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             Long Beach Middle School
               Science Fair Project


                              Science Department Staff

                Ms. Camacho, Mrs. Cherlin, Mrs. Chimienti, Mrs. Dean,
  Mr. Glasstein, Mrs. Josephs, Ms. Kalner, Ms. Karthaus, Mr. Lundwall, Ms. Mazurek,
            Ms. Penn, Ms. Radice, Mr. Ramnarine, Mr. Rooney, Mr. Tobia


                         Dr. Michele Natali, Principal LBMS
         Mr. Keith Biesma and, Ms. Theresa Taplin Assistant Principals LBMS
                   Mr. Kenneth Graham, District Director of Science

   If you have any questions please call Ms. Camacho, Ms. Kalner or Mr. Tobia at 897-2162




                                                                                            1
                     SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT

Table of Contents:
     Introduction ………………..………………………                    Page 3
     General Information ……..………………………..               Page 4
     Grading …………………..………………………..                      Pages 6-7
     Evaluation Criteria ………………………………...               Pages 8-9
     Choosing your Topic ………………………….……                 Page 10
          Scientific Categories for Research ……………..   Page 11
          Science topics A to Z ………………………….            Pages 12-13
     Library Research ……………………………………. Pages 14-15
          Index Cards ……………………………………                   Page 15
     First Draft …………………………………………… Pages 16-17
     Final Draft …………………………………………... Pages 18-19
     Experimenting ………………………………………. Page 20
          Taking Notes………………………………….… Page 20
          Additional Experiment Guidelines ………….…      Page 21
          Drawing Conclusions ………………………….              Page 21
          Special Rules and Restrictions ………………… Page 22
     Displaying a Science Fair Project ……………………. Page 23
     Time Line ……………………………………………. Page 23
     Biological and Ecological Cafeteria …………………. Pages 23-29
     Physical Sciences Cafeteria …………………………. Pages 30-33
     Some More Sources …………………………………. Pages 33-35




                                                                    2
                            SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
Introduction:

       The purpose of any science fair is to motivate and afford you, the student, an
opportunity to get involved by actually performing a scientific investigation. The
emphasis here is on inquiry, discovery and proper application of the scientific method.
Perhaps, as a result of the science fair, you will realize your interest in science and choose
to pursue advanced studies in science at the high school level. The Science Fair is a
valuable experience for all Long Beach students, and we have integrated the requisite
skills for the science fair into both our sixth and seventh grade science courses this year.
       It is essential that you do not mistake your exhibit for the project. Your teacher
will help you to distinguish between the scientific process that you have applied and the
exhibit that you will use as a means of displaying and explaining your project.
       “What do I do for a project?” is a very important question you must answer. The
Science Fair Packet includes guidelines and tips that will help you make decisions, do the
experimentation, write the research paper, construct the exhibit, and prepare the
presentation.
       Good luck and enjoy your research!




                                                                                               3
                             SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
General Information:

The Science Fair will be held on the following date:

Seventh Grade Presentation …………………Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Projects will be judged during the day. Students will be expected to return in the evening
for viewing of projects. Parents and guests are welcomed. ALL PROJECTS WILL BE
DROPPED OFF AND SET UP IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL GYM BEFORE
SCHOOL ON TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 22nd.

All 7th grade students will participate in the science fair.

Students will submit a “project topic” to their science teacher on or before October 14,
2011.

After feedback and approval by the science teacher (within 1 week), students may begin
working on their projects. All projects involving work with vertebrates will be
carefully screened and must conform to the “Guidelines for the use of Vertebrate
Animals in Elementary and Secondary Schools of New York State.”

All projects must involve physical displays of models, equipment, materials, plus posters
and data representing findings and a written research paper. [Keep in mind that the
display area is limited to 3 feet by 2 feet.]

Lecture demonstrations are allotted a maximum of 5 minutes for oral presentations with
an additional 2 minutes for judges.

All entrants must stay with their projects for the entire display period.

All projects must be the work of the student. Teachers, parents or other adults may guide
and supervise.

Each participant must include a one page abstract and work cited page with their report.
The abstract (250 words) should include:

        a) Statement of the problem
        b) Summary of methods and procedures
        c) Condensed summary of findings

The work cited page must be written in the proper format.

Students will be judged according to the grading chart (See page 8)

During the months of October and November each seventh grade science teacher will
devote time during their scheduled extra-help sessions to working with students on the
science fair projects.

                                                                                           4
                            SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
AWARDS

   1.      All students participating in Science Fair will receive a certificate and
           participation ribbon.
   2.      All students who wish to be eligible to participate in the Long Island Science
           Congress must submit a project proposal to their teacher by December 1,
           2011.

GRADES

        The Science Fair project counts as 2 unit tests in 2nd quarter.

        The Research paper counts as 1 unit test in 3rd quarter.


VIEWING SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS

Parents, students, friends and community members can view the Science Fair projects
during the evening of the Science Fair from 6:45 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. in the Middle School
Gym.




                                                                                            5
                       PROJECT GRADING RUBRIC
                            SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT

Long Beach Middle School Science Fair      Grading for Judging

 Cat. #   Category
                                            0   1   2   3   4   5
          Quality of Abstract/Work cited
   1      page
                                                                         Project Title:
                                            0   1   2   3   4   5
          Originality of project
   2      Evidence of creative thinking


   3                                        0   1   2   3   4   5
(counts   Delineation of project
  2x)     (Scientific Method)

   4      Experimental design and           0   1   2   3   4   5
(counts   Implementation i.e.: use of
  2x)     Controls, when applicable,
          Sample techniques.
   5                                        0   1   2   3   4   5
(counts   Effectiveness of display
  4x)                                                               Student Name:
   6      Oral presentation                 0   1   2   3   4   5
(counts   Smoothness of presentation
  4x)     Evidence of knowledge gained
   7                                        0   1   2   3   4   5
(counts   Ability of answer Judge’s                                 Total Score _________
  2x)     Questions
   8                                        0   1   2   3   4   5   Judge’s Initials _______
(counts   Validity of conclusions
  2x)

PROJECTS ARE SCORED AS FOLLOWS:

STUDENT’S NAME: ______________________________________

CAT. #1 _____________________              CAT. #5 ________________________

CAT. #2 _____________________              CAT. #6 ________________________

CAT. #3 _____________________              CAT. #7 ________________________

CAT. #4 _____________________              CAT. #8 ________________________

                                                                                     6
                            EVALUATION CRITERIA

Category 1   Quality of Abstract (Counts 1x)

      0.     No abstract/work cited.
      1.     Incomplete abstract/work cited.
      2.     Incomplete abstract/complete work cited.
      3.     2 parts of abstract completed/complete work cited.
      4.     Complete abstract/complete work cited.
      5.     Complete abstract/work cited/well written.

Category 2   Originality of Project (Counts 1x)

      0.     The student did not demonstrate curiosity, ingenuity in the design and
             development of the project.
      1.     The student demonstrated some curiosity but used only descriptions and
             observation rather than the scientific method.
      2.     The student re-created an original experiment using the scientific method.
      3.     The student re-created an original experiment and the approach to
             answering the question was creative.
      4.     The student re-created an original experiment; the approach to answering
             the question was creative and dealt with a current topic.
      5.     The student presented a current, new and original idea and the conclusions
             were not previously known.

Category 3   Delineation of Project (Counts 2xs)

      0.     Scientific method not included.
      1.     3 or more major parts of scientific method are incomplete or missing.
      2.     No problem is defined or 2 major parts of scientific method are incomplete
             or missing.
      3.     Hypothesis is not testable or does not predict an outcome for the question
             posed in the problem. OR
             Conclusion is not developed or does not answer the question formed in the
             problem. OR
             Adequate research not represented. OR
             Observations were improper or did not relate to the hypothesis and
             problem.
      4.     The steps of the scientific method were followed but were not clearly and
             concisely delineated.
      5.     A methodical and accurate scientific approach was used to gather
             information relating to a logical hypothesis and leading to a solutin or
             conclusion to the problem.

Category 4   Experimental Designs and Implementation (Counts 4xs)

      0.     No experimental design exists for this project.
      1.     No variables are identified or controlled.
      2.     Variables are identified but not controlled and test groups are invalid.


                                                                                        7
      3.     Variables are identified but not controlled (too many variables, improper
             control, etc.) OR procedure is not clear and/or accurately followed, OR
             results are not quantifiable.
      4.     Sampling size or trial size is insufficient, OR data collection is
             insufficient.
      5.     Experimental design tests the hypothesis and was successfully
             implemented.

Category 5   Display Exhibit (Counts 4xs)

      0.     No display present.
      1.     Very poor visual display and grammar.
      2.     Fair display, construction, and/or grammar.
      3.     Good display, construction and/or grammar.
      4.     Exemplary display, construction and/or grammar.
      5.     Exemplary display, construction and/or grammar. The display
             communicates science. It is not just an exercise in artistry.

Category 6   Oral Presentation (Counts 4xs)

      0.     The student was not able to explain what was done.
      1.     Poor presentation, lack of knowledge, no use of resources.
      2.     Fair presentation, little knowledge, poor use of resources. Could not
             answer questions adequately and precisely.
      3.     Good presentation, adequate knowledge, adequate use of resources.
      4.     Very good presentation, very knowledgeable, very good use of resources.
      5.     Excellent presentation, excellent knowledge, excellent use of resources.
             The student related the work to that reported in the literature.

Category 7   Ability to Answer Judge’s Questions (Counts 2xs)

      0.     Could not answer any questions.
      1.     Gave partial answers to some questions.
      2.     Partially answered most questions.
      3.     Adequate answers to most questions.
      4.     Adequate answers to all questions.
      5.     Excellent, precise answers to all questions. Demonstrates a true
             understanding of the experiment.

Category 8   Validity of Conclusions (Counts 2xs)

      0.     No interpretation of data. No conclusions and/or finding identified.
      1.     Partial interpretation of data, no conclusions and/or findings.
      2.     Partial interpretation of data, incorrect conclusions and/or findings.
      3.     Partial interpretation of data, incomplete conclusions and/or findings.
      4.     Correct and appropriate interpretation of data, apparent conclusions and/or
             findings identified.
      5.     Comprehensive and significant interpretation of data, inherent, significant
             conclusions and/or findings were clearly identified.


                                                                                         8
                             SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
                               CHOOSING YOUR TOPIC

Places to look:

Science books                  Newspaper Articles
Science fair books             Science magazines
Encyclopedias                  Educational T.V. Programs
Internet                       Talk with Doctors, Nurses, Veterinarians
Talk with librarians           Visits to Museums, Science centers, and Zoos
Talk with Teachers             Talk with high school science research students


                                        The Internet

The following websites are also helpful in choosing a topic in addition to other library
research.

http://school.discovery.com/sciencefaircentral/(getting parents involved)

http://www.energy.ca.gov/education/projects/projects-html/projects.html
        *Energy and science fair projects

http://www.halcyon.com/sciclub/sgi-pvt/scifair/guestbook.html
        *Science Fair Idea exchange site

http://sciencefairproject.virtualave.net/http://sciencefairproject.virtualave.net/
        *All you need to know about a science fair project, including ideas


The topic you choose must be one that can be performed with an original
experiment. A good way to start is to ask a question that can be answered only by
experimenting.


The following guidelines will help you make decisions, do the experimentation, write the
research paper, construct the exhibit, and prepare the presentation.




                                                                                           9
                            SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
                           Scientific Categories for Research:


BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY – The systematic investigation of mental phenomena of
humans and other animals, especially those associated with consciousness, behavior, and
the problems of adjustment to the environment. This includes, but is not limited to,
projects involving psychology, perception problems, and educational testing.

BIOCHEMISTRY – The study of chemistry within living organisms with emphasis on
process. This includes, but is not limited to, projects involving chemistry and genetics.

BOTANY – The study of plants. This includes, but is not limited to, projects involving
plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant pathology, and plant genetics.

ZOOLOGY – The study of animals. This includes, but is not limited to, projects
involving animal physiology, animal anatomy, animal pathology, and animal genetics.

CHEMISTRY – The study of the composition of matter and how it can change. This
includes, but is not limited to, projects involving physical chemistry, organic chemistry,
(other than biochemistry), inorganic chemistry, and chemical engineering.

MICROBIOLOGY – The study of microscopic organisms. This includes, but is not
limited to projects involving bacteriology, virology, protozoology, mycology, and fungal
and bacterial genetics.

BIOLOGY – This category is for life science projects, which do not fall into any other
category. This includes, but is not limited to, projects involving human medicine and
dentistry.

PHYSICS – The study of matter and motion. This includes, but is not limited to, projects
involving the traditional subsets of physics (i.e. static, dynamics, optics, acoustics, heat,
and electricity) and applied physics (i.e. mechanical, electrical and civil engineering).

EARTH AND SPACE – The study of the earth and extraterrestrial bodies and the
processes affecting them. This includes, but is not limited to, projects involving geology,
oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy.

ECOLOGY – The study of the interactions and the relationships of living things to their
abiotic environment and to each other. This includes, but is not limited to, projects
involving pollution, environmental alterations, and ecosystem analysis.

MATH – The study of numbers both pure and applied. This includes, but is not limited
to, projects involving algebra, calculus, geometry statistics, topology, operations
research, and number theory.

COMPUTER – The development of computer programs, language and hardware. If the
project deals with the use of the computer as a tool to obtain or analyze data, the project
should be entered in the category of major thrust.
                                                                                            10
             SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
     GENERAL AREAS FOR SCIENCE TOPICS A to Z

A.      Allergies, Amphibians, Animal Behavior, Anorexia, Archeology,
        Arteriosclerosis, Astronomy
B.      Bats, Bermuda Triangle, Binary stars, Biofeedback, Biological
        Clocks, Biology, Bioluminescence, Biorhythms, Birds, Birth
        Defects, Blackholes, Blood Clotting, Blood Pressure, Boats,
        Bones, Botany, Brain
C.      Cancer, Cells, Chemical Reactions of Living Organisms,
        Chemistry Chick Embryology, Chromotology, Climatologic
        Cloning, Color, Comets, Computers, Conservation of Energy,
        Constellations, Continental Drift
D.      Dew, Digestive System, Disease Transmission, DNA, Dolphins,
        Dream Analysis, Drugs
E.      Earthquakes, Eclipses, Ecology of Long Beach, Effects of Alcohol,
        Electrochemistry, Electricity, Emphysema, Enamel, Energy,
        Entomology, Enzymes in the Body, Epidemiology, Epilepsy, ESP,
        Evolution, Extraterrestrial Life, Eye
F.      Fertilizers, Fingerprints, Fish, Flowers, Fluorocarbons and the
        Ozone Layer, Fossils, Fruits
G.      Gardening, Genetics, Geology, Glaciers, Glass, Gravity
H.      Habitats, Heart, Herbs, Holography, Hot-Air Balloons, Human
        Body, Human Disease, Human Systems, Hurricanes, Hypothermia,
        Hypnosis
I.      Insects, Instinct, Insulation, Integrated circuits, Invertebrates
J.      Jellyfish, Jet Pollution, Jet Stream, Joints
K.      Kangaroos, Kelp, Kidney
L.      Lasers, Lava, Life Cycle, Light, Lightning, Lung
M.      Machines, Magnets, Marine Biology, Matter, Memory,
        Metamorphosis, Methane Gas from Wastes, Microphotography,
        Minerals, Molecules



                                                                            11
              N.     Natural Resources, Nervous System, Nutrition
              O.     Oceanography, Optical Illusion, Osmosis and Diffusion
              P.     Pacemakers, Paleontology, Pesticides Petroleum, Pharmacology,
                     Phobias, Photosynthesis, Plant Disease, Plant Grafting, Plants,
                     Pollution, Protozoology
              Q.     Quail, Quasar, Quicksand
              R.     Radioactivity, Rain Forest, Reflexes, Reptiles, Resistance and
                     Transmission, Respiratory System, RNA, Robots
              S.     Seaweed, Sense Organs, Shorelines and Erosion, Snakes, Soap,
                     Solar Cells, Solar Energy, Solar Power, Sound, Species
                     Preservation, Spiders, Sulfur and Pollution, Sundial, Sunspots
              T.     Taxonomy, Teeth, Telescope, Terrarium, The Origin of Life,
                     Tides, Tornadoes, Toxicology, Turtles
              U.     Ulcers, Unicycles, Uranus
              V.     Vertebrates, Veterinary Medicine, Vitamins, Vocal Cords
              W.     Water Purification, Weather, Work, Worms
              X.     X-Rays, Xylophone
              Y.     Yams, Yeast, Yogurt
              Z.     Zebras, Zucchini




List a few science topics that you would like to find out about. Read about your
topics. Pick the topic that interests you the most.


____________________________             ________________________________


____________________________               ________________________________




                                                                                       12
                         SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
                              Library Research
       (School and Public Libraries open and available to assist students)

1.      Encyclopedias are generally a good starting point in offering general
        information about many topics. Some helpful steps to take are as follows:
          Look up your topic.
          Read through it and get an idea of how much there is to learn about the
            subject.
          Look for cross-reference and listings of related articles.

Some science related encyclopedias include:
            Encyclopedia Britannica
            Encyclopedia Americana – is especially strong in science and
              technology.
            World Book Encyclopedia – is general reference with simple articles
              in the sciences. Some science project ideas are included with some of
              the science articles.

2.      After acquiring some background information from encyclopedias, look for
        books, journals, internet sites with information pertaining to your topic. The
        librarian can also assist you in finding resources. If you do not know where to
        look for a book, ask for assistance.

3.       As you follow steps 1 and 2 and develop your project, then begin to look for
        descriptions of experimentation conducted by scientists that relate to your
        topic. By this time you will probably need to use periodicals and scientific
        journals. Your teacher or librarian can give you help in locating articles.

     The following list of journals and articles may provide current information on a
     variety of topics in science. Not all publications will present articles at your
     reading level. If you do not understand the material, then do not use it.

     Astronomy                            Nature
     Biology Digest                       Popular Science
     BioScience                           Science Digest
     Current Science and Aviation         Science News
     National Geographic                  Science World
     National Wildlife                    Scientific American




                                                                                        13
                      PREPARING THE SCIENCE RESEARCH PAPERS

          The following pages are designed to help you prepare your science research
paper.

          Tips for helping you decide which books are best for your purposes:

             1.     Skim the table of contents. Is any useful information listed?
             2.     Examine the work cited page. Are there any books or articles listed
                    that you might use?
             3.     Skim the appendix. Is there any useful information?
             4.     Search the index. Is there material related to your topic?

When you have found useful material, stop and read. Use index cards to take notes and
record bibliographic information.

                                       Index Cards
                            (Used to help write a research paper)

          Record and keep the information that you find on index cards.
          Only write one idea at a time on each card.
          Remember to also record information for your work cited page on each card.
          It is helpful to have a title for each card. For example, interview card,
           encyclopedia card, book card, magazine article, etc.

When you are ready to organize your research paper:
     Sort through your index cards.
     Find the cards that contain information that you want to use.
     You can eliminate unwanted information by asking others to examine your set
       of cards.
     Arrange your cards on a table until you have them in an order that makes sense
       to you.

The first draft of your research report should provide a brief overview of your project’s
direction and will include the following as part of your introduction:
       Background information
       Problem
       Purpose of project/experiment – Should be three sentences or less.
       The title – as it will appear on your poster board.
       Hypotheses – your predictions as to the outcome of the experiment.
       Materials you will need to carry out the experiment.
       References you plan to use – what books, articles and other materials do you
         plan to use?
       Materials you will need to carry out the experiment.
       How will you record your result – you must take pictures, make a data table, a
         graph, as well as record qualitative and quantitative observations, etc.




                                                                                          14
                             SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT
                                 First Draft, Part I

                                 Science Project Plans


Write the purpose of your science project and what you’re planning to do. Include the
resources and materials you will need to complete it.

   1.      The title is: ____________________________________________________



   2.      The purpose or problem is: ________________________________________




   3.      My hypothesis is: _______________________________________________




   4.      Experimental plan: ______________________________________________




   5.      Referenced I may use: ____________________________________________




   6.      Materials I need: ________________________________________________




   7.      How will I measure and record my results: ___________________________




                                                                                        15
                                 Science Fair Exhibit
                                  First Draft, Part II


Imagine what your project will look like when it is finished. Draw a picture or make a
mini board of it and label the parts.




                          90
                          80
                          70
                          60                 TITLE:
                          50                                     East
                          40                                     West        3-D
     PROBLEM:             30                                     North     PHOTOS
                          20
                                        PROCEDURE:
                                                                            ETC.
                          10
                           0
                                        OBSERVATIONS:
                               1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

   HYPOTHESIS:


                                  DATA
                                                     GRAPH               CONCLUSIONS:
    MATERIALS:
                                 TABLE




                                                                                         16
                            SCIENCE FAIR REPORT
The final draft of your research report should consist of 3-5 pages and will include the
following:

__________ Title page

__________ Abstract – Should be one page (3 paragraphs – 250 words) and include:
            a. Statement of the problem
            b. Summary of methods and procedures
            c. Condensed summary of findings

Keep in mind that an abstract is always written upon completion of paper and project, and
is simply intended to summarize or give an overview of the project.

__________ Introduction – including review of literature – It is now time to use those
                         index cards. This section is your report to the readers of
                         work and research conducted by others in the past (prior
                         research) that relates to your topic and facts that help
                         introduce the readers to the topic.

__________ Purpose (Problem)

__________ Hypothesis

__________ Materials and Methods of Procedure
            - List the materials that you used.
            - Explain step by step your procedure.
            - You may draw steps if it makes it clearer.

__________ Results (Observations)
            - Will include graphs, charts, tables, or day-to-day log.
            - All graphs or charts must be labeled so that the reader can understand
                them.

__________ Conclusions:
            - An evaluation and interpretation of your results.
            - Look over your graphs, charts, tables, or daily log and then write what
               you think the data shows or seems to indicate. You may include your
               opinions.
            - Don’t be afraid to admit where you might have mistakes.
            - Negative results are now bad. If you did not prove your hypothesis,
               then say so.

_________ Work cited page:
            - Cites – any books, articles, pamphlets, and other sources that you used
               for researching and writing your paper.
            - All citations are arranged in alphabetical order according to the
               author’s last name.

                                                                                           17
                    SCIENCE FAIR – WORK CITED PAGE
                                   *Use guide to research
Example of a book citation:

Last name of author, First name, Title of book, Place where published: Publisher, Date
of Publication.

Example of a magazine article citation:

Last name of author, first name, first initial, “The title of the article,” Title of the Journal,
month, year, Volume number, pages.

Example of a computer source:

Last name of author, First name. Title of item. {Online} Publisher: WEB/Internet
address, Date of use.

Bronx Zoo. {Online} http://www.bronxzoo.com,
Parenthetic Notation:
              - Information used in your research paper which is copied exactly (word
                   by word) must be placed inside quotation marks””, and cited
                   immediately after the sentence as well as in the work cited page.
              - Information put into your own words is called paraphrasing also
                   requires parenthetic notation.

Example of parenthetic notation:

Immediately following a quote, cite the quote as follows:
      [Author’s name, page number]


                                Final Draft Due Date ____________________________

*Note: 2 copies of the research paper will be submitted to both the Science and the
English teachers. The English teacher will review work cited page, and parenthetic
notation.




                                                                                               18
                             SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT

                                     Experimenting
Projects involving experimentation require a great deal of careful planning prior to
getting started. Keep in mind that a controlled experiment involves:

                a)   Stating a hypothesis
                b)   Listing all materials
                c)   Listing (explaining) all methods and procedures
                d)   Keeping careful and accurate records
                e)   Using appropriate sample size
                f)   Controlling variables
                g)   Construction or use of special equipment
                h)   Maintaining objectivity
                i)   Obtaining quantitative (measureable) data
                j)   Organizing and presenting data (graphs and charts)
                k)   Drawing conclusions based on your results
                l)   Recognizing areas of weakness or limitations in your design
                m)   Suggesting additional research based upon new questions which arise
                     from your investigation

Suggestions:

Taking Notes

               Obtain a small notebook before experimenting.
               Keep notes about everything.
               List your materials and the quantities you used.
               Record your observations and the day and the time you made them.
               Discuss problems as they occur.




                                                                                       19
Additional Experiment Guideline:

      Your project must include controlled experimentation.
      Your experiment will contain an Independent Variable and a Dependent
       Variable.
      Photos must be included in order to add interest to your presentation, record
       your progress and teach others about your topic.
      Your results must be quantified. Measurements will be reported in metrics.
      Find instruments that are calibrated in metrics:
         o Meter Stick
         o Gram Calibrated Balance
         o Graduated Cylinder
         o Celsius Thermometer

      Results tell what happened

                  If your observations are in words, organize a neat log or charts.
                   (qualitative)
                  If your results are in numbers, organize the data in tables and
                   graphs. (quantitative)
                  Report results for the control group and the experimental group as
                   well as differences between them.


Drawing Conclusions:

You must be careful when drawing conclusions. Keep in mind the following before
drawing conclusions.

           If someone else repeated your experimentation, would they get the same
            results?
           Look at your data. Study and analyze it. Then you can say what you think
            your experiment shows or seems to indicate.
           Your data will either support your original hypothesis, will be
            inconclusive, or it will not support your hypothesis. You must state this in
            your conclusion.
           Be especially careful that your conclusion is not a new hypothesis.
            Any new hypothesis must be tested.




                                                                                       20
Special Rules and Restrictions:

     If you choose to work with animals, especially vertebrates (those with
      backbones), be very careful not to hurt or injure the animals in any way.
      *(You must have a teacher mentor to work with vertebrates.)

     Your experimentation should have nothing to do with testing the effects of
      various chemicals on vertebrates or to see how long an animal can live under
      certain conditions.

     Safety:

     Ask someone to examine your procedure before beginning the experiment.
     You must safeguard the use of chemicals and open flames (protective eye
      goggles must be worn).
     Be aware of the dangers that may apply to your experiment and take
      preventative measures to safeguard against something happening.




                                                                                     21
Our Science Fair will be held on the following dates:

Seventh Grade Presentations …………………………. November 23, 2010
Projects will be judged during the day. Students will be expected to return in the evening
for viewing of projects. Parents and judges are welcome.

The following time line should help you prepare your projects:

TASK                                                   DEADLINE

1. Choose a project and a purpose …………….               Friday, October 14, 2011
2. Library research …………………………….                       Wednesday, October 19, 2011
3. Writing a title, problem …………………….                  Friday, October 21, 2011
4. Forming a hypothesis ………………..……..                   Monday, October 24, 2011
5. Procedure you plan to follow ………………                 Friday, October 28, 2011
6. Mini display board ………………………….                      Friday, November 4, 2011
7. Scientific Method …………………………..
        a. Technology --- Setting up data tables       Thursday, November 10, 2011
        b. Making graphs
    st
8. 1 draft of research papers ………………….                 Monday, November 14, 2011
9. 1st draft of abstract …………………………..                  Wednesday, November 16, 2011
10. List of any obstacle encountered ……………             Friday, November 18, 2011


                          Biological and Ecological Cafeteria

        Welcome to the cafeteria-style presentation of biological and ecological
experiments and projects. Ina food cafeteria you can select one of many appetizers, main
courses and desserts. The selections of foods are wide and varied. In this cafeteria you
can select an organism, a variable and an interaction. The end result is not a meal but a
scientific project or experiment. You are encouraged to mix and match whatever suits
your fancy. Let’s see how a project can be made from the assortment of organisms,
variables, and interactions.

Organism + Variable + Interaction =          Project

Spirogyra + Pesticide + Photosynthesis =     The effect of 2% Captan
                                             solution on the rate of
                                             photosynthesis of
                                             Spirogyra

Hydra + Vitamin E + Reproduction =           The effect of vitamin E
        (Nutrient)                           on the ability of Hydra to
                                             Reproduce

       It needn’t be Spirogyra or Hydra – you could have used live ants or earthworms
or even bread mold. The number of projects is unlimited. Don’t be bound by this list. If
you have a variable that sounds exciting, use it! Let your scientific curiosity lead the
way.
                                                                                        22
      One caution – some organisms, variables and interactions don’t go together. You
wouldn’t put mustard on your chocolate ice cream. Nor do “Wild Flowers,”
“Temperature” and “Intelligence” go together in this cafeteria. Neither can you mix
“Vinegar Eels,” “Change of diet” and “Migration.”

                         Biological Experiments and Projects

                                    ORGANISMS

Algae                                      Crickets
 Anabaena
 Chlamydomonus                             Cyclops
 Chlorella
 Desmids                                   Daphnia
 Eudorina
 Nitella                                   Eggs
 Nostoc                                     Brine shrimp
 Oedogonium                                 Chick
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina                                 Flies
 Protococcus                                 Dragonflies
 Spirogyra                                   Fruit
                                             House
Ants                                         May
                                             Stone
Bacteria
 E.coli                                    Flowers
 Nitrogen Fixing                             Asters
 Purple Photosynthetic                       Lillies
                                             Roses
Beetles                                      Zinnias
 Flour
 Horned                                    Hornets

Carnivorous Plants                         Hydra
 Venus Fly Trap
 Pitcher Plants                            Lichens
 Sundews
                                           Millipedes
Centipedes
                                           Mites
Cockroaches
                                           Molds
Crabs                                       Bread
 Fiddler                                    Penicillin
 Land                                       Slime
 Sand
                                           Nematodes
Crayfish



                                                                                   23
Planaria

Plants – Fresh Water
  Cabomba              Sowbugs
  Elodea
  Sagittaria           Spiders
  Vallsneria
                       Springtails
Plant Parts
  Flowers              Vegetables
  Leaves                Corn
  Pollen                Oats
  Roots                 Onion
  Stems                 Pea
                        Radishes
Protozoa                Tomatoes
 Ameba
 Blepharisma           Vinegar Eels
 Colpidium
 Didinia               Viruses
 Euglena                Tobacco Mosaic
 Paramecium             T3 (grown in E.coli)
 Paranema               T4 (grown in E.coli)
 Spirostonium
 Stentor               Wasps
 Volvox
 Vorticella            Wax Moths
 Zoothamnium
                       Worms
Sea Horses              Earth
                        Meal
Shrimp                  Sea
 Brine                  White (enchytraeis)
 Fairy
                       Yeast
Slugs

Snails
 Land
 Mud




                                               24
                       VARIABLES

Antibiotics                 Humidity

Antibodies                  Hydroponics

Antiseptics                 Iodized Salt

ATP                         Light
                             Absence of
Auxins                       Presence of
                             Specific color
Chemical Ions                Polarized
 CL-, Na+, Ca+               Ultraviolet

Cloning                     Magnetism

Detergents                  Mutation

Diet                        Neurohumors
 Change
 Substitution               Overcrowding

Drugs                       Ozone Layer
 Change
 Substitutuion              Parasites

Disease – effects of        Pesticides

Enzymes                     pH

Food                        Phermomes
 Vitamin
 Mineral                    Plant tumors (Cancer)
 Nutrient
                            Pollutants
Gibberellic Acid             Solid
                             Gaseous
Grafting                     Liquid
                             Noise
Hormones
                            Pressure




                                                    25
Radioactive Isotopes
 T 131                       Temperature
 P 22
                             Touch


                       INTERACTIONS

Adaptations                  Insect Control
 To environment
                             Intelligence
Bird Nests                     Measure of
 Construction                  Studies
 Location
 Survey                      Learning
                              Conditioning
Competition                   Habit
 Food                         Instinct
 Light                        Memory
 Mates
 Space                       Life Histories
 Water
                             Metabolism
Development
 Abnormal                    Migration
 Normal
                             Natural Habitat
Digestion
                             Nitrogen Fixation
Embryology
                             Photosynthesis
Endangered Species
 Flowers                     Population Counts
 Insects
                             Regeneration
Excretion
                             Reproduction
Fermentation
                             Respiration
Food Production
 Quality                     Transport
 Quantity                     Circulation

Genetics                     Viability
 Inheritance

Germination
 Seeds
 Spores




                                                 26
        After you have looked over the choices and combinations, you still may not be
enthusiastic about any possible project. Don’t despair – all is not lost! There may still be
a biology project in your future. Try this! Pick an organism and live with it for a while.
Get to know it; make it a pet. As you learn more and more about the plant or animal,
some question about your pet will come to mind. There you are! Your project is to get
an answer to that question.

                          Ecological Projects and Experiments

       Our approach to ecological projects and experiments will be slightly difference
from the one we took for the strict biological projects. Now we will have to “mix-and-
match” two choices rather than three.

          Ecological Concern                                    Strategy
Acid Rain                                      Alcohol
Air Pollution                                  Auto Exhaust Emissions
Cheap Energy                                   Biomass
Energy Storage                                 Coal
Endangered Species                             Coal Gas
Geothermal Energy                              Conservation
Noise Pollution                                Fossil Studies
Nuclear Energy & Wastes                        Gasohol
Oil Spills                                     Geothermal Energy
Ozone Layer                                    Greenhouse Effect
Photochemical Air Pollution                    High Silica Glass
Stress                                         Hydrogenation
Tidal Waste Disposal sites                     Incineration
Water Pollution                                Methane
                                               Oil
                                               Pyrolysis
                                               Recycling
                                               Re-refining
                                               Solar Energy – Photovoltaic Conversion
                                                              and Solar Thermal
                                                              Conversions
                                               Sludge
                                               Sulfur Dioxide
                                               Survey
                                               Water Purification
                                               Wind Power




                                                                                         27
        Even with two columns to select from rather than three, there are many
possibilities. Consider three possible projects that come to mind using the same two
choices:

Ecological Concern + Strategy =

Cheap Energy + Gasohol =     Is the production of alcohol by bacteria using non-
                             edible plant parts (corn husks) feasible?
                           = Can the gasoline engine be modified to operate
                             efficiently on a 50% gasoline-50% alcohol mixture?
                           = Can alcohol be chemically converted to a more
                             efficient fuel?


       You see that there are many projects than can be devised from the lists above.
The same caution holds true that not every ecological concern and strategy can go
together. Waste Disposal Sites and Auto Exhaust are an example. My last caution is that
you should not limit yourself to the items on these lists. These are just starting places, so
don’t be afraid to add to either or both lists.




                                                                                          28
                              SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT

                               Physical Sciences Cafeteria

        This is very similar to the previous cafeteria. You can again select from two
choices: Field or Study and Related Topic. If, as you go through the lists, you get the
feeling that you have read some of the terms before, you are probably right. This is
because the various sciences – Physics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences – can no longer be
considered “pure.” We speak more and more of science as being an interdisciplinary
study, Ions, atoms and radioactivity are not limited to either chemistry or physics but are
studied in both and in earth science and biology as well.

                                    FIELD OF STUDY

Acceleration                                   Design & Construction of Devices
                                                Brake
Adhesion                                        Carburetor
                                                Clock
Airplane Wing Design
                                               Earthquakes
Behavior
 Gases                                         Electricity
 Liquids                                        Electrochemistry
 Plastics                                       Electromagnets
 Polymers                                       Electrostatics

Chemistry                                      Energy
 Inorganic
 Organic                                       Erosion
 Soil
                                               Forces
Coal Dyes                                       Centripetal
 Synthetic dyes                                 Friction
                                                Gravitational
Complex Ions
 C0(NH2)                                       Fuels
                                                Enrichments
Cosmology

Crystals




                                                                                         29
Heating
 Efficiency of fireplaces     Optics

Holography                    Oxidation-Reduction

Hurricane                     Phase Change

Hydrolysis                    Polymers

Ice Crystals                  Pressure

Ions & Ionization             Radioactivity

Isomers                       Refraction

Mechanical Analysis of Toys   Satellites
 Frisbee                       Man-made
 Slingshot                     Natural

Metals                        Sound
 Corrosion                     Reflection
                               Speed
Meteors                        Transmission

Minerals                      Sunspots Activity
 Magnesium
 Mica                         Surface Tension
 Quartz
                              Tidal Forces
Mining                         Action

Molecular Size                Trace Elements

Momentum                      Vapor Pressure

Motion Resolution             Volcanoes

New Products & Uses           Wave Motion-Light
 Amorphous Silicon
                              Weather
Ocean Currents
                              Work




                                                    30
                          RELATED TOPICS

Air Flows                        Geiger Counters

Alcohol                          Heat Flow
 Solid                            Insulation

Analysis of NASA Data            Indicators

Binary Stars                     Ion-exchange Resins

Brownian Movement                Kinetic Studies
                                  Decomposition
Chromatography                    Oxidation
 Paper
 Thin-Layer                      Laser Beams

Cloud Chamber                    Machines
                                  Simple
Collisions on Air Table
                                 Magnets
Cooling Curves
                                 Microscopes
Diffraction
                                 Mineral Deposits
Digital Linear Circuits
                                 Newton’s Laws
Doppler Effect
                                 Opto-acoustic Effect
Electrical Resistance
                                 Orbits of Planets
Electromagnets
                                 pH
Electron Beam
                                 Photoelectric Cell
Esters
                                 Photography
Fibers
  Natural                        Qualitative Analysis
  Optical
  Synthetic                      Reflection

Flame Tests

Force Vectors




                                                        31
Solutions

Smoke Tunnels                                  Thermoplastics

Sun Dials                                      Topography

Synthetic Rubber                               Water
 Butyl Rubber                                   Films
 Neoprene                                       Hard
                                                Removal from Fuels
Telescope
                                               Wave Height
Tracking
 Solar Bodies                                  Wind Mills


This list is by no means complete. It is a starting place for you to use. Be imaginative in
your selections.


--------------------------------------------------------------
Parent – Please keep this Science Fair information at home in a convenient
place. Sign and return this bottom portion to let me know you’ve read this
packet and reviewed the materials with the student. This packet can also be
found at:

_______________________               ______________________                __________
Parent Signature                      Student Signature                     Date




                                                                                         32

				
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