. When citing a CD ROM, provide the author or editor's name, title (underlined), the title
of the entire disk (underlined), the medium (CD ROM), place of publication, publisher, and date
of publication.

Braunmuller, A. R., ed. Macbeth. By William Shakespeare. CD-ROM.

      New York: Voyager, 1994.

"Distance Education." Concise Columbia Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. Microsoft

    Bookshelf. CD ROM. 1996-97 ed. Redmond: Microsoft, 1996.

"Picasso, Pablo." The 1997 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. CD-ROM.

     Danbury: Grolier, 1997.

If you are only citing part of the work, state which part. If the part is a book length work,
underline the title. If it is a shorter work like an article or an essay, enclose the title in quotation
marks. If the source includes page numbers, paragraph numbers, or some kind of section
numbers, state their total if the numbering starts over with each part, but state the range of the
numbers in the part if a single numbering encompasses all the parts.

"Albatross." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford:

      Oxford UP, 1992.

Rodes, David S. "The Language of Ambiguity and Equivocation." Macbeth.

      By William Shakespeare. Ed. A. R. Braunmuller. CD-ROM. New York:

      Voyager, 1994. 5 pp.

Some periodicals and reference works are published in both print and on CD-ROM as databases.
To cite such a work, include the author's name, the title of the work, the publication information,
the title of the database, the publication medium (CD-ROM), the name of the vendor, and the
electronic publication date.

Coates, Steve. "Et Tu, Cybernetica Machina User?" New York Times 28

      Oct. 1996, late ed.: D4. New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. UMI-

      Proquest. Dec. 1996.
Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. Urbana: ERIC Clearinghouse on

      on Elementary and Early Childhood Educ., 1990. ERIC. CD-ROM.

      CD-ROM. SilverPlatter. June 1993.

Russo, Michelle Cash. "Recovering from Bibliographic Instruction Blahs."

     RQ: Reference Quarterly 32 (1992): 178-83. InfoTrac: Magazine

     Index Plus. CD-ROM. Information Access. Dec. 1993.

NC Live magazines, journals and pamphlets:

Begin with the standard MLA citation, then add at the end: the database, the vendor, the host of
the electronic subscription service (this could be a college library), the host’s address, the date
the resource was accessed, the web site of the vendor.

A scholarly journal:
Dickstein, Morris. "Hope Against Hope: Orwell's Posthumous Novel." American Scholar

    73.2 (Spring 2004): 101-113. InfoTrac One File. Gale. Broyhill Learning Resource

    Center, Hudson, NC. 4 Oct. 2004 <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.

JOURNAL ARTICLE
Academic Search Elite:
Wallace, James M. 'Faulkner's A Rose for Emily.' Explicator 50.2 (1992):
   105+. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. Durham Technical Community
   Coll. Lib., Durham, NC. 6 Aug. 2004 <http://www.nclive.org>.

InfoTrac OneFile:
Sladen, Chris. "Holidays at Home in the Second World War."
    Journal of Contemporary History 37.1 (2002): 67+.InfoTrac
    OneFile. Infotrac. Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib.,
    Durham, NC. 10 Apr. 2002 <http://www.nclive.org>.


Full-Text magazine articles from electronic databases
A popular magazine:

Huber, Peter. "The KGB on CD-ROM." Forbes 22 Nov. 1993: 176-177. InfoTrac OneFile.

     Gale. Broyhill Learning Resource Center, Hudson, NC. 4 Oct. 2004

     <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine date: page numbers.
    Database name. Vendor/supplier of database. Name of Library.
    City, State. Date of access <URL>.

MasterFile Premier:
Lanken, Dane. "When the Earth Moves." Canadian Geographic Mar.-
    Apr. 1996: 66-73. MasterFile Premier. EBSCO. Durham
    Technical Community Coll. Lib., Durham, NC. 15 Apr. 1998
    <http://www.nclive.org>.

InfoTrac OneFile:
Ripley, Amanda. "Blaming the Messenger." Time 29 Jan. 2001: 56. InfoTrac OneFile. Infotrac.
     Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib., Durham, NC. 30 May 2003
     <http://www.nclive.org>.

ProQuest Nursing Journals

D'Arrigo, Terri. "The Chromium Conundrum." Diabetes Forecast 54.9 (2001): 91-92.
     ProQuest Nursing Journals. ProQuest. Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib.,
     Durham, NC. 28 Aug. 2004 <http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb>.

ERIC Document

Author. "Article Title." Journal in which Article appeared Originally Date
     Published. Range of Pages (if available). Name of Database. Name
     of Service (if available). Library, which subscribes to Databases.
     [Access Date] <http://Site/Path/File>.

Settle, Shirley. "Social Persistence Following Failure in boys and girls with LD." Journal of

   Learning Disabilities May/June 1999: 201-212. Wilson Select Plus. OCLC First Search. St.

   Johns U., Jamaica. 2 February 2001 <http://www.newfirstsearch.oclc.org>

Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. Sibling Communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation:

    Conflicts between Brothers. Miami: Speech Communication Assn., 1993. ERIC Document

    Reproduction Service ED364932.

Milgram, Norman A. The Many Faces of Procrastination: Implications and Recommendations

     for Counselors. Paper presented at the Annual International Council of Psychologists

    Convention. 22-16 Aug. 1987. New York: 1987. ERIC ED 290 103.
A newspaper:
Marks, Peter. "Catalyst's 1984: A Still-Fresh Chill." Washington Post 7 Feb. 2004: C1.

       Newspaper Source. EBSCO. Broyhill Learning Resource Center, Hudson, NC.

       4 Oct. 2004 <http://weblinks2.epnet.com>.

ProQuest - New York Times

Raver, Anne. "A Hayloft for the Heart." New York Times 23 Aug. 2001, late ed.: F1.
     ProQuest Newspapers. ProQuest. Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib.
     Durham, NC. 28 Aug. 2003 <http://www.nclive.org>.

InfoTrac – PsycARTICLES

Schwartz, David, and Andrea H. Gorman. “Community Violence Exposure and
    Children’s Academic Functioning.” Journal of Educational Psychology 95.1
    (2003): 163+. PsycARTICLES. ProQuest. Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib.,
     Durham, NC. 10 May 2004 <http://www.proquest.umi.com/pqdweb>.


NC Live books:
Use the appropriate MLA citation for the book, adding at the end:

The host of the electronic resource, the address of the host, the date accessed, the web site of the
electronic resource (netLibrary).

Example of a book:

Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. New York: Putnam, 1998. Broyhill Learning Resource

     Center, Hudson, NC. 31 Aug. 2004 <http://netLibrary.com>.

InfoTrac -- Health databases

Health Reference Center-Academic:
Pfeifer, Michael A. "Eye Care: Catching Problems Early."Diabetes Forecast
     54.6 (2001): 10. Health Reference Center Academic. Infotrac.
     Durham Technical Community Coll.Lib., Durham, NC. 30 May 2004
     <http://infotrac.galegroup.com>.

Health and Wellness Resource Center:
Moon, Mary. "Therapy for Lymphoma Relapse in HIV."Internal Medicine
    News 15 July 2001: 23. Health and Wellness Resource Center. Infotrac.
    Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib., Durham, NC. 29 Aug. 2004
    <http://infotrac.galegroup.com>.
CQ Researcher
Hatch, David. “Drug Company Ethics.” The CQ Researcher 6 June 2003. CQ
    Researcher. CQ Press. Durham Technical Community Coll. Lib., Durham, NC. 9
    June 2003 <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/>.

News and Observer Database
Silberman, Todd. “Federal Rules Ease Testing Burden.” The News & Observer
    17 March 2004: A10. News & Observer. NewsBank InfoWeb. Durham Technical
    Community Coll. Lib., Durham, NC. 4 Apr. 2004 <http://infoweb.newsbank.com>.

Frequently Asked Questions about MLA Style

MLA paper template
     http://library.sfcc.spokane.cc.wa.us/docs/MLA_Paper_Template.dot
literature reports
     http://www.dianahacker.com/writersref/model.html
     http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/hacker/pdf/mla.pdf
technical reports
     http://www.io.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/final.html

Some of the examples used in this guide were adapted from the following sites for educational
use.
http://www.durhamtech.edu/html/prospective/library/citesourcesmla.htm
http://www.cccti.edu/LRC/infolit/citation-nclive.htm
http://www.uncc.edu/writing/MLA%20Online.pdf
http://www.randolph.k12.nc.us/ResearchGuidelines.pdf

				
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