12th Africa Forum
29 September to 3 October 2008
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
work for rural livelihoods
implementation at country level
Table of Contents
Opening of the 12th Africa Forum ...................................................................................5
Setting the Scene ......................................................................................................7
The Africa Forum ...................................................................................................7
The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Programme (CAADP) ...............................................8
Progress on Country Action Plans ................................................................................. 10
What worked and what didn’t? ................................................................................. 10
Lessons and issues ................................................................................................ 12
Getting down to Action ............................................................................................. 13
Escalating food prices ............................................................................................ 13
Tackling poverty with smart investment ..................................................................... 15
Three trees for 3000 ................................................................................................ 16
Agri-business success stories ....................................................................................... 18
Government ....................................................................................................... 18
Private and commercial sector ................................................................................. 19
Local Government and traditional authorities .............................................................. 21
Civil society and NGOs ........................................................................................... 21
Development partners ........................................................................................... 23
Country Strategies ................................................................................................... 24
The CAADP process at country level .......................................................................... 24
Taking account of aids in national agricultural strategies ................................................ 26
Country Action Plans ............................................................................................. 27
Fieldtrips .............................................................................................................. 28
Wrapping up and moving on ....................................................................................... 29
Annex 1 Participant list by country ............................................................................ 32
Annex 2 Programme .............................................................................................. 39
Annex 3 Fieldtrips ................................................................................................. 47
Annex 4 Progress on Country Action Plans .................................................................... 48
Annex 5a Progress on CAADP Implementation by Country ............................................... 51
Annex 5b Overview of Status of CAADP implementation across Africa ................................ 53
Annex 6 Summary of evaluation by participants ............................................................ 55
Annex 7 Selected press coverage of the forum .............................................................. 56
Annex 8 Country Action Plans ................................................................................... 59
The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under
the Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the
European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EU
CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural
and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire,
exchange and utilise information in this area. CTA’s programmes are designed to: provide a wide
range of information products and services and enhance awareness of relevant information sources;
promote the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensify contacts and
information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and develop ACP capacity to generate and manage
agricultural information and to formulate ICM strategies, including those relevant to science and
technology. CTA’s work incorporates new developments in methodologies and cross-cutting issues
such as gender and social capital.
CTA is financed by the European Union.
6700 AJ Wageningen
From 29 September to 3 October 2008 the 12 th Africa Forum was held in Addis Ababa, where around
150 people from 14 African countries gathered together around the theme of Making agri-business
work for rural livelihoods: in support of CAADP implementation at country level. This year
represented a turning point in the history of the Africa Forum as, for the first time in its 10-year
history, the forum was co-organised by NEPAD under its Comprehensive Africa Agriculture
Development Programme (CAADP). The majority of the participants came from Africa; from a total
of 14 Africa countries. The table below offers an overview, a detailed participant list is in annex 1.
Programme of the forum is attached as annex 2
Benin 5 Nigeria 1
Burkina Faso 9 Rwanda 1
Cameroon 4 South Africa 5
Côte d’Ivoire 6 Zambia 2
Ethiopia 59 Zimbabwe 1
Kenya 14 Sub-total Africa 128
Mozambique 1 other countries 18
Namibia 15 Total participants 146
The 12th Africa Forum set itself two objectives: (i) to increase the relevance of the forum’s output
to ongoing country processes; and (ii) to establish the role and future of the forum in the long term.
The link between the Africa forum and NEPAD’s CAADP programme proved successful in meeting
both objectives: By linking their action plan to ongoing CAADP processes, country teams hopefully
manage to both strengthen the CAADP process in their country as well as improve the chances of
their action plan being implemented. At the same time, representatives from NEPAD’s Agricultural
Secretariat (responsible for CAADP) appreciated the forum as an Africa-wide platform of exchange
and learning in agriculture that could help speed up CAADP implementation.
As is usual for the Africa Forum, this year’s event picked up the thread from its predecessor, the
11th Africa Forum 2007 in Accra, Ghana. At the end of the 2007 forum, 12 Country Teams presented
a Country Action Plan. Seven of these 12 Country Teams were able to present an overview of
progress achieved against their action plan on the first day of this year’s 12 th forum.
In five parallel sessions, participants were offered a total of 20 case studies of agri-business
successes. Each presentation listed the factors that had made it a success, and the conditions that
are required to upscale this success. Case studies covered a wide spectrum of experiences: From
commodities (e.g. pearl millet in Namibia, potatoes in Kenya, fish in Cameroon, cotton in Benin) to
successes in partnership and networking (e.g. outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, commodity
association in Cote d’Ivoire): From enabling access to assets (e.g. rural finance in Kenya, protection
of property among peasants in Benin) to creating the right frame conditions (governance and
leadership in Burkina Faso, restoring farm-cycles after a crisis in Kenya).
Plenary presentations built a framework for these success stories and dealt mostly with two topics:
(i) responding to escalating food prices; and (ii) the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture programme
(CAADP). Important for participants was to realise that CAADP is not a separate programme, but
rather a set of principles linked to a participative country process that helps to ‘screen’ and
strengthen national policies, structures and capacities such that these become more effective
vehicles for agricultural growth.
Based on the inspiration drawn from the agri-business successes, and within the context of
opportunities offered by CAADP, participants then divided into country-groups and drew up action
plans. Nine action plans were presented on the last day (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote
d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Namibia and Zambia). Recurrent objectives were strengthening
the value-chain for key commodities and making optimum use of the CAADP process to make
national stakeholders and processes better in meeting the challenges of agricultural growth.
Opening of the 12 t h Africa Forum
Ms Marita Brömmelmeier, Head of the East African Division of the German Development Cooperation
welcomed all participants to the forum. She began by thanking the Government of the Federal
Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for hosting this year’s forum and for their excellent organisation of
the event. Thanks were offered also to the sponsors (GTZ, InWent, CTA, CIDA, DANIDA, IFAD and
Ethiopian Airlines). She concluded by wishing that the forum will end with relevant and concrete
proposals that will throw into gear a sustainable change for poverty reduction in Africa.
The opening speech for this year’s forum was by Her Excellency Rhoda P. Tumusiime, the AUC
Commissioner of the Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture 1. In her speech she emphasised
the central role of agriculture in the development of Africa and highlighted the fact that since the
establishment of the common framework of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development
Programme (CAADP), the continent has made marked progress along the agricultural agenda. She
urged participants to give special attention to smallholders and to women farmers during their
deliberations on agri-businesses as well as issues of international trade, value chain development
and the strengthening of farmer and trade associations.
She drew attention to the fact that facilitating and supporting peer sharing and learning around
‘success stories’ in African agriculture and the rural economy is a key feature in both the CAADP and
the Africa Forum. For this reason, she expressed her wish that country CAADP teams and Africa
Forum teams after returning from the forum will align their activities in their respective countries.
She declared that the African Union Commission and NEPAD stand ready to work with all players and
partners that seek to realise this integration and alignment and concluded that she hopes the fruits
of this alignment will come to visibly bear on Africa’s agriculture development agenda.
His Excellency Dr Abera Deresa, State Minister and Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
officially opened the 12th Africa Forum. He emphasised that the Federal Democratic Republic of
Ethiopia feels privileged to host this year’s Africa Forum especially as it is the first forum that is
The speech of the AUC Commissioner was delivered by Martin Bwalya as the Commissioner herself had been
called away on the morning of the Opening Ceremony.
organised under the auspices of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) in support of
its Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). He reminded participants
that the success of NEPAD and CAADP largely depend on the participation of all stakeholders at all
levels and that therefore the platform that is offered by the Africa Forum is such an important one
as it will provide opportunities for learning, creates a stage for multi-stakeholder interaction and
will create a conducive environment for networking and harmonising the process of African
economic and political integration. He expressed his fervent hope that the forum’s outcome should
lead to action that will ultimately help rural livelihoods and accelerate rural development. He
stressed that Ethiopia is ready to integrate the results of the forum into its action plans towards
economic development. Dr Abera Deresa concluded by wishing participants wonderful fieldtrips
learning about the efforts in agri-business ventures that are made in this country whilst at the same
time enjoying the scenery offered by the Ethiopian highlands and lowlands.
The freedom to fly
The keynote address given by Sibongile Sambo served as an inspiration to all to never give up
pursuing our dreams. Her story painted a picture of someone born in humble circumstances but
literally rising to great heights on the strength of her passion and perseverance. Sibongile Sambo,
namely, is not only a pilot but also manager and co-owner of the first 100% black female owned
aviation company in South Africa. She highlighted how the NEPAD initiative has given young
entrepreneurs like her the confidence to play a vital role in the economy of continent. She supports
the NEPAD goals of closing the transport infrastructure gap in Africa and of removing formal and
informal barriers to the movement of goods and people.
Sibongile Sambo reminded participants that historically women in South Africa, particularly black
women, have not been afforded the opportunities of starting and running their own enterprises and
making a full contribution to the economic development of the country and the continent and
thanked the NEPAD Business Foundation for its support. She concluded by wishing participants
fruitful discussions and a successful conference.
The takeoff of Ethiopian agriculture
The keynote address by His Excellency Dr Abera Deresa, State Minister and Minister of Agriculture
and Rural Development offered participants a comprehensive overview of the status of Ethiopian
agriculture and the main trends in its development. Ethiopia is a huge country, rich in natural
resources like lakes, rivers, national parks, highlands and lowlands and with nearly 75 million people
from many different ethnic backgrounds. Thus both the opportunities, but also the challenges to
Ethiopian agriculture are manifold.
With passion and conviction, Dr Abera Deresa reported on the major achievements in agriculture in
recent years. Nearly 45 million cattle and 47 million small ruminants form the basis of the country’s
livestock industry. An industry which has been much helped by innovations and advanced in the area
of livestock feeds, production methods and disease control. With respect to crops, both the area
under production and the productivity/unit have risen. Consequently the export of agricultural
products has almost quadrupled over the same period. Dr Deresa explained that from 1991 onwards
Ethiopia has followed a policy of market-based economy and has started a long-term path of macro-
economic and structural reforms. The first phase of these reforms was aimed at restoring socio-
economic and political stability (1992-1995), whilst the second phase was aimed at promoting
private investment (1995-1997). During the third phase (1997-2002) the focus was on strengthening
the private sector and on export growth. The current and fourth phase (from 2002) is characterised
by public sector and tax reform. During this phase institutional reform of the public sector has been
initiated with the objectives of improving service delivery, reducing corruption, managing human
resources efficiently, improving capacity and the working environment of civil servants. The future
direction of policy in Ethiopia will build on the achievements in the past and continue the direction
of market-oriented production, expanding agro-processing, strengthening public-private
partnerships, mechanisation & commercialisation. Dr Deresa concluded by affirming that with the
right resources and pre-conditions, the transformation of the agricultural sector is possible.
The opening of the Africa Forum attracted a lot of interest from the press; a selection of press
coverage is attached in annex 7.
Setting the Scene
The year’s forum is a joining of hands between the Africa Forum as a platform of learning and the
CAADP as an instrument supporting implementation of agriculture development. Where each of
these comes from and how they could meet, was the topic of this session.
The Africa Forum
The Africa Forum: rising to the challenge of country-level implementation Désirée Dietvorst
Up until this event, the Africa Forum had followed its own development path, and quite successfully
so. The first Africa Forum was held in 1998 as a one-off event to inform African decision makers of
the shift in development assistance from project towards sector programme support. During this
meeting (then in Lusaka) it became evident that the forum in fact addressed a different need:
Although getting state-of-the-art information on donor-practices was considered useful, participants
were more appreciative of the fact the forum gave them an opportunity to exchange notes across
countries. Thus, popular demand led to a second forum and then to an annual event.
Since then, in the course of 10 years and 12 forums, three major ‘evolutionary’ shifts took place
that contributed to the forum finding its form and function. These are (i) a progressive ‘African
ownership’ in terms of participants, moderators and organisation; (ii) a move away from a focus on
donor aid modalities (e.g. programme based approaches) to a focus on country-driven agriculture
and rural development (whether donor supported or not); and (iii) a broadening of the target group
to include stakeholders beyond the government, in particular private sector, NGO and civil society.
These three shifts occurred less by design than by demand and they have proven to have
contributed to a more effective and action-oriented ‘peer exchange’.
However, in the aftermath of the previous 11 th Africa Forum it appeared that the forum as an entity
in its own right had reached a limit: Country Teams had been established and Country Action Plans
had been prepared as an output of the 11 th forum in Ghana. However, much as these teams and
plans managed to capture some of the momentum generated during the forum, upon return to their
country and day-to-day activities, forum participants found it difficult to translate their
commitments into concrete action. Part of the reason was that the Country Team lacked a clear
status with the Country Action Plan insufficiently linked to on-going processes. Country Teams
reported twice on process made after the 11th forum: in November 2007 and in April 2008. From
these reports it became clear that most progress was achieved by those teams that had managed to
use on-going development processes (be it CAADP or national agricultural development
programmes) as a vehicle for the activities identified during the 11 th forum.
At the same time and from the side of CAADP, it was felt that the Africa Forum, as an annual
platform of ‘peer learning’ among practitioners in agricultural development, may be able to support
CAADP implementation, especially by offering an opportunity for the exchange of experience on
agricultural success stories. Thus, it was decided to make this 12 th Africa Forum was a joint venture
between CAADP and the Africa Forum with the aim of exploring ways in which emerging processes
under each can reinforce each other. For example:
CAADP could use the Africa Forum’s communication channels and network to intensify its
awareness campaign on agriculture best practices that could be integrated into agricultural
strategies at country level thereby contributing to an ‘upscaling’ of these successes;
The Africa Forum could explore opportunities for integrating and streamlining the Africa
Forum Country Teams into ongoing CAADP institutionalisation processes at country level;
CAADP could build up on the Africa Forum as an outreach platform to kick-start new, or
support on-going, Country Round Tables.
The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Programme (CAADP)
Making agri-business work; the role of CAADP Martin Bwalya
NEPAD made agriculture development a core action area in recognition of the crucial importance of
agriculture as the mainstay of most African economies. CAADP is the NEPAD framework for the
development of the agriculture sector in Africa. Questions NEPAD wants to address through CAADP
include: Why has agriculture’s impact on livelihoods been only piecemeal and unsustainable? Why is
agricultural productivity stagnant or declining despite new technologies? With proven benefits and
huge promotion efforts, why is it that adoption of Conservation Agriculture is so low?
Important for participants was the fact that CAADP is not a parallel process or a programme
superimposed from the top without regard for existing agriculture programmes. Instead, CAADP is a
framework based on a set of principles and linked to a participative country process. Participants
from countries that have progresses in this participative country process, testified that the CAADP
process had actually helped them to ‘screen’ national policies, structures and capacities in a
constructive manner and that much more results-oriented capacity development or reform activities
had taken place as a result of this screening with the aim of making national policies, programmes,
institutions and actors more effective vehicles for agricultural growth.
Four CAADP principles that underpin the CAADP process are:
1. Evidence-based planning: Early stages in the CAADP process include stocktaking exercises
(Where are we as a country?) and growth and investment analysis based on the proposed 10% of
public investment to go to agriculture (Where could we be? As a country?). These two exercises
provide a country with both a baseline and a number of potential scenarios for the future that
can for the foundation for more evidence based (and therefore more effective) planning.
2. Engagement process: The CAADP process asks throughout for close involvement of
stakeholders, government and non-government. The CAADP Round Tables foster a regular
3. Building alliances with investors: The CAADP process emphasises the crucial importance of
private investment as a trigger for agriculture growth and realises that the agricultural sector in
many African countries is not as attractive to investors as it should be. Cooperating more closely
with investors should help to improve the investment climate, reduce investment risk and
generally create an enabling environment for private-sector driven agricultural development.
4. Implementation, M&E and peer review: Being part of the Africa-wide partnership that is
BEPAD-CAADP, means also having to regularly report on process. This appears to be a powerful
motivator for action and can help Ministries of Agriculture to not only put but also to keep
agricultural issues on the national agenda of the country.
When a country engages in the CAADP process, it critically addresses the quality of its policies,
strategies and programmes based on these principles. Institutions and existing capacities are being
reviewed to see to what extent these can carry an improved planning and implementation. Help is
offered in terms of analysis (e.g. by IFPRI), information and experience (e.g. via the CAADP Pillar
Institutions) as well as more locally tailored support. In fact, CAADP is less about money and
resources, then it is about supportive policies, a focussed public finance, local institutional reform,
results-oriented capacity development and, above all, about partnerships, inclusiveness and
collaboration between all key drivers of agriculture and rural development as depicted in figure 1.
Fig 1 The CAADP- country process
Principles of CAADP
Alliances with M&E,
Investors Peer Review
Principles of CAADP
Engagement Evidenced Improved
Stocktaking exercise (baseline), Country
Round Table (regular
Programmes…, stakeholder dialogue),
Growth & investment analyses,
(PRSP review of institutions & capacities, and
SWAP, ADP…) Africa-wide partnership implementation
Alliances with M&E,
Investors Peer Review
Progress on Country Action Plans
Twelve Country Teams had presented a Country Action Plan during the previous 11 th Africa Forum.
Though these plans differed in scope, a number of common key priority issues could be identified:
Priority issue No. of plans Countries
Harmonisation of donor support to the agriculture 6 Ghana; Ethiopia; Namibia;
and rural sector Benin & Côte d’Ivoire; Mali
& Niger; Senegal
Good agriculture sector governance 5 Ethiopia; Kenya; Burkina
Faso; Mali & Niger; Senegal
Infrastructure development in terms of roads, rural 5 Namibia; Zambia & Malawi;
infrastructure (e.g. boreholes, bridges, dams) and Benin & Côte d’Ivoire;
market infrastructure (e.g. market places, sheds, Burkina Faso; Mali & Niger
Dialogue between stakeholders (e.g. from 4 Ethiopia; Zambia & Malawi;
government, local government, private sector, Benin & Côte d’Ivoire;
Capacity development of all relevant stakeholders 4 Ethiopia; Kenya; Namibia;
Benin & Côte d’Ivoire
Decentralisation and the cooperation between local 2 Ghana; Ethiopia
government and decentralised agricultural
ministries at local level
Political will regards the private sector and the 2 Kenya; Namibia
clearing away of prejudices both sides
Public sector reform based on capacity needs 2 Ghana; Kenya
assessments and towards greater decentralisation
and a more inclusive stakeholder dialogue
The 12 Country Teams presenting at the previous 11 th forum had been asked to report twice on
progress: Once in November 2007 and again in April 2008 (see annex 4). Mid-term reports were
received from seven countries namely; Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia
and Zambia. No reports were received from Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Niger and Senegal.
What worked and what didn’t?
At the present 12th Africa Forum, seven (out of the original 12) countries made a presentation on
progress. To reduce the burden of plenary presentations, two groups were formed: An Anglophone
group with Ethiopia, Kenya, Zambia and Namibia and a Francophone group with Burkina Faso, Benin,
Côte d’Ivoire and Namibia (again). Each group was asked to look at three things: (i) What had
worked; (ii) What had not worked and (iii) What lessons could be drawn from this experience in
terms of the process of drawing up and implementing Country Action Plans. These groups then came
back to plenary to report on their findings.
In their plenary presentations, the Anglophone and the Francophone group had reached very similar
conclusions. The table summarises their findings and under each of the type of activities listed,
some examples are picked from one of the seven (excellent quality!) country presentations.
Activities that worked
Lobby for development priorities to be put on the national agenda
The Zambia CT tried to organise follow up meeting to lobby for their priorities. However
attendance was poor, in part because of a shift of attention to the CAADP process. However, the
team did manage to get their priorities onto the CAADP agenda: Physical infrastructure is now one
stand alone and important component in the Zambia CAADP Country Compact.
In Kenya, the CT debriefed the Permanent Secretary of Local Government to lobby especially for
CAP activities in good governance and decentralisation. The PS thereupon committed the Ministry
of Local Government to fast track those activities that had been identified a priority in the CAP.
The high-level representation of the Central Government in the CT, allowed Benin to give a strong
impetus to ongoing processes at the national level through lobbying for CAP priorities. Indeed it
has helped to bring a number of concrete results including (i) The establishment of a national
agricultural investment Fund (ii) The establishment of a fund to support the economic
development of Municipalities (iii) The development of a strategic plan for agricultural
Lobby for stakeholders to be included in platforms
The Kenyan CT included a member from the Kenya National Federation of Agricultural Producers
(KENFAP). After the forum the CT lobbied for KENFAP to be included in decision making platforms
and now KENFAP is part of the Prime Ministers Round Table Initiatives on the National Business
Agenda which means they are part of monthly consultations at the highest level reviewing the
implementation of government commitments to support growth of the private sector.
Dialogue between stakeholders
The Benin CT organized follow up meetings between groups of stakeholders such as the Technical
Working Group( composed by Ministry of Agriculture and Environment and various donors) the
Association of Municipalities at regional level and the National Network of Civil Society to discuss
the role of different actors towards priorities in the Benin CAP.
Awareness creation of stakeholders
Cote d'Ivoire CT organized at the level of the Municipalities’ Association Network an advocacy
event to promote the effective integration of value chain measures in municipal development
plans. Municipalities have also been sensitized to contribute to the maintenance of rural
infrastructure (rural roads, markets, etc.).
In Burkina Faso, the CT debriefed the Permanent Secretary for Agricultural Sector Policies
Coordination (also CAADP focal point) on their CAP. This allowed them to put the priorities of their
CAP on the agenda in various meetings organized by the Permanent Secretariat. This way a wide
range of stakeholders was reached, including Central and Local Government, Private Sector, Civil
Society and donors.
Stocktaking, surveys, assessments
The Burkina Faso CT undertook a stocktaking of constraints related to the conditions and
procedures for granting aid with some recommendations to make them more flexible. Through the
lobby of the CT a study was undertaken on “Current situation and analysis of regulatory,
institutional and commercial promotion constraints in agricultural sector in Burkina Faso with a
view to improve the business environment for a sustainable involvement of agricultural private
Donor harmonisation and alignment
The Namibian CT managed to get donors align their support to land reform behind the strategic
plan of the Ministry of Land Reform. Also, they supported the Ministry to develop a matrix that
captures different donors’ support to help strengthen the Ministry’s donor coordination role.
Further, the team identified three cases of donor supported projects that are now being reviewed
to be able to compare different donor procedures as an input towards better donor harmonisation.
In Ethiopia, CT members played a major role in ensuring the set-up of a Sector Working Group on
Rural Economic Development & Food Security that is now functioning as a platform that helps
coordinate different donors’ support in this area.
Activities that did not work
Across countries, activities that had not progressed far were the building of infrastructure,
implementing decentralisation and reforming the public sector and teams had to report that putting
these in a Country Action Plan does not mean that they get implemented. In general, activities that
did not work are:
1. Ambitious or high investment activities, such as infrastructure development;
2. Activities that are outside the mandate or influence of the Country Team although teams
may yet be instrumental in getting and keeping these on the agenda;
3. Complex activities requiring lots of coordination and whose implementation depends on
may other actors outside the Country Team.
Lessons and issues
From these experiences, the Francophone and Anglophone groups drew the following lessons:
Country Teams and action plans should be based on existing responsibilities;
Priorities identified by the teams should be made part of on-going processes, both at national
and at local level;
Country teams and action plans should have a well-defined purpose and a clear mandate –
depending on which the size and composition of the Country Team can then be determined.
Recommended are activities that have proven successful such as lobbying, advocacy,
networking, stakeholder dialogue, awareness creation and the dissemination of information.
Finally, Country Teams are well-placed and should support the process of implementation of
CAADP at country level.
Getting down to Action
The second day began by offering a background to the working group discussions that took place
after. A major theme was that of escalating food prices, which in many of the countries represented
has led to crisis and calls for immediate action. Three presentations addressed this issue first from a
global level (Engel) followed by a continental (Hendriks) and a regional perspective (Sylla). A fourth
presentation looked at a different issue namely that of how countries can identify which investment
options in agriculture are likely to bring most poverty reduction benefits (Thurlow).
Escalating food prices
Escalating food prices: Causes, effects and challenges
CAADP Pillar II response to the food crisis Sheryl Hendriks
Measures taken by ECOWAS to address food price escalation in West Africa Kalilou Sylla
Rapidly escalating food prices has had dramatic consequences in many countries around the world,
as many Africa Forum participants could testify. Responsible is a combination of factors, some of
which are short term such as recent low harvests, rising oil prices and a demand for crops such as
maize to satisfy the fast developing biofuel industry. Structural factors underlying this trend include
the growing population worldwide as well as changing dietary habits resulting in a growing demand
for wheat in developing countries. Also to blame are low public investments in agriculture: In
Africa, on average, only 4% of public expenditure is spent on agriculture: With respect to
international development, only 4% of ODA is dedicated to agriculture.
It is expected that the current food price trend will continue its rise; as much as over 100 million
could slide into poverty due to rising food prices – of these 30 million will be in Africa. However, the
future does not all look bleak as the current crisis has put agriculture firmly back on the agenda.
Recent studies, not least the World Development Report 2008 on Agriculture, have shown what a
multiplier effect investment in agriculture can have in reducing poverty. This has decreased the
political resistance to reform and new funds are being mobilised for investment in agriculture and
rural development. However, it should be realised that there is no ‘silver bullet’ – rather a tailored
response to specific country and market contexts (see figure 2).
Figure 2 Structural measures in response to the food crisis
CAADP’s Pillar III is called a Framework for African Food Security (FAFS) and it has been in existence
long before the current food crisis woke up the world. This is because food insecurity is not a recent
but rather a systemic problem in Africa and one that CAADP has put at the top of its agenda: “It is
not acceptable that a single flood or drought creates a crisis in Africa food insecurity – nor is it
acceptable that predictable year-on-year food assistance is required to fill the consumption gap of
populations in Africa”. CAADP urges that African governments have plans of action to build
resilience and mobilise resources and systems to deal with recurrent crises of food shortage.
CAADP Pillar III offers a helping hand to African government to jointly reach the pillar’s vision of
‘increased resilience at all levels by decreasing food insecurity and linking vulnerable people to
opportunities for agricultural growth. Activities carried out under this pillar are targeted directly to
vulnerable populations and encompass six main areas:
1. Identify and characterise the chronically food insecure: Who are these people? Where do
they live and why are they vulnerable? And who of these target groups are most likely to
benefit from agricultural growth?
2. Estimate the magnitude of change required to meet the MDG goal of reducing hunger and
poverty by half by 2015 in terms of (i) improved food security and nutrition indicators and
(ii9 improvements in household assets and income levels.
3. Create an inventory and identify options with stocktaking exercises offering a baseline
against which the impact of various options can be measured. This generates valuable
information to be used in policies and programmes and by stakeholders and partners.
4. Prioritise and costing of options for best returns: Once options have been identified,
CAADP together with stakeholders, will weigh these according to a series of key questions
such that (limited) public funds can be targeted optimally.
5. Review issues & responsibilities for governance, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation which looks at whether there are (inter-ministerial) mechanisms for
coordination and communication and what are appropriate institutions and partners to
support implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
In short, CAADP Pillar III offers support that strengthens country processes and country institutions –
in engaging with CAADP country capacity is built, country evidence is collected and weighed, and
national policies & programmes can be made more focussed with better inter-sectoral linkages.
At the regional level a response was mounted by ECOWAS – The West African situation is particularly
widespread with more that 60% of people living under 1$ a day and market-dependent households
(urban population and rural households in deficit) most affected. Under ECOWAS, a meeting of
Ministers of Economy, Trade and Agriculture (May 2008) resulted in the adoption of the Regional
Offensive for Agricultural Production and the Fight against Hunger. This regional initiative identified
three thematic (or structural and long term) approaches and three temporary (or medium to short
term) approaches towards reducing the dependency on food imports, stabilise markets and putting
in place of security networks. The initiative has three axes: (i) Production (ii) Markets and sectors
and (iii) Food and nutritional security of vulnerable populations. Along each, short-, medium- and
long-term action is identified. Activities include: Setting up of a fund for implementation; group
purchases of rice as a buffer against emergencies; increased regional investment in agriculture and
the strengthening of regional monitoring. Implementation of the initiative is reported at upcoming
inter-ministerial meetings in the region and in Paris (OECD-DAC).
Tackling poverty with smart investment
Agriculture growth and investment options for poverty reduction James Thurlow
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) informs the CAADP process at country level
with information along strategic questions such as: How much will poverty decline under the current
growth path? Is the 6% CAADP agricultural growth target achievable and can it half poverty by 2015?
What is the growth and poverty impact of increasing yields and productivity for different crops and
sub-sectors? Which crops and or agricultural sub-sectors are best at generating growth and reducing
poverty over the next decade? Will the 10% Maputo agriculture budget target be enough to reach 6%
of agriculture growth and if not, then how much is needed?
IFPRI answers these questions by generating country specific projections, based on country baseline
data and using dynamic economy-wide models. Projections are done according to two main
simulations or scenarios: The first scenario is ‘business as usual’ and calculates what a following of
the current growth path and crop/livestock production tendencies mean for poverty in the country?
The second is the ‘CAADP growth scenario’ and here poverty projections are based on increased
crop and livestock productivity along CAADP targets for the sector.
Such country projection reports have been done already for Ghana, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and
Zambia. The Uganda case was explained in detail where the various projections clearly
demonstrated the leverage (or multiplier) effect of growth in agriculture on a reduction in poverty.
Interestingly, in identifying priority sub-sectors, it was found that most ‘poverty reduction mileage’
could be gained from an investment in root and tuber crops, which came as a big surprise to
government and researchers alike (see figure 3).
A condition for being able to do such growth-investment projections is the presence of stocktaking
data as these provide a situation analysis. Participants from Ghana then reported on the stocktaking
exercise that they had just completed as part of the CAADP process and they claimed that even the
stocktaking alone had given them much valuable information for use in (evidence-based) planning.
Figure 3 Uganda’s crop and sub-sector rankings
S trong es t poverty
S trong es t reducing effects
s pillovers to res t F ores try
C ereals L ives toc k
of ec onomy
C offee & export crops
P uls es
B es t growth potential &
larg es t s ub-s ectors
S ourc e: IF P IR P resentation to the Africa F orum, Addis Ababa – 30 S eptember 2008
Three trees for 3000
During the Ethiopian Millennium Year an initiative called ‘Two trees for 2000’ was started. It called
for every visitor to the country to plant two trees and all in all close to one billion (!!!) trees were
planted as part of the campaign thus far exceeding the mark of 70 million trees. Because of this
huge success, the Ethiopian Millennium Secretariat decided to continue the initiative under the
name ‘Three trees for 3000’. On the second day of the forum, all participants were invited to plant
trees on Ethiopian soil near Mount Entoto were each country was allocated its own plot.
Upon arrival people were amazed to find that the President of Ethiopia, His Excellency Girma
Wolde-Giorgis, attended this historic event in person as well as many members of the press. Amidst
a forest of national flags, people baring tree-saplings looked for their own country plot and set to
work. More than three hundred trees were planted by Africa forum participants as a symbolic
gesture and a lasting gift from one country to another.
Agri-business success stories
The afternoon of the second day of the forum was devoted to reports on agricultural success stories
in parallel actor (or peer) groups. In each of five actor/peer groups, several ‘success stories’ were
presented. After this, each group then looked at (i) what had made these cases successful and (ii)
under what conditions could these successes be up-scaled or replicated. Their conclusions were
then captured in a group presentation that was made to the plenary on day 3 of the forum.
Successful policy responses to escalating food prices in Burkina Faso Ansomwin Hien
Making agri-business work: The potato value chain in Kenya Francis Muthami
From a subsistence crop to a commercial market commodity: The Namibian Ronn Kaheka
experience with pearl millet
The importance of leadership and governance in the agriculture sector in Burkina Faso Bassiaka Dao
Synthesis of the Government Group Salome Danso
Burkina Faso has a long history of farmers associations and much can be learned from their
experience. Leadership in the agriculture sector has to be earned for it to be sustainable. Where
farmers can be encouraged to organise themselves, this will help boost domestic production and
income as well as promote agricultural entrepreneurship. Where farmers are organised, measures in
response to crises are more easily introduced on a wide scale. Timely and effective price regulation
can help address escalating food prices; and the experience of Burkina Faso has nee looked at with
interest by neighbouring countries such as Equatorial Guinea, Niger, Togo and Senegal.
With respect to how to improve crop production, presentations by Kenya (potatoes) and Namibia
(pearl millet or mahangu) clearly demonstrated the potential of the commodity or value-chain
approach to reveal ‘action-able’ bottlenecks and opportunities. Maintaining a productive dialogue
with a great many stakeholders at different levels is easier where it concerns a common tangible
issue such as a crop and its various stages from production to consumption.
How to upscale these successes?
Knowing what works: Improve data collection, strengthen data analysis skills and transform the
data analyses into packages of information that can easily be disseminated and used.
Keeping a steady course: Long term visions can be reached through committed and dedicated
leadership. Agriculture requires this kind of steady governance and commitment, because
investments in this sector take time to mature; whether it is the establishment of production
and marketing networks of new crops or the adaptation of livelihoods to a changing market.
Spreading the word: Platforms of learning and knowledge sharing are crucial instruments in
upscaling success – better still if these are based on ‘peer exchange’.
Attract private investment and using public investment wisely: A enabling environment for
private investment needs and appropriate legal framework, clear policies and strategies,
political will and commitment and sufficient resources to back implementation. Public
investment can have an important leverage role, especially in upscaling successes, but only if it
is well targeted.
Private and commercial sector
The role of markets in agri-business: The Sandaga fruit & vegetable market in Cameroon Joseph Desiré Som
Towards an agricultural entrepreneurship in Burkina Faso: Prospects and challenges Joseph Dagano
Pilot phase of the Public-Private Partnership ‘Cotton made in Africa’ in Benin: Nestor Noutaï
Achievements and challenges for pro-poor growth
Risks and opportunities for agriculture: A perspective from Ivory Coast Berte Onagne
Agribusiness development: Some possibilities and experiences Prof Supid Rakshit
Equity Bank financing initiatives: A driver for making agri-business work for rural Esther Muiruri
livelihoods in Kenya
Outgrower Schemes: A successful example of green beans in Ethiopia Tsegaye Abebe
Support to livestock marketing in the Eastern and Western Communal Areas of Namibia Laura Lammerts
Synthesis of the Private Sector Group (English)
Synthesis of the Private Sector Group (French) Simone Zoundi and
Joseph Désiré Som
The bulk of presentations on agri-business successes came from the private sector. The group was so
large that it had to be split up into a Francophone and an Anglophone group. Each of these groups
made an excellent presentation of findings to the plenary on day 3 of the forum. The success stories
that were presented fell roughly into three main categories:
1. How markets can be made to work for African’s producers:
Markets play a pivotal role in improving rural livelihoods, and not just those that are nearby: Even
global markets can be accessed by poor producers; in view of long distances, high-value and low-
bulk products are especially promising. Of all big businesses, the beverage industry appears to have
the most integrated network between global players and African companies.
The potential of regional markets was demonstrated by Namibia (livestock) and that of sub-regional
markets by Cameroon (fruits and vegetables). In both cases, markets were successful because these
were well organised, with marketing information systems and other marketing services (sheds,
storage, piped water) in place. Producers selling to these markets were experienced and
knowledgeable (livestock) or else investments were made to develop their capacity (horticulture)
for producing quality produce and negotiating fair prices.
2. How partnerships can help smallholders connect to bigger markets
Sub-regional, regional and especially international (global) markets require an extra effort on the
side of producers. A pooling of supply often assures better prices and a pooling of demand for inputs
lower costs. Smallholders need to organise themselves and government should provide an
environment that enables them to do so. These organisations can take many shapes and forms;
examples presented here were those of Public-Private Partnership (cotton in Benin), outgrower
schemes (green beans in Ethiopia) and commodity associations (Cote d’Ivoire). Each of these proved
an essential ingredient to success; not only in making smallholder business a success in the first
place, but also in upscaling this success afterwards.
3. The role of access to finance and access to skills and knowledge
Access to finance rural finance is both crucial as well as complicated. Many schemes have failed due
to poor repayment rates or high transaction costs. The Equity Bank example from Kenya with its
Village Mobile Banks seems to be a win-win example where smallholders have very flexible and low
cost access to finance whilst the bank taps a huge and under-serviced market.
The strengthening of skills and dissemination of knowledge is another daunting enterprise,
especially where farmer populations are spread far and wide and are, for the most part, illiterate.
The example from Burkina Faso shows that even these constraints can be overcome, provided that a
number of crucial ingredients are in place: farmer organisation, political will and stamina and
How to upscale these successes?
Create an appropriate legal framework is the responsibility of government but without it the
private sector cannot be a driver of agri-business development, regardless of the ‘success
potential’ of its initiatives.
This legal framework should try to ensure transparent and fair connections in the production
chain, both upstream and downstream, e.g. through ensuring Social Corporate Responsibility,
contract enforcement, adherence to ‘fair-trade’ principles etc
Create a conducive policy framework underpinned by good and transparent governance
committed to private sector-led growth. This does not mean that government should withdraw
from interventions in the market – but rather that these interventions are ‘smart’ and
strengthen, rather than undermine private sector growth.
Engage in responsible pricing policies as an example of government intervention whereby a
markets and prices are assured up to a certain level.
Invest in the development and maintenance of infrastructure in way that ensures a well-
connected network from rural feeder roads all the way up to an international airport. This also
needs to include market infrastructure and market information systems.
Enable producers to join forces in strong organisations to realise economies of scale. This
requires first of all the political will to see farmers organise themselves. This can then be
followed by awareness creation, strengthening of skills such as leadership, management,
planning, negotiation, conflict resolution, monitoring and reporting.
Invest in advantageous partnerships such as Public Private Partnerships, but also ‘private-
private’ partnerships that link small producers into agro-business systems and value-chains.
Examples are outgrower schemes, or a South-South or North-South linking of Farmer Unions.
Facilitate the exchange of experiences and information at (i) horizontal level (between
different stakeholders in an area/country) and (ii) vertical level (from local, via national and
regional, to international)
Improve access to the means of production such as; land, financial services, credit,
knowledge, technology and equipment
Foster regional integration to overcome (i) the current limited movement of people and goods
and (ii) the wide variation in quality and standards, as both factor result in high transaction
costs to marketing.
Local Government and traditional authorities
Striking the balance between food and income: Jatropha production for biofuel in Louise Shxiwameni
Kavango Region, Namibia
The role of local government institutions in making agri-business work for rural Isaac Kiplangat Tonui
livelihoods in Kenya
Synthesis of the Local Government Group Louise Shxiwameni
Only two presentations in this parallel session; but each a good example of how stakeholders can
join forces for local economic development. In Namibia, the oil bearing plant Jatropha may be one
answer to helping poor rural producers survive in harsh climate and remote areas. The plant is
drought resistant, its leaves and seeds are used as medicine, disinfectant, insecticide and for soap
production. The oil can be used as lubricant and biodiesel in motor vehicles. Apart from the revenue
that can be generated, farmers producing Jatropha also qualify for carbon credits. In Kavango,
Local Government and Traditional leaders are currently working together with local entrepreneurs
and investors to foster production of this crop.
In Kenya, Local Authorities are involved in a programme whereby they allocate service land to
informal traders for use as markets. Market development is by a joint public-private initiative and
local traders are offered capacity development through selected polytechnics and other institutes
of technology. Management of the markets is by the informal sector traders’ associations.
Key factors of success?
Both examples are still in early stages of development and so assessment at a later stage is
necessary to determine how successful these initiatives will become. However, key ingredients of
the success so far are:
Builds upon existing networks of service providers & implementers: rather than setting up
new structures, these local initiatives build on the people and resources that are there and look
for ways how to make better use of them.
Stakeholders initiated and contributed: A key factor of success in both cases strong ownership
by the beneficiaries: Not only did the initiative come from the local actors themselves (rural
producers, local entrepreneurs, local authorities and traditional leaders) they also contribute to
the project by investing their own resources (time, money and effort).
Stakeholders feel empowered: Although optimum use of resources and local economic
development are the ultimate aims, the people involved feel empowered also in other ways:
informal traders get access to land, farmers and entrepreneurs are being trained and farmers
become more self-sufficient.
Civil society and NGOs
How can agri-business be supported among peasant agriculture? Lessons from Benin Patrice Sagbo
The role of the media in promoting agricultural development: The case of Cameroon Albert Yondjeu
in the context of escalating food prices
Supporting CSOs to capture opportunities of small scale fishing in Cameroon Catherine Foletia
A report on peace and reconciliation among the farming community in Kenya Lucy Mwangi
Knowledge management networks capturing ‘best practices’ in Kenya and Tanzania
Synthesis of the Civil Society Group
Presentations by civil society were uplifting and encouraging as they showed that much can be done
even by ‘small players’ and even in the face of big crises. Organisation and the development of
capacity helped small fisher-folk in Cameroon withstand big competitors. In Benin, the situation of
peasant farmers was much improved by an increased access to property by women coupled to a
better protection of assets (e.g. against pests and disease). An initiative to collect local knowledge
on best-practices started in Kenya and Tanzania and is becoming so successful that it may be
replicated in other East-African countries as well.
Interestingly, the civil society group concluded that crises are often a starting point for a harnessing
of powers that kick into gear processes of development, as was demonstrated convincingly by the
Kenyan case of successfully restoring farm-cycles in the aftermath of the recent crisis. The crucial
role of the media to advocate and fight for the cause of small producers was shown by Cameroon.
How to upscale these successes?
Use response to crisis as an opportunity, but formalize integration of agriculture as an issue
into the media. For example through strategic planning, the mobilisation of resources, the
training of rain journalists, through building accessible information databases and through
creating avenues for sharing best practices
Strengthening of farmer organisations: Farmer organizations still need to be strengthened to
be able to participate in strategic discussions at national level. Farmers need to be encouraged
to participation in these organisations.
Raising awareness and building capacity: A lot needs to be done to raise awareness among
civil society, including producers and the media, on national issues and processes (reforms,
policy making, budgeting, etc.) but also on global issues. Capacity should be built to enable
these stakeholders become articulate and informed players in national and public debates.
Civil society needs to “package” its messages in a form that is “sellable” to the media (news,
relate it to global issues, relate it to people’s lives, package it with entertainment).
Civil society needs to strengthen its networks, both within groups (for example the media,
advocacy groups, farmers’ organizations) and also across groups (between farmers farmer’s
organizations and media). At national, regional and continental levels.
Civil society needs to be more effective in monitoring, evaluating and giving feedback to
government on implementation of agriculture policies on the field.
Platforms and structures for dialogue between farmers, NGOs and the government need to
created and supported at various levels
Inform, train and lobby key influential actors such as (i) parliamentarians (ii) local
governments (iii) donors (iv) central government; and not only on issues, but also on their role
and potential impact and how they can intervene in the process (lawmaking, lobbying
Ensure and safeguard the freedom of expression so that people feel comfortable addressing
issues of agriculture, land reform etc. without being considered as “politicized”. For change
and development to take place the media has to be free to address sensitive issues
Use the media! To fight the cause of small people, to raise awareness in crisis and to inform
people of issues that concern their life. Do not forget that the media can be an important ally.
Is market orientation of Agricultural Policy in Africa still appropriate in times of food Reimund Hoffmann
shortage and rising food prices?"
Agriculture and the Accra High Level Forum; some reflections Yihenew Zewdie
Supporting the promotion of agri-business in Benin using the ‘value-links’ approach Bernard Agbo
Synthesis Development Partners Group
Agricultural Policy has seen a shift from government driven and subsistence oriented policies to
those that emphasise private-driven and market-oriented growth. However, a good share of
marginal households is unable to tap the opportunities offered by the market. For those who can,
the value-chain has proven to be an effective approach. What is needed is a two-pronged strategy
that secures access to food for the chronically poor while promoting market induced growth
amongst those with market access and a minimum of resources for investment.
Agriculture was one of the four sectors reviewed during the Accra High Level Forum of September
2008. During that meeting, a proposal was launched to develop a global partnership on agriculture
and food, also in view of the challenges imposed by climate change and rising food and fuel prices.
This partnership would focus on meeting the Millennium Development Goals.
The Development Partners group did not discuss success stories as such – but identified a number of
issues that are critical to making aid and development more effective to agricultural growth:
Work in line with country owned (national) policies and guidelines by aligning donor support
behind national policies and strategies and contributing to national priorities. Good national
policies and strategies are a key frame condition and where these are not present donors should
support their development, rather than act in parallel to government.
Good governance at national, regional and local levels should be supported. The
commitment and dedication of the national government to the agricultural agenda is key and
donors should increase their awareness and information on the political dimension of agriculture
and rural development to better support good sector governance.
Recognize and support different roles of public, private and civil society actors, with an
emphasis on private sector actors. Ensure that non-state actors participate in government
dialogue. Functional and permanent consultation between all stakeholders is a pre-requisite to
development and donors should support platforms, working groups and other communication
channels that support this dialogue.
The capacities of stakeholders to fulfil their respective roles should be supported. Capacity
development effort should be focussed especially at smallholder producer associations as these
play a pivotal role in empowering people to find their way out of poverty.
Processes of decentralisation should be supported with respect to administrative, fiscal and
political decentralisation and with a view to improving service delivery at sub-national levels.
Account should be taken of the coherency between different sectors such as agriculture,
infrastructure, trade, tourism, environment, local governance etc. This coherence should be
supported on the side of the partner country – but also development partners amongst
themselves should strive for coherent support packages at country level (where biases to
selected sectors are avoided)
Networking, information sharing and awareness creation should be supported whether it is
within a country, between countries or at international (North-South) levels.
The viability of development activities needs to be determined and (research) activities to
do so should be supported. This so that evidence based planning of development is more
feasible, whether it is by governments or donors.
DPs should stick to government-DP agreements whether it is the Paris Declaration, Code of
Conducts and other joint principles
DP structures should be made accessible and DP procedures should be transparent to facilitate
the pace of CAADP implementation at country level
DPs should increase financing via innovative and appropriate financing mechanisms that
take account of the different roles of public, private and CSO actors in the agricultural sector.
The third day of the forum was devoted to the drawing up of country action plans in which the ideas
and inspiration gained from the agri-business successes discussed earlier is put within the context of
national agricultural planning and CAADP implementation. To give participants a framework for the
latter, three countries presented their experience with CAADP to date. Annex 5 gives an overview of
the status of CAADP implementation in countries at the forum and across Africa.
Today, any development strategy in Africa should integrate a response to HIV and AIDS and for
agriculture this response should be based on a thorough understanding of sector specific risks and
opportunities. For this reason, a presentation on the implications of AIDS for agricultural strategies
was included to give participants some ideas on how to integrate this concern before they split up in
Country Teams to draw up country action plans.
The CAADP process at country level
CAADP Round Table Process: Ethiopian Chapter Wondirad Mandefro
Experiences of Burkina Faso with CAADP Alphonse Bonou
Lessons and challenges in CAADP implementation in Rwanda Epimaque Nsanzabaganwa
Ethiopia has recently started with the process of CAADP implementation. Nevertheless the country
already achieved one major benchmark, that of 10% of public funds to be devoted to agriculture.
Already in 2004, Ethiopia committed 13.4% of budget allocation to agriculture. At present, a
workshop launching the CAADP process was held and the stocktaking exercise is about to begin. The
process will be based on three pillars (i) agricultural growth (ii) sustainable land management and
(iii) food security. In Ethiopia, the CAADP process is clearly seen as a country owned process
following a government agenda. Stakeholder participation will be intensified. Technical teams are
set up based on the three pillars and a Trust Fund is created to support implementation. Ethiopia is
confident that the process will reduce, even eradicate, poverty.
The CAADP process has progressed further in Burkina Faso were it began in September 2007. Sector
analyses and assessments included the growth and investment projections carried out with help
from IFPRI. Based on these analyses priorities were identified and a strategy (up to 2015) was
formulated. After the signing of the CAADP Country Compact in December 2008, a Round Table with
donors is planned for March 2009. The Ministry of Economy & Finance takes the lead in the process.
Rwanda is considered the pioneer in Africa with respect to CAADP implementation as the first
country that signed the Compact in early 2007. Rwanda feels that the CAADP process added value to
on-going national efforts, in particular by (i) the targeted identification of poverty reducing sources
of growth (ii) offering projections of long term investment needs and by (iii) facilitating the design
of appropriate knowledge and information systems as well as monitoring and review mechanisms.
The main objective of the Compact is to guide national strategies in the long term.
Especially interesting for countries at the beginning of the CAADP process was Rwanda’s assessment
of what happened after the signing of the Compact, which was very positive: It has been easier to
mobilise resources for priorities identified in the Compact; the budget allocated to agriculture
continues to increase; stakeholders in the agriculture sector are joining forces in developing a
sector wide approach; and the Compact has become a common reference point in the dialogue with
development partners and has helped the government coordinate donor support to the sector.
These country experiences, especially by Rwanda, offer a range of useful lessons including:
Get the Ministry of Finance on board; the sooner the better, but no later than the drafting
of the Compact. Strong political ownership is essential to the process and this has to come
from the macro- (and not just from the sector-) level.
Involve stakeholders early so that the process can be founded on strong national
ownership; this requires prior consultation with all relevant stakeholder on the process and
Allow time!! It takes time to raise awareness, to do a good job during the Round Table
stakeholder discussions and group work; it takes time to do proper stocktaking & analyses
and time to draw up the Compact and to ensure that any revisions are transparent to
stakeholders involved. The advice here is: Rather start early, than rush through!!
Ensure that the right representatives are consulted; Representatives at a senior level of
the stakeholder groups involved should have seen drafts of the Compact before it is brought
for signing. Furthermore, signatories should be given time to consult with the stakeholders
they represent before signing.
Welcome the uncovering of weaknesses; Undergoing the CAADP process means taking a
close and critical look at what is there in terms of policies & strategies, institutions &
capacities and at what resources have been allocated and what has been achieved so far.
Uncovering gaps and weaknesses is not an unwelcome by-product of this process, but rather
its very purpose. Countries should welcome this and use the CAADP process to bring these to
the table and make sure that the are addressed,
CAADP is a good lobbying tool toward Min of Finance and donors: The fact that the
CAADP Compact is signed as part of an Africa-wide partnership agreement under auspices of
NEPA helps agricultural stakeholders at country level to negotiate for public resources from
the Ministry of Finance. Similarly, the Compact offers a tool that helps in both obtaining
donor support as well as in coordinating donor support for the agricultural sector.
Regional support is helpful such from ECOWAS, COMESA, SADC etc. This can be in the form
of cross-country analyses, but also in the form of tangible regional objectives such as
regional custom unions, streamlining of trade levies and taxes and a setting of uniform
Peer-learning between CAADP Countries is vital whether it is between CAADP Focal Points
from different countries, or between members of the Round Tables in different countries.
Despite the language barriers and the need for translation, participants felt that the Anglo-
and Francophone exchanges are beneficial and should be supported.
Peer exchange especially on the ‘How to..?’ question: Development priorities and
strategies need to be tailor made and are country specific. However, after these have been
identified and formulated, an exchange between countries is useful on issues such as how
best to implement, what institutional arrangements, how donors can best support, with
which financing modalities, use of Memorandum of Understanding or Codes of Conduct etc.
Taking account of aids in national agricultural strategies
The impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Ethiopia: implications for Clare Bishop-Sambrook and
agricultural strategies Zewdu Ayele
The connections between agriculture and HIV-AIDS can be divided into ‘production related risks’
and ‘market related risks’. Seasonal labourers and pastoralists production systems are examples of
the first category, both related to the movement of people. Market-related risks also include
movement of people away from their families, but things like the availability of money and the fact
that markets are seen as social events also leads to people engaging in risk-behaviour. Based on a
thorough study in Ethiopia of AIDS in the context of agriculture, a number of implications for
agricultural strategies are recommended. These include
Bring the input supply & marketing chain closer to producers
Train farmers to better manage their money – broaden their horizon so that it increases their
options for investment
Strengthen women’s bargaining position through economic empowerment
Reduce the wish to migrate by increasing (rural) livelihood options
Reduce the risk associated with capacity building (e.g. by bringing training closer to home,
by raising awareness or distributing condoms during workshops) and
Use farmer associations as an entry point for AIDS care and (vii) use markets as an
opportunity for awareness campaigns.
Country Action Plans
The afternoon of day 3 of the forum was spent on Country Teams drawing up their action plans.
These were then presented to the plenary on the morning of the last day of the forum. Nine
countries presented an action plan and these are attached in full as annex 8.
The table below present an overview of the key elements of these action plans.
Benin Promote agricultural value chains; Capacity building for agricultural producers;
Align national policy to CAADP
Burkina Faso Conceptualise ‘agri-business’ for use in the national context; Contribute to value
chain promotion; Support the improvement of the framework for private sector
(support the creation of an enabling environment for private investment)
Cameroon Start the CAADP process; Make agriculture a central theme in the media;
Encourage public-private and civil society partnerships; Lobby for smallholder
Côte d’Ivoire Align the country plan to the rice development programme; Promote a value-chain
approach to improve rice production and productivity; Support the development
of rural processing units; Support the improvement of markets and marketing
conditions for smallholders
Ethiopia Promote value chains; Develop appropriate technologies based on local needs and
opportunities; Support and lobby for the development of infrastructure; Assess the
opportunities for the development and use of niche markets by smallholders
Ghana Support closing the ‘yield gap’; Promote the value chain approach including
looking at infrastructure needs along the chain; Support the sustainable
management of land and the environment
Kenya Integrate CAADP into national planning, in particular align with the Strategy for
the Revitalisation of Agriculture; Strengthen partnerships between public, private
and civil society in support of CAADP implementation; Identify options for
evidence based support to agri-business
Namibia Assess the status of the country with respect to the CAADP process; Focus on land
reform; Promote value chains; Support improved access to credit; Pursue better
Zambia Support reform of the marketing sector; Promote and lobby for the
disentanglement of agri-business development from food security under the Rural
Across the board some common themes can be identified:
1. The value chain approach has really been taken up by Country Teams as a promising approach:
It featured in no six country plans namely: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana
and Namibia. It did not feature in the Kenya plan, but that is more because it is a firmly
established feature there already.
2. Supporting the CAADP process was mentioned by four countries. In Benin and Kenya a CAADP
process has started and the issue there is to align this to national strategies. Tow of the seven
countries presenting, Namibia and Cameroon, were completely new to CAADP. However, having
listened to experiences by other countries at the forum, they were convinced that they should
create awareness at home on and lobby for the CAADP process to be started.
3. Capacity building of agricultural producers, either through training or the development of
appropriate technologies featured in the plans of Benin, Ethiopia and Ghana.
It has often been said, during this but also during previous African Fora, that agricultural strategies
should take account of the political dimension as much as the technical dimension. Despite this, this
year’s country action plans still seemed to take a fairly technical approach to agricultural
development. The exception here was the plan by Cameroon that was much more political in tone
and centred on activities of awareness creation, advocacy and lobbying. Although participants were
initially surprised at this lack of technical focus, it was later agreed that this may actually be quite
a useful and also a feasible plan, as this type of activity (e.g. lobbying) has shown to have been
among the most successful in the implementation of the country plans of 2007.
Traditionally, a day of every Africa Forum is set aside for a visit to the field to give the hosting
country an opportunity to show some of its successes in agriculture and rural development. Over the
years, organisers have realised how important ‘getting out of the conference room’ is and how
much participants value the opportunity to get a close look at the country they are visiting.
For the 12th Africa Forum, the Ethiopian hosts had organised a more than excellent fieldtrip
programme: Not only did they put together a range of five interesting options to choose from, but
each one visited at least two agri-business sites and ended with a nice dinner in a local restaurant.
For more information and for future reference, information on the fieldtrips is attached as annex 3.
The photo’s below give an impression from the people who visited the rose cultivation and enjoyed
a traditional Ethiopian tea ceremony during their afternoon break.
Wrapping up and moving on
Key messages of the 12th Africa Forum Desiree Dietvorst and Martin Bwalya
The annual Africa Forum…Moving on… Reimund Hoffmann
After the last country had presented its action plan, a quick overview of key messages and findings
of the forum was presented. This presentation has later been translated also into French and was
sent to all participants shortly after the forum. It also formed the basis of these proceedings.
This forum was the first in the series that was co-organised by NEPAD-CAADP and one objective of
this year’s forum was to see whether this kind of event would be a useful platform to aid CAADP
implementation. Reimund Hoffmann presented some early ideas along this line noting that the
Africa Forum could be a CAADP too to stimulate collaboration between peers and across sectors,
stakeholder categories and country boundaries. During a plenary discussion these ideas were further
explored and substantiated by participants themselves concluding that as an annual platform of
exchange, a ‘CAADP Africa Forum’ could help stakeholders in agriculture:
1. Exchange and learn about best practices in agriculture and rural development
2. Inform country processes in relation to CAADP implementation
Participants made it clear that there is a real demand in agriculture for such a platform, not only in
‘CAADP countries (“Ethiopia: CAADP helped us speak a common language; thus the time to
exchange amongst each other is now better than ever”) but also by people from ‘non-(or not yet)’
CAADP countries (“Namibia: The forum helps us appreciate the CAADP-process’ and we will see how
we can move this at home and become part of the CAADP-family next year”).
Interestingly, some people claimed that the forum will help to not only consolidate, but also to
stimulate country action because, even if peer learning is what is aimed for, a certain amount of
(self-imposed) peer pressure will inevitably be evoked when people meet annually to report on
progress made (Kenya: “It is because of the upcoming forum that we sometimes do things”).
Therefore, it was decided that the integration of Africa Forum into the CAADP structure and process
will be further explored. For this reason, the traditional selection of theme and venue for the next
forum by participants was deferred until such time that there is greater clarity about the role and
purpose of the forum. How participants evaluated the 12 th Africa Forum is attached in annex 6.
In future years, this 12th forum will be seen as a turning point in the history of the Africa Forum.
Since 1997, the Africa Forum had been following its own growth curve as an independent platform.
This independency was useful when the purpose of the forum was to keep practitioners updated on
the latest thinking in development, as was the case in its early years. Later, when the exchange
between peers of implementation experience became more important, the forum could still fulfil
its purpose as a stand-alone platform. However, in recent years, participants have come not as
individuals but as members of a Country Team; their interest was no longer just to get and
exchange information, but to act on it. Soon, participants’ requested ‘inter-forum implementation
support’; but, much as the forum organisers would want to comply, this is where the forum, as an
independent platform of learning, could no longer be of much assistance.
At the same time, NEPAD developed its Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme
(CAADP). Regional Economic Communities and Country Round Tables drive the process of CAADP
implementation at country level. A central element in that process is to find out where successes in
African agriculture have been achieved and to then see how these can either be upscaled or
replicated. Not surprisingly, identifying and upscaling these success-stories is a slow process.
For this 12th event, the Africa Forum and NEPAD joined forces to answer two questions: (i) Can the
Africa Forum be used as an outreach platform for CAADP? (ii) Would linking up with the CAADP
process increase the relevance of the forum’s output at country level? And now, after the forum, it
can safely be concluded that according to participants the answer to both questions is a clear YES!
Assuming that the forum in future years will become a CAADP-instrument, let’s look at the results of
this 12th Africa Forum with respect to four key issues in the context of CAADP implementation:
1. Understanding CAADP
What CAADP is and (also important) what it is not - has become very clear to forum
participants. Any remaining suspicions (that CAADP is a top-down and parallel process) were
removed: First by Martin Bwalya’s excellent presentations and second by people from
CAADP-pioneer countries telling other how the CAADP process, through its stocktaking and
analyses, had really strengthened their own country-own processes. In fact, participants
became so convinced that those whose countries have not yet (or barely) started, said that
one of the first things they would do upon returning is to find out where the process is and
to try and support it. The fact that Africa Forum Country Teams comprise representatives of
different stakeholder groups will certainly help in that effort.
2. Supporting the CAADP process at country level
Countries represented in the forum were at different stages in their CAADP process: Few
had signed a Compact, several had begun stocktaking exercises and many had completed
the engagement and partnership phase. Participants found it extremely useful to hear of
experiences from those who are ahead in the process. Especially Rwanda offered people a
lot of good advice on what to do and what to look out for, that made people feel more
prepared for what lies ahead. Another benefit of this exchange mentioned by participants
was that it was a relief to hear that exercises like stocktaking and institutional analyses had
exposed weaknesses also in other countries. And that this was not something to be ashamed
about, or to hide, but rather something to be embraced as the very purpose of the CAADP
process. Knowing that your peers were also not faultless, but that sticking with the process
has made them stronger, is a strong motivation to continue.
3. Learning about agri-business successes
Lots of information on agri-businesses was offered by a wide range of actors and on a wide
spectrum of topics. Some of this found its way into Country Action Plans, notably the value-
chain approach. However, the way this information is presented may be improved. Parallel
sessions by actor group limits the choice of participants with respect to which presentation
they want to attend. In addition, the time allocated to the agri-business session was limited
this year on account of the tree planting exercise that followed after. Despite these
limitations, the summary presentations by actor group were excellent and presented a good
picture of factors of success and factors of upscaling.
4. Supporting the upscaling of agri-business successes
The upscaling of what works in agriculture may in future years become the ultimate
objective of the Africa Forum as a CAADP instrument. Experiences of this year’s forum can
at most point the way with regard to how this can best be achieved. According to Country
Teams conditions that would need to be met include the following: Country team members
need to be real representatives of their stakeholder category with respect to status and
seniority in decision making; (ii) Country team members should be part of on-going
development processes in agriculture, especially that of CAADP (iii) Country team members
should have knowledge of agriculture policies and programmes in their country; (iv) Agri-
business success stories presented at the forum should be based on a rigorous process of
selection; and (v) Supporting information (e.g. brochures, contact details, studies) should
be available for each agri-business success for further information and future reference.
Ideas along the lines of making the forum a CAADP instrument were presented to participants on the
last day. Based on the plenary discussion that followed it can be said that there is a real demand
for such a platform, not only in ‘CAADP countries (“Ethiopia: CAADP helped us speak a common
language; thus the time to exchange amongst each other is now better than ever”) but also by
people from ‘non-(or not yet)’ CAADP countries (“Namibia: The forum helps us appreciate the
‘CAADP-family’ and we will see how we can move the process at home to also become part of
this”). As a platform of exchange and peer-learning, the forum will help to not only consolidate,
but also to stimulate country action because, even if peer learning is what is aimed for, a certain
amount of peer pressure will inevitably be evoked when people meet annually to report on progress
made (Kenya: “It is because of the upcoming forum that we sometimes do things”).
To summarise: As an annual platform of exchange, a ‘CAADP-Africa Forum’ could help stakeholders
in agriculture: (i) Inform country processes in relation to CAADP implementation and (ii) Exchange
and learn about best practices in agriculture and rural development.
The format of the forum, as well as the composition of Country Teams would have to be adapted to
make optimum use of a CAADP-Africa Forum. Although this would mark the end of the Africa Forum
as we know it, this should be seen as a gain and not a loss, since embedding the Africa Forum within
an Africa-wide institutional and policy context offers its peer-learning a home and a purpose.
Annex 1 Participant list by country
de Conservation et de Gestion des Resources
1 Bernard Philibert Agbo Naturelles (ProCGRN) firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Abiba Dafia Mairie de Kerou email@example.com
3 T.K Christophe Medenou de l'Agriculture de I'Elevage et de la Peche (MAEP) firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Tohouegnon Nestor Noutai ICA - GIE email@example.com
5 Patrice Sagbo firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Jules Marie Somé GTZ Programme Devt. De I'Agriculture email@example.com
Programme d'Investissement Communautaire en firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Jacob Ouedraogo Fertilite Agricole (PICOFA) email@example.com
Ministéré du Commerece, de la Promotion de
3 Ansomwin Hien I'Etnterprise et de I'Artisanat firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Simone Zoundi-Kafando SODEPAL email@example.com
5 Mathias N. Hein Conseil Regional firstname.lastname@example.org
6 D.Alphonse Bonou email@example.com
7 Charles A. Ouedraogo Ministéré Resource Animal firstname.lastname@example.org
8 Ousmane Djibo GTZ Programme Devt. De I'Agriculture Ousmane.email@example.com
9 Dagano Joseph FEPASI firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Desiree Som I Joseph Role des marches dans I ' Agro Business
2 Albert L. Yondjeu
3 Catherine L Foletia Renforcer les Organisations de Cultivateurs email@example.com
1 Lothar Diehl GTZ /MOAP firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Anna Jankowski GTZ /MOAP email@example.com
3 Solome Danso Ministry of Food Agriculture , Ghana
4 Jeremy Agyemang Ministry of Food Agriculture , Ghana
5 Ebenezer Odoi -Okpoti Odotei National Development Planning Commission
1 Gete Zeleke Global Mountain Program
2 Andrea Bahm GTZ SUN firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Tesfaye Mebrahatu GTZ SUN email@example.com
4 Solomon Belete EAAP firstname.lastname@example.org
5 Techane Adugna MoARD Coordinatior Planning Dep. email@example.com
6 Sileshi Getahun MoARD Coordinatior NRM Dep. firstname.lastname@example.org
7 Wondrad Mandefro MoARD Coordinator Agr. Extension Dep
8 Tsegaye Abebe Eth Hort Prod Export. Ass. Board Chairman Bnf2etf@ethionet.et
9 Teshome Walle MoARD Coordinator Planning Dep email@example.com
10 Nigist Haile GFA Consulting Group firstname.lastname@example.org
11 Getachew Alemayehu DG ARARI
12 Mekonnen Yelowemwessen Amhara Credit & Saving Institute
13 Desta Beyera GFA Consulting Group SUN_FC.email@example.com
14 Salewassie Getahun GFA Consulting Group firstname.lastname@example.org
15 Abrham Tadesse Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia email@example.com
16 Tadelle Dessie NA
17 Tenagne Lemma World Vision International Ethiopia firstname.lastname@example.org
18 Yoseph Yilak Addis Ababa Grain Traders Association
19 Frank Sandvoss GFA Consulting Group
20 Teferra Deribew Amhara RS BoARD
Head Animal and Plant Health Inspeciton and
21 Berehe G/Egziabher Regulatroy Dept. MoARD email@example.com
22 Bezabhi Imana Agriculture Economic Society of Ethiopia firstname.lastname@example.org
23 Mandefro Negussie Crop Science Society of Ethiopia email@example.com
Head of Resource Mobilization Ethiopian Millennium
24 Yohannes G/Selassie Festival National Secretariat
25 Dawit Alemu
26 Gutessa Head , Benisahangul Gumuz
27 Getachew Alemayehu DG ARARI
28 Kiros Meles DG TARI
29 Lemma Desalegne Melkassa Agriculture Research Center firstname.lastname@example.org
30 Tsige Genet Head of Agriculture Unit Bahir Dar University email@example.com
31 Aman Amulu BoFED Gambela
32 Ayele Hussien
33 Florence Rolle FAO
35 Asfaw Zeleke
36 Girma Demissie
37 Kristina Henricson
38 Bekele Belda
39 Demmere Lume /Adama farmer Union
40 Shimelis Addis Ababa University
41 Fekade Selassie GTZ
42 Demissie Chanyalew
43 Tilahun Amede ILRI
44 Amare Belay TARI
45 Heike Pflauubaun DED
46 Mebrahtu Meles ECBP
47 Tekalegn Mamo
48 Zewdneh Abdi
49 Zenbaba Gutema SWG - MoARD
50 Mekonnen Teshome MIC
51 Girma Balcha IBC
52 Ababi Demissie
53 Egigu Tegegne MoARD
54 Amare Mekonnen MoARD
55 John Grahm USAID
1 Berthe Onagne Conseil General de Tengrela firstname.lastname@example.org
Programme de developpemnet Economique en Milieu
2 Ngone Dia Rural email@example.com
3 Nicole Aphing - Kouassi Agence national s'ppul firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Dirissa Ouattara GTZ email@example.com
5 Wama Sossou M.O Laetitla GTZ (Abidjan) firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Coulibaly Amadou email@example.com
GTZ Promotion of Private Sector Development in
1 Reimund Hoffmann Agriculture Reimund.Hoffmann@gtz.de
2 Seelaff Antti GTZ PSDA (Kenya) Antti.Seelaff@gtz.de
3 Esther M. Muiruri Equity Bank LTD firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Priscilla Wambui Muiruri
5 Lucy W. Mwangi Kenfap email@example.com
6 Mwai Wa Kihu Abd ( agribusiness Development ) danida/gok firstname.lastname@example.org
7 Richard Ondiek Youth Environmental alliance
8 Issac Kiplangat Tonui Ministry of Local Government email@example.com
GTZ Promotion of Private Sector Development in
9 Francis Muthami Agriculture (PSDA)
10 Geoffrey Omedo Nepad Secretariat Research officer firstname.lastname@example.org
11 John K. Mungay Ministry of Agriculture
12 Anton Glaeser DED Private Sector Development
13 Simon M.Mwangangi Ministry of Livestock Development
14 Tomas Apina SUSTANET email@example.com
1 Tanja Pikardt GTZ - Support to Landreform firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Hileni Doufi Namalambo NA email@example.com
3 Pintile Davids Namibia National Farmer Union firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Petrus Uugwanga Natural Planning Commission email@example.com
5 Laura Lammerts Namibian National Farmers Union firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Manuel Ronn Kaheka Director of Rural Water Supply email@example.com
7 Knox Otto Imbuwa Ministry of Land and Resettlment firstname.lastname@example.org
8 Sjaak De Boer EU Delegation to Namibia email@example.com
9 Elaine Sjalome Smith NAU firstname.lastname@example.org
10 Goliath Tiyendapi Meat Board of Namibia email@example.com
11 Christoph Uerii Mujetenga General Manager - Marketing Agribusiness firstname.lastname@example.org
12 Solomon Tjiburai Namibia Emerging Commercial farmer forum NA
13 Antindi Berfine N. Ministry of Land and Resettlment email@example.com
14 Sakkie Coeteez Executive Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
Programmer Manager; Land Management and
15 Charl - Thom Bayer Registration email@example.com
1 Haantuba Hyde Agricultural Consultative Forum firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Droppelmann Klaus Agricultural Consultative Forum email@example.com
1 Stephan Krall GTZ Germany stephan.Krall@gtz.de
2 Thomas Michel GTZ Germany firstname.lastname@example.org
Secretariat of the Global Donor Platform for Rural
3 Yihenew Zewdie Development, Bonn, Germany
4 Panhausen Christoph GTZ Sector Project Agricultural Trade email@example.com
5 Schutz Paul GTZ Germany firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Roukayatou Zimmermann German Development Institute (DIE) Roukaya.email@example.com
7 Dorothe Nett InWEnt Germany firstname.lastname@example.org
8 Amadou Coulibaly Direction du Developpement Decentralise email@example.com
9 Pedro Paulino PPDF Mozambique firstname.lastname@example.org
National Directorate fro promotion of Rural
10 Oligario Banze Development
11 Sina Eckhoff GTZ - CAADP South Africa email@example.com
12 Clarisse Bukeyeneza Civil Society Cooperation Officer EAC /GTZ firstname.lastname@example.org
13 Heiko Heidemann German Development Service, Germay email@example.com
14 John Woodend CTA , The Netherlands
African Center for Food Security - University of
1 Sheryl Hendriks KwaZulu –Natal, South Africa Hendriks@ukzn.ac.za
2 Epimaque Nsanzabaganwa Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resource, Rwanda firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Babacar Diop Bureau d'Appui a la Cooperation Canadienne, Canada email@example.com
Integrating Productivity and Market Successes for
4 Clare Bishop Sambrook Ethiopian Farmers (IPMS), Ethiopia
International Food Policy Research Institute,
5 James Thurlow Washington firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Kalilous Sylla Agriculture Director ECOWAS, Nigeria
7 Martin Bwalya NEPAD, South Africa email@example.com
8 Albert Engel Head of Division, Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, GTZ Albert.Engel@gtz.de
9 Sibongile Sambo Managing Director SRS Aviation, South Africa
10 Eleni G/Medhin
11 Abera Deressa MoARD
12 Marita Broemmelmeier Head of East Africa Division, GTZ Eschborn
Commissioner of Rural Economy and Agriculture, Africa
13 Rhoda Peace Tumusiime Union
Vice President Research, Asian Institute of Technology
14 Rakshit Sudip (AIT) firstname.lastname@example.org
Improving Productivity & Market success for Ethiopian
15 Zewdu Ayele Farmer Project
1 Joshua Mushauri MetaCom (Pvt)Ltd email@example.com
2 Desiree Dietvorst Consultant firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Kah Walla STRATEGIES! email@example.com
4 Heike Hoeffler Consultant firstname.lastname@example.org
Annex 2 Programme
MONDAY 29 September
S E TT I N G T HE S CE N E
Opening Ceremony Master of Ceremony: Dr. Eleni Gabremedhin
09.00 Martin Bwalya, Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP),
New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD)
Andrea Bahm, German Development Cooperation, co-chair SWG-RED & FS; Marita
Brömmelmeier, Head of East Africa Division, GTZ Eschborn
Mrs. Rhoda Peace Tumusiime, Commissioner of Rural Economy and Agriculture, Africa
09:30 His Excellency Dr. Abera Deresa, State Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Official Opening of the 12th Africa Forum
Development, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Group photo 09.50
Tea / coffee 10:00
Introduction of participants 10:30 Moderators and participants
Keynote Address: The freedom to fly 11:15 Sibongile Sambo, Managing Director SRS Aviation, South Africa
Keynote Address: The taking off of Ethiopian agriculture: 11:35 Dr. Abera Deresa, State Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development,
Moving Ethiopia agriculture towards success Ethiopia
Round table discussion & Question and Answer session 11:55 Moderators and participants
Setting the Scene
The Africa Forum: rising to the challenge of country-level 13:30 Désirée Dietvorst, consultant Africa Forum
NEPAD-CAADP and the Africa Forum 13:50 Matin Bwalya, Agricultural Unit, NEPAD Secretariat, South Africa
Round table and panel discussion 14:10
Announcements organisational and logistical issues 14:50 Dr Karin Fock, Africa Forum Organising Committee
2 Parallel Sessions: Country Team presentations on progress on Country Action Plans
Country Team presentations on progress 15:00 Group 1 (anglophone) Group 2 (francophone)
Dr Tesfai Mebrahtu, Ethiopia Ousmane Djibo, Burkina Faso
(10 min per country team presentation, Francis Muthami, Kenya Dr Bernard Agbo, Benin
Klaus Droppelmann, Zambia Cheick Bocoum, Mali
discussion on lessons learnt)
Tanja Pickardt, Namibia Chaibou Abdou, Niger
Tea / coffee 16:15
Summary presentations & plenary discussions 16:45 Group 1 representative, Group 2 representative
Cocktail reception in the German House 19:00 The Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany Dr. Claas Knoop invites all Africa
Forum participants to a cocktail at the German House located in Casa Inches, Addis
Please note: Buses leave the Sheraton Hotel at 19:00
TUESDAY 30 September
G E TT I N G D O W N TO A C TI O N
Recap and introduction to today’s programme 08:00 Kah Walla and Joshua Mushauri
Escalating food prices
Escalating food prices: Causes, effects and challenges 08:30 Albert Engel, Director Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. GTZ. Germany
CAADP Pillar III response to the food crisis 08:50 Prof Sheryl Hendriks, Kwa Zulu Natal University - CAADP Pillar III Lead Institution
Round table discussion 09:10
Measures taken by ECOWAS under the Regional Agricultural 09:30 Kalilou Sylla, Agriculture Director of ECOWAS, Nigeria
Policy to address food price escalation in West Africa
Agricultural growth and investment options for poverty reduction: 09:50 James Thurlow, IFPRI Research Fellow, Washington
Findings from Rwanda, Zambia, Malawi, Ghana and Uganda
Round table and panel discussion 10:10
Tea / Coffee plus snacks! 11:30
Actors report success stories - parallel sessions see overleaf for details
Presentations and group work by Actor groups on success stories 12:00
Three trees for 3000’ 15:00 Buses leave Sheraton at 15:00 (lunch to be served on bus trip)
Five parallel sessions: Countries report Success Stories:
1. Government Actors Bilingual with interpretation
Successful policy responses to escalating food prices: The case of Burkina Faso Ansomwin Ignace Hien, Regional Inspector of Economic Affairs, Burkina Faso
Making agri-business work: The case of the potato value chain in Kenya Francis Muthami, Programme Manager PSDA, Kenya
From a subsistence crop to a commercial market commodity: The Namibian Ronn Kaheka, Head of Rural Water Supply, Ministry of Agriculture, Water and
experience with pearl millet Forestry, Namibia
The importance of leadership and governance in the agriculture sector: The case Bassiaka Dao, Leader of the Confederation of Farmers, Burkina Faso
of Burkina Faso
2. Local government, local authorities, trad. leadership English
Striking the balance between food and income: Jatropha production for biofuel Louise Shxiwameni, freelance consultant, Namibia
in Kavango Region, Namibia
The role of local government institutions in making agri-business work for rural Isaac Kiplangat Tonui, Town Clerk, Litein Town Council, Ministry of Local
livelihoods in Kenya Government, Kenya
3A. Private and commercial sector French
The role of markets in agri-business: The case of Sandaga sub-regional fruit and Joseph Desiré Som, Consultant, Sandaga Market
vegetable market in Cameroon
Towards an agricultural entrepreneurship in Burkina Faso: Joseph Dagano, Agricultural Producers Association, Burkina Faso
Pilot phase of the Public-Private Partnership ‘Cotton made in Africa’ in Benin: Nestor Noutaï, Industries Cotonnières Associées (ICA-GIE) – Cotton Producer
Achievements and challenges for pro-poor growth Association, Benin
Agro-business: Risks and opportunities for Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: A Berte Onagne,Senior VP of the General Council Tengrella, Ivory Coast
perspective from Ivory Coast
3B. Private and commercial sector English
Agribusiness development: Some possibilities and experiences Prof Supid Rakshit, VPt Research, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Equity Bank financing initiatives: A driver for making agri-business work for rural Esther Muiruri, General Manager, Equity Bank, Kenya
livelihoods in Kenya
Outgrower Schemes: A successful example of green beans in Ethiopia Tsegaye Abebe, Ethiopia
Support to livestock marketing in the Eastern and Western Communal Areas of Laura Lammerts, National Farmers Union, Namibia
4. Civil society, NGOs, Academia Bilingual with interpretation
How can agri-business be supported among peasant agriculture? Lessons from Patrice Sagbo, Nature Tropicale ONG, Benin
The role of the media in promoting agricultural development: The case of Albert Ledoux Yondjeu, Editor-in-Chief, Radio and Television, Equinoxe -
Cameroon in the context of escalating food prices (French) Cameroon
Supporting CSOs to capture opportunities of small scale fishing in Cameroon Catherine Lekeya Foletia, President, Women Orientation Association
A report on peace and reconciliation among the farming community in Kenya. Lucy Mwangi, GM, Kenyan National Federation of Agricultural Producers
5. Donors, Development partners English
Is market orientation of Agricultural Policy in Africa still appropriate in times of Reimund Hoffmann, GTZ Promotion of Private Sector Development in
food shortage and rising food prices?" Agriculture (PSDA), Kenya
Agriculture and the Accra High Level Forum; some reflections Yihenew Zewdie, Task Leader, Global Donor Platform for Rural Development
Supporting agri-business in Benin using the ‘value-links’ approach Dr Bernard Agbo, Technical Advisor, GTZ, Benin
WEDNESDAY 1 October
Introduction to today’s programme 08:00 Kah Walla and Joshua Mushauri
Reports Actor Session groups 08:30
The impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Ethiopia: 09:40 Clare Bishop-Sambrook and Zewdu Ayele, Integrating Productivity & Market Successes
implications for agricultural strategies (IPMS) for Ethiopian Farmers Project
Round table discussion and Question and Answer 10:00
Tea / Coffee 10:30
The CAADP Process at country level
An overview of different stages in the CAADP process 11:00 Martin Bwalya, Agricultural Unit, NEPAD Secretariat, South Africa
Experiences of Burkina Faso with CAADP 11:20 Alphonse Bonou, Permanent Secretary and CAADP Focal Point, Burkina Faso
Lessons and challenges in CAADP implementation in 11:40 Epimaque Nsanzabaganwa, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, Rwanda
Round Table and panel discussion 12:00
Parallel sessions: Country Action Plans 14:00 (includes presentations on the CAADP process at country level as indicated)
Benin: presentation by Christophe Médènou Zambia: Presentation by Klaus Droppelmann Ghana Côte d’Ivoire
Ethiopia: presentation by Wondirad Mandefro Burkina Faso Kenya Tanzania
Mali: presentation by Dr Bocoum Cameroon Namibia others
Social Dinner – Crown Hotel, Addis Ababa 19:00 Buses leave Sheraton at 19:00
F I E L D - V I SI TS THURSDAY 2 October
1. Ada Liben District Dairy Value Chain
The Ada Liben District dairy value chain links milk producers, input and service suppliers to dairy processors and marketing enterprises. Three milk
processing/marketing enterprises operate in and around Ada Liben town; The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development provides veterinary services.
Innovations in processing, marketing, input supply and production will be demonstrated and discussed.
2. ETHIO VEG Farm
The ETHIO VEG Farm in Koka is a processing agro-enterprise focusing on tomatoes and red onions representing key ingredients of the Ethiopian cuisine, as visitors
will experience in the evening. Green beans are grown for export to Europe. The site inspection will allow insights on quality assessment procedures for exports as
well as for local consumption.
3. Coffee processing and quality inspection and Auction Center
All harvested green coffee from Ethiopia is brought to the Coffee Processing and Quality Inspection and Auction Center in Addis Ababa. Experts evaluate and
control the produce before it is exported or sold in local markets. Primary export markets are Japan, Europe, and North America. Visitors will view entire process
from arrival to quality control and coffee tasting in the center’s laboratory to a monetary validation of the coffee at the coffee auction.
4. Minaye Flower Farm
The flower industry of Ethiopia has grown into a global player. Primary markets are Middle Eastern and European wholesalers and consumers. The climate and the
ecological environment provide flowers with excellent growth opportunities. The horticulture industry has developed a vast variety of beautiful creations that also
adorn hotels, conference halls, wedding halls, and homes of Ethiopian residents.
5. Ethio Leather Industry PLC.
Experts will guide visitors through three factories producing a variety of products from clothing and accessories to non-stitched products for export and local
consumption. Clothing and accessories are produced from Ethiopian highland hair sheepskins known for its high quality and compact fibre structure. Primary
export markets are Europe and North America. The company invests heavily in training of junior and senior staff to meet its standards of quality.
JOINING HAN D S F O R A C T I O N FRIDAY 3 October
Recap and introduction to today’s programme 08:30 Kah Walla and Joshua Mushauri
Feedback from the fieldtrips (5 reports; 10 min each) 08:45 Participant representatives
Tea / Coffee 10:00
Country Action Plans
Country presentations 10:30 Participants
Key messages of the 12th Africa Forum 12:30 Desiree Dietvorst and Martin Bwalya
Lunch 13:00 (parallel press conference from 13:00 with key organisers only)
Feedback: What did we do well & what can we do better? 14:00 Kah Walla and Joshua Mushauri
Evaluation of the 12th Africa Forum 14:15 Moderators and participants
The future of the Africa Forum 14:45 Perspectives from the organisers
Concluding speech by two participants 15:00
Vote of thanks 15:15 Reimund Hoffmann, Sector Network Rural Development
Official Closing of the 12th Africa Forum in Addis Ababa 15:20 High Official of the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Tea / Coffee 15:30
16:00 Participants depart
Annex 3 Fieldtrips
Updated brochure as used during the forum to be added here.
Annex 4 Progress on Country Action Plans
Africa Forum Progress
Country Priorities set in 2007 Action Points
Country Team Contact (status: Sept 08)
Benin Mr. Bernard Agbo 1. VC promotion
Reinforce Resolutions from 11 AF for different
2. Local (collective) actors, roles and responsibilities
Bernard.email@example.com capacity building
check whether the priorities from AF are taken
3. Infrastructure and
into consideration by var. actors
Monitoring of the implementation of action
4. Donor Coordination &
Burkina Faso Mr. Ousmane Djibo; 1. More flexible aid
conditions Analyse blockages and initiate annual review of
firstname.lastname@example.org 2. Infrastructure PA/CSLP Analysis of blockages done, other
Development Regional Meetings on matters of infrastructure actors were thought to issue analytical
3. enforcement of Lobby for more money for infrastructure and
Mechanisms for good review procedures for public contracts
Cameroon Mrs. Kah Wallah; 1. VC promotion
Reinforce Resolutions from 11 AF for different
5. Local (collective) actors, roles and responsibilities Detailed follow-up by actor, detailed
email@example.com capacity building
check whether the priorities from AF are taken situation analysis and need
6. Infrastructure and
into consideration by var. actors assessments done
Monitoring of the implementation of action
7. Donor Coordination &
Ethiopia Mr. Tesfai Mebrahtu; 1. Decentralisation and GG
2. Capacity Building Organise Debriefing workshops on AF Big workshop done and documented;
firstname.lastname@example.org 3. Participation of private Assess current Capacity building Setting up of high level Sector Working
sector and civil society Engage in HAC process group for government and donor
4. Infrastructure Organise the 12th AF
5. Improved Aid Delivery coordination and under way
Ghana Mrs. Lena Otoo; 1. Practical/Effective
Create Awareness on Decentralisation –
email@example.com communication campaign, workshops and
Mr. Emmanuel D. Eledi; 2. Public Sector Reform
set-up data base on donor interventions in the
3. Donor Harmonisation
firstname.lastname@example.org sector, map their activities
and aid effectiveness
Ivory Coast Drissa Ouattara; Needs assessment done by Farmer
1. Capacity Building Conduct needs assessment for Capacity
2. Commitment and building and take stock of activities
Cooperation with private Ministerial Stakeholder Forum took
make consultative forum more inclusive
sector by government
Initiate customer evaluations for services advise into account;
3. Effective sector
coordination Educate customers on government services Publishing agricultural budget lines at
district level is initiated
Kenya Mr. Francis Muthami; 1. Implementation of
email@example.com 2. Dialogue for Pro-Poor
3. Improve Productive
Mali Chirfi Moulaye Haidara; Cultural changes in government, all actors
have to open up and cooperate and engage in
firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Good Governance
3. H&A Government to take the driver seat and to
ensure that local priorities are accepted,
donors to align
Namibia Mrs. Tanja Pickardt; 1. Political Commitment
toward Private sector engage private sector in committees
email@example.com 2. H&A to sector priorities Implementation of activities mainly
Align land reform process, coordinate donors
3. Adequate Financing around the land reform process;
MTEF monitoring plus donor funds
4. Local capacity
Assess the local capacities harmonisation of aid achieved and
5. Role of knowledge Improve info flow stronger commitment to private sector
broker Look into options to provide small
infrastructure for farmers participation initiated.
Niger Chaibou Abdou; Sensitise government and donors
1. H&A&C Promote a code of conduct, set examples of
firstname.lastname@example.org 2. Good Governance good practices
3. Public-Private Dialogue Promote the importance of the dialogue and
cooperation between public and private sector
Senegal Chailou Aldon; 1. Improve Dialogue for AF Country Team merged into CAADP
email@example.com Pro-Poor Growth assess the national situation, provide process but got slightly derailed.
2. Improve Implementation technology, source for funding
of National Plan adhere to plans and monitor implementation However, good opportunity to merge
3. Improve Productive institutionalise village action planning Africa Forum action plan with the
CAADP Round Table Process.
Annex 5a Progress on CAADP Implementation by Country
CAADP Round Table Process
Country CAADP Focal Point
(status: Sept 08)
Benin Mr. Medenou Christophe, Directeur Adjoint de “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
Programmation, +229 21 30 02 89, “Evidence Based Planning” phase started with stocktaking and analytical/diagnostic
firstname.lastname@example.org work completed
Burkina Faso Mr. Alphonse Bonou, Permanent Secretary, +226 50 31 “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
84 61 ; email@example.com “Evidence Based Planning” phase started with stocktaking and analytical/diagnostic
Cameroon “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase started with a basic commitment of
stakeholders to the CAADP process; focal person appointed
Ethiopia Mr. Wondirad Mandefro, Head, Agriculture Extension “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
Department – MoARD, +251 11 515 04 78 “Evidence Based Planning” phase started with stocktaking and analytical/diagnostic
firstname.lastname@example.org work ongoing and the formal launch of the CAADP implementation agenda scheduled for
Ghana Mrs. Lena Otoo, Assistant Director, Planning; Ministry of “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
Food and Agriculture; Accra, +233 244389922, “Evidence Based Planning” phase under way with national consensus on investment
email@example.com areas built, stocktaking and analytical/diagnostic work ongoing and the CAADP Compact
Ivory Coast Mr. Manouan Anoman Edmond, Conseiller Technique du “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
Ministre de l’intégration Africaine, +225 05 04 34 89/20 “Evidence Based Planning” phase almost completed, CAADP Compact to be launched in
22 40 07 firstname.lastname@example.org mid October 2008;
“Building Alliances for Investments” phase started with the definition of growth
Kenya Mr. John Mungai, Director, Policy in Agriculture, Ministry “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
of Agriculture; +254 020 272 4277, +254 020 300 3887; “Evidence Based Planning” phase almost completed, CAADP Compact under
“Building Alliances for Investments” phase under way with investment programmes and
implementation modalities developed.
Mali Dr. Cheick A. Bocoum ; Conseiller Technique; “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
email@example.com “Evidence Based Planning” started with the stocktaking and analytical/diagnostic work
Namibia Implementation not started yet
Niger Mr. Hassane Hamani, Responsable Cellule CEDEAO, “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
Ministère de l’Economie et des Finances; Tél. 227 20 7 “Evidence Based Planning” started with the stocktaking and analytical/diagnostic work
23 245 ; 207 248 93; firstname.lastname@example.org completed.
Senegal Mr. Mamadou Makhtar GUEYE; Directeur; +221 33 822 93 “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
97; email@example.com “Evidence Based Planning” phase almost completed (stocktaking and
analytical/diagnostic work still to be completed), CAADP Compact ready;
“Building Alliances for Investments” phase started with the definition of growth options
Zambia Mr. E.C. Kalaba, Deputy Director, Policy, Ministry of “Engagement and Partnership Development” phase completed;
Agriculture and Cooperatives; +260 1 250 504; “Evidence Based Planning” phase under way with the stocktaking and
firstname.lastname@example.org analytical/diagnostic work competed and preparations for the round table and compact
Annex 5b Overview of Status of CAADP implementation across Africa
Annex 6 Summary of evaluation by participants
Participants gave a lot of positive comments such as „Go on“, “Great Forum“, “High quality
standards set in Ethiopia”, “beneficial field trips” etc. Such comments are much appreciated an
have been taken note of by the organisers. However, below only points for improvement are listed
as these need follow up.
Prior information about the forum needs to be send out to participants; in particular rough
overview of the programme and background of the forum (concept note, reader and summary of
Logistics & Conference Services: Participants wish to be more informed before travelling about
conference registration, accommodation, financial arrangements, and secretarial services in
advance. Roles and responsibilities of the conference service team were not made clear enough
Translation of documents & Simultaneous interpretation services: Half of all comments from
Anglophone participants deal with this matter. More than one open comment state that the
forum was basically an Anglophone one and that Francophone participants were feeling
discriminated and lost. The opening ceremony lacked translation altogether. And it was
mentioned more than once that there was no sufficient translation on the field trips (which were
otherwise highly appreciated).
Programme Flow & Timekeeping: a couple of comments were made with regard to a too
presentation heavy programme and non-adequate time management – (“start at a realistic time,
not at 8:00”). The lowest points of the entire were scored in the category “Flow of the forum”
and “Expectation”. The structure of the programme didn’t seem to have reached enough
participants. Some complaints about too little time for round table discussions and about not well
enough prepared presentations in the group work. Some comments mention that the forum
duration is too long and should not succeed 4 days.
“Political Activities”: Since the Ethiopian Forum was the one with the highest political
attention, three quick observations from the evaluation sheets:
“Three Trees for 3.000” received the scoring with the highest diversity: A lot of people were
enthusiastic about the activity with the president, but few totally disliked it.
The introductory presentation by the Minister of Agriculture was highly appreciated...
... but one comment mentions “less political phrases”
Conference Theme: a couple of comments refer to the conference theme of Agribusiness
Development and that their expectations towards the theme were not met. Private sector should
be better represented.
Sequence of AF, Country Teams, CAADP: Suggestions are made to select country teams better and
according to clearer criteria. Monitoring of country team activities and coaching are felt
necessary. CAADP processes at country level are perceived to be very complex and country-
specific. One comment suggests to have regional fora as exchange between country teams
speaking the same language and to have the full forum only every 2-3 years.
Timing and dates: two comments request to avoid conference dates on religious holidays.
Annex 7 Selected press coverage of the forum
The Ethiopian Herald 30.09.08
The Daily Monitor 30.09.08
The Ethiopian Herald 01.10.08
Annex 8 Country Action Plans
Country Action Plan Ethiopia
Action Responsible Deadline
Priorities Link to CAADP
Promotion of Creation of value chain Gete Zeleke/ June 2009 Pillar 2
value chain platform GMP
Identification of high value Gete Zeleke/ June 2009 Pillar 2
agricultural commodities GMP
Awareness creation on value Gete Zeleke/ Pillar 2
chain, training, identify HVC GMP
Appropriate Selection of best technologies Federal and Sept 2009 Pillar 4
technologies for local conditions regional RI
(individuals to be
Technology need assessment Solomon Belete / Sept 2009 Pillar 4
Assessment of the needs and Research Sept 2009 Pillar 4
constraints of beneficiaries institutes and
Infrastructure Identification success stories in MFIs (individuals Sept 2009 Pillar 2
(market, finance for agri business to be identified)
finance and development
communication) open dialogue with Financial MFIs (individuals Sept 2009 Pillar 2
institutions to be identified)
Identification of products for Private sector Sept 2009 Pillar 2
regional and international and MoARD and
niche markets BoARDs
(individuals to be