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					Chapter 22 Review

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. The study of Earth’s composition, structure, and history is called
           a. seismology.                                    c. chemistry.
           b. physics.                                       d. geology.
____    2. Forces that shape Earth’s surface can be divided into
           a. constructive and physical.
           b. constructive and destructive.
           c. chemical and destructive.
           d. chemical and physical.
____    3. The two layers that make up the lithosphere are the
           a. upper mantle and lower mantle.
           b. oceanic crust and continental crust.
           c. inner core and outer core.
           d. crust and upper mantle.
____    4. The three main layers of Earth’s interior are the
           a. crust, core, and lithosphere.
           b. crust, mantle, and core.
           c. mantle, inner core, and outer core.
           d. crust, mantle, and asthenosphere.
____    5. A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition is a
           a. rock.                                          c. mineral.
           b. fossil.                                        d. piece of granite.
____    6. What is a mineral’s hardness?
           a. a type of fracture in which a mineral breaks along regular, well-defined planes
           b. the resistance of a mineral to scratching
           c. the color of a mineral’s powder
           d. a type of fracture in which a mineral breaks along a curved surface
____    7. Rocks are classified as
           a. sandstone, limestone, or granite.
           b. organic, intrusive, or clastic.
           c. igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary.
           d. sedimentary, intrusive, or metamorphic.
____    8. Intense heat, intense pressure, or reactions with hot water can modify a pre-existing rock to form a(an)
           a. metamorphic rock.                              c. igneous rock.
           b. sedimentary rock.                              d. organic rock.
____    9. A series of processes in which rocks are continuously changed from one type to another is called
           a. a volcanic eruption.                           c. geology.
           b. the rock cycle.                                d. melting.
____   10. What changes are involved when mud from a lake bottom turns into a sedimentary rock and then into a
           metamorphic rock?
           a. compaction and cementation, and then melting
           b. heat and pressure, and then weathering
           c. compaction and cementation, and then heat and pressure
           d. melting, and then compaction and cementation
____ 11. The hypothesis that the continents move slowly over Earth’s surface and once were joined into one
         supercontinent is called
         a. plate tectonics.                                c. sea-floor spreading.
         b. continental drift.                              d. subduction.
____ 12. Why was Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift originally rejected by geologists?
         a. Wegener did not have any data to support his hypothesis.
         b. The continents of South America and Africa do not fit well together.
         c. Wegener could not explain how the continents could move through the ocean floor.
         d. Wegener’s data were incorrect.
____ 13. New ocean crust is formed along
         a. mid-ocean ridges.                               c. mountain belts.
         b. subduction zones.                               d. trenches.
____ 14. A subducting oceanic plate
         a. is less dense than the plate it moves under.
         b. is pushed up and over the continental crust.
         c. sinks into the mantle, forming a trench.
         d. moves horizontally in the opposite direction past the other plate.
____ 15. The heat that drives mantle convection comes from the gradual cooling of Earth’s interior and
         a. the sun.                                        c. sea-floor spreading.
         b. the decay of radioactive isotopes.              d. trenches.
____ 16. Plates slide past each other, and crust is neither created nor destroyed, at a
         a. convergent boundary.                            c. mid-ocean ridge.
         b. divergent boundary.                             d. transform boundary.
____ 17. What is a break in a rock mass along which movement occurs?
         a. fold                                            c. fault
         b. earthquake                                      d. epicenter
____ 18. Stress in Earth’s crust is caused by
         a. folds.                                          c. earthquakes.
         b. plate movements.                                d. faults.
____ 19. What is the name of the location within Earth where an earthquake begins?
         a. fold                                            c. epicenter
         b. focus                                           d. core
____ 20. P waves
         a. cause Earth to vibrate in the direction of the wave's motion.
         b. cause Earth to vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave moves.
         c. travel along Earth’s surface.
         d. move in a rolling motion similar to ocean waves.
____ 21. The amount of energy released by an earthquake is measured on the
         a. Richter scale.
         b. moment magnitude scale.
         c. modified Mercalli scale.
         d. seismic scale.
____ 22. Geologists have inferred that Earth’s outer core is liquid because
         a. P waves cannot pass through the outer core.
         b. S waves speed up in the outer core.
         c. S waves are bent downward as they travel through the outer core.
         d. S waves cannot pass through the outer core.
____ 23. The area where magma collects inside a volcano before an eruption is called
         a. a crater.                                       c. a vent.
           b. a caldera.                                     d. a magma chamber.
____ 24.   What causes the magna inside a volcano to rise toward the surface?
           a. It is a thick liquid, denser than the surrounding rock.
           b. It does not contain dissolved gases.
           c. It is less dense than the surrounding rock.
           d. It is cooler than the surrounding rock.
____ 25.   What determines whether a volcano erupts quietly or explosively?
           a. the size of the volcano
           b. the age of the volcano
           c. the characteristics of the magma
           d. the magnitude of nearby earthquakes
____ 26.   Volcanoes that erupt quietly have what type of magma?
           a. very hot, low-silica magma
           b. high-silica magma
           c. hot, high-silica magma
           d. low temperature magma
____ 27.   Composite volcanoes are produced by
           a. quiet eruptions of lava.
           b. explosive eruptions of lava and ash.
           c. explosive eruptions of ash and cinders.
           d. quiet eruptions that alternate with explosive eruptions.
____ 28.   A steep-sided volcano formed entirely of ash and cinders is a
           a. shield volcano.                                c. cinder cone.
           b. composite volcano.                             d. hot spot.
____ 29.   The largest type of intrusive igneous feature is a
           a. sill.                                          c. volcanic neck.
           b. dike.                                          d. batholith.
____ 30.   A sequence of rock layers consists of horizontal layers of sandstone, granite, and limestone. What type of
           intrusive igneous feature does the granite layer represent?
           a. a sill                                         c. a batholith
           b. a dike                                         d. a volcanic neck


Completion
Complete each statement.

      31. The study of the composition, structure, and history of Earth is called ____________________.
      32. The crust and upper mantle together form the ____________________.
      33. The color of the powder a mineral leaves on an unglazed porcelain tile is called the mineral’s
          ____________________.
      34. Igneous rocks that form at Earth’s surface are called ____________________ rocks.
      35. The process by which oceanic plates sink into the mantle through a trench is called ____________________.
      36. The sinking of dense slabs of lithosphere and ____________________ from within Earth drive the mantle
          convection current.
      37. A(An) ____________________ is a device that is used to detect and record seismic waves.
      38. A(An) ____________________ is the bowl-shaped pit at the top of a volcano.
        39. The type of sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of pre-existing rocks are cemented together is called
            a(an) ____________________ rock.
        40. Alfred Wegener proposed that a continent was formed by continental drift. This supercontinent was called
            ____________________.
        41. Due to sea-floor spreading, the youngest rocks in the ocean floor are found near a(an)
            ____________________.
        42. Faults and folds are caused by ____________________. This is a force that squeezes rocks together, pulls
            them apart, or pushes them in different directions.
        43. The _________________________ scale is used to indicate the energy released by an earthquake.
        44. The structure that remains when the softer rock around the hardened pipe of a volcano erodes away is called
            a(an) ____________________.
        45. Subduction occurs at ____________________ plate boundaries.
        46. The seismic waves that compress and expand the ground are called ____________________ waves.
        47. The mineral pyrite has a metallic ____________________.


Essay

        48. Describe the rock cycle.


Other

             USING SCIENCE SKILLS
                              Figure 22-2

49. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 22-2, what process is represented by the arrow labeled D?
Chapter 22 Review
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

      1.   ANS:   D               PTS:   1   DIF:   L1   OBJ:   22.1.1
      2.   ANS:   D               PTS:   1   DIF:   L2   OBJ:   22.1.1
      3.   ANS:   D               PTS:   1   DIF:   L2   OBJ:   22.1.2
      4.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF:   L1   OBJ:   22.1.2
      5.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF:   L1   OBJ:   22.2.1
      6.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF:   L2   OBJ:   22.2.1
      7.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF:   L1   OBJ:   22.3.1
           STA:   5.8.C.2
      8.   ANS:   A               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.3.1
           STA:   5.8.C.2
      9.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.3.2
           STA:   5.8.C.2
     10.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.3.2
           STA:   5.8.C.2
     11.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.4.1
           STA:   5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
     12.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.4.1
           STA:   5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
     13.   ANS:   A               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.4.2
           STA:   5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
     14.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.4.2
           STA:   5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
     15.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.4.3
           STA:   5.2.B.2 | 5.8.C.1
     16.   ANS:   D               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.4.3
           STA:   5.2.B.2 | 5.8.C.1
     17.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.5.1
           STA:   5.8.C.1
     18.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.5.1
           STA:   5.8.C.1
     19.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.5.2
           STA:   5.7.B.1 | 5.8.C.1
     20.   ANS:   A               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.5.2
           STA:   5.7.B.1 | 5.8.C.1
     21.   ANS:   B               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.5.3
           STA:   5.4.B.1 | 5.7.B.1
     22.   ANS:   D               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.5.3
           STA:   5.4.B.1 | 5.7.B.1
     23.   ANS:   D               PTS:   1   DIF: L1     OBJ: 22.6.1
           STA:   5.8.C.1
     24.   ANS:   C               PTS:   1   DIF: L2     OBJ: 22.6.1
           STA:   5.8.C.1
    25.   ANS:   C         PTS:   1   DIF:   L1     OBJ:   22.6.2
    26.   ANS:   A         PTS:   1   DIF:   L2     OBJ:   22.6.2
    27.   ANS:   B         PTS:   1   DIF:   L1     OBJ:   22.6.3
    28.   ANS:   C         PTS:   1   DIF:   L2     OBJ:   22.6.3
    29.   ANS:   D         PTS:   1   DIF:   L1     OBJ:   22.6.4
    30.   ANS:   A         PTS:   1   DIF:   L2     OBJ:   22.6.4


COMPLETION

    31. ANS: geology

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.1.1
    32. ANS: lithosphere

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.1.2
    33. ANS: streak

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.2.1
    34. ANS: extrusive

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.3.1   STA: 5.8.C.2
    35. ANS: subduction

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.4.2   STA: 5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
    36. ANS: heat

        PTS: 1           DIF: L1      OBJ: 22.4.3   STA: 5.2.B.2 | 5.8.C.1
    37. ANS: seismograph

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.5.3   STA: 5.4.B.1 | 5.7.B.1
    38. ANS: crater

        PTS: 1             DIF: L1    OBJ: 22.6.1   STA: 5.8.C.1
    39. ANS: clastic

        PTS: 1             DIF: L2    OBJ: 22.3.2   STA: 5.8.C.2
    40. ANS: Pangaea

        PTS: 1             DIF: L2    OBJ: 22.4.1   STA: 5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
    41. ANS: mid-ocean ridge

        PTS: 1             DIF: L2    OBJ: 22.4.2   STA: 5.2.B.3 | 5.8.C.1
    42. ANS: stress

        PTS: 1           DIF: L2      OBJ: 22.5.1   STA: 5.8.C.1
    43. ANS: moment magnitude

          PTS: 1           DIF: L2    OBJ: 22.5.3   STA: 5.4.B.1 | 5.7.B.1
    44. ANS: volcanic neck

        PTS: 1                DIF: L2               OBJ: 22.6.4
    45. ANS: convergent

        PTS: 1                DIF: L2               OBJ: 22.4.3          STA: 5.2.B.2 | 5.8.C.1
    46. ANS: P

        PTS: 1                DIF: L2               OBJ: 22.5.2          STA: 5.7.B.1 | 5.8.C.1
    47. ANS: luster

         PTS: 1               DIF: L2               OBJ: 22.2.1


ESSAY

    48. ANS:
        The rock cycle is a series of processes in which rocks continuously change from one type to another. These
        processes include erosion, weathering, melting, cooling, heat and pressure, and compaction and cementation.

         PTS: 1               DIF: L2               OBJ: 22.3.2          STA: 5.8.C.2


OTHER

    49. ANS:
        weathering and erosion

         PTS: 1               DIF: L1               OBJ: 22.3.2          STA: 5.8.C.2

				
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