# Chapter 1: The Science of Physics

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```					Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                    Unit 01
Introduction to Chemistry

CHEMISTRY = the study of the composition of matter, its chemical and physical changes, and the changes
that accompany these changes.

Scientific law vs. theory:
Scientific law-

Scientific theory-

THE WAY SCIENCE WORKS
Science involves critical thinking, or applying logic and reason to observations and conclusions.

Observation vs. Inference:
Observation-

Inference-

Variables and Controls: A variable is anything that can ____________ in an experiment.
Independent variable: The variable being ______________ or _______________ by the scientist.
Dependent variable: The variable being _____________ or __________________ by the scientist.
A __________________________ tests only one variable at a time.

The Scientific Method: A series of logical steps to follow in order to solve problems.
 _____________________
 FORMULATE A ___________________________
 FORM A __________________________
 DESIGN AND CONDUCT AN ___________________________
 MAKE ________________________
 ___________________ AND ___________________ DATA
 DRAW _______________________
 FORMULATE __________________________ and ________________________________

Making Measurements: measurements are made in this class using SI units.
__________________: distance between 2 points
__________________: space occupied.
__________________: the amount of matter in an object.
__________________: the force with which gravity pulls on a quantity of matter.

Accuracy vs. Precision:
Accuracy-

Precision-

(ex: a scale may be precise to the nearest 100th of a gram, or +/- 0.01g )

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                    Unit 01
precision vs. accuracy

increasing
precision

increasing accuracy

Density =

Example: What is the mass of 10 mL of a liquid that has a density of 3.76 g/mL?

Temperature Conversions
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy in a system.
____ = Kelvin
____ = degree Fahrenheit
____ = degree Celsius
____ =Rankin (we won’t use this one in this class)

K=                                    oF =                          oC =

Percentage Error: Calculate this value in labs where the accepted value is given.

% error =

ORGANIZING DATA: Data is organized and presented in tables, charts, and graphs.
Graph - visual representation of data
1) _________________
2) ____ and ____ axis labeled
3) ______________ for both the x and y axis
4) ______________ is evenly and correctly spaced for data
5) ______________ when appropriate

LINE GRAPH: best for displaying data that ______________________.
– Independent Variable: _____________________
– Dependent variable: _______________________

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                   Unit 01

BAR GRAPH: useful when you want to _________________ data for several individual items.

PIE CHART: ideal for displaying data that are ______________________________________.

Matter
Matter = anything with mass and volume
Classification of Matter:

Law of Conservation of Matter (Mass): matter cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may, however, be transformed

Virtually everything that is, is made up of atoms.

Currently, we have about ________ kinds of atoms. In the natural world there exists ______ different
kinds of atoms. The others have been artificially produced in laboratories.

We call each kind of atom an __________________________, and we give it a specific name and symbol.

Atoms are made up of __________________, _______________________ & ____________________.
Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of atoms. Electrons travel around the nucleus.
Different kinds of atoms are different because they have different numbers of ____________________.
We list elements by their _________________________________, the # of protons.

Physical properties: characteristics that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.
Examples:

Physical change: a change in the physical form or properties of a substance that occurs without a change in
composition.
Examples:

Chemical property: describes a substance’s ability to change into a different substance.
Examples:

Chemical change: occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances.
(bonds are broken and bonds are formed)
Example:

Indications of a chemical change…

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                    Unit 01
Phases of Matter
Kinetic Theory:
 All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles.
 These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temp., the faster the particles move.
 At the same temp., more massive (heavier) particles move slower than less massive (lighter) particles
Solids:
 Definite Shape? _________
 Definite Volume? ________
 Molecules in a solid are ____________________________ and constantly vibrating.
Liquids:
 Definite Shape? _________
 Definite Volume? ________
 Some liquids flow more easily than others. The resistance of a liquid to flow is called ___________.
o Honey has a high viscosity compared to water
Gases:
 Definite Shape? _________
 Definite Volume? ________
 The particles in a gas are spread ____________________________, but can be compressed by
pumping them into a restricted volume.

Changes of State:

Energy Transfers:
 ENERGY is the ability to _____________ or move matter.
 Energy is _______________ when substances melt or evaporate.
o NOTE: our bodies cool down when our sweat evaporates.
 Energy is ________________ when substances freeze or condense.

Melting: Change of state from _____________ to ________________
 Energy (heat) is _____________ by the substance that is melting.

Freezing: Change of state from _____________ to ________________
 Energy (heat) is _____________ by the substance that is undergoing freezing.

Evaporation: Change of state at the surface of a _____________ as it passes to a ________________
 Results from random motion of molecules that occasionally escape from the liquid surface.
 Energy (heat) is _____________ by the liquid. (Cooling of the liquid results)
 Can happen at any time.

Condensation: Change of state from _____________ to ________________
 Energy (heat) is _____________ by the substance that is condensing. (Warming of the liquid results)

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                           Unit 01
Boiling: Change of state from _______________ to _______________
 Occurs _______________ the liquid.
 Boiling point/temperature is determined by ________________
 Energy is ______________ by the liquid

Phase Change Graph

    Boiling & freezing points depend on the pressure.
Phase Diagrams

    a phase diagram shows the equilibria pressure-temperature relationship among the different phases
of a given substance.

H 2O                                              CO2

AB =                                      AC =                                  AD =

    triple point = Point ______
The point at which all 3 phases of a substance (solid, liquid, gas) can coexist at equilibrium.

    critical point = Point ______
The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure.

o   critical temp =
The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied. (H 2O=374ºC)

o   critical pressure =
The pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature. (H2O=218 atm)

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                      Unit 01
Significant Figures

_______________ IS THE LANGUAGE OF ___________________!

Scientific Notation: scientist use special notation to express VERY LARGE or very small numbers.
Ex: 300,000,000 m/sec =                                Ex: 1,007,000,000 sec =

Ex: 0.000 000 000 004 76 m =

Significant Figures
Atlantic - Pacific Rule:
–Decimal Present: Count from the Pacific side
–Decimal Absent: Count from the Atlantic side
Start counting at the first non-zero number and count until you reach the end of the number

Ex. I: 3.00700

Ex. II: 300,700

Significant Figures in Calculations
When multiplying and dividing, limit and round to the least number of significant figures in any of the
factors.

Example:
23.0 x 432 x 19 =

When adding and subtracting, limit and round your answer to the least number of decimal places in any of the
numbers involved in the calculation.

Example:
123.25 + 46.0 +86.257 =

Determine how many significant figures are in each of the following measurements:

1.       0.0034050 L

2.       33.600 m

3.       7500.0 g

4.       47,900 mm

5.       7,000,000,001 miles

6.       8.07 Hz

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                             Unit 01
Round each of the following measurements off so that they each contain 3 significant figures (you may
use scientific notation if you prefer):

7.       366.2 L

8.       9,047,022 mg

9.       12.76 g

10.     999.9 J

Perform the prescribed operations. Round your answers to the proper number of significant figures.

11.      36.57 m / 3.21 s =

12.      41.37 g + 13.3 g + 42.9 g =

13.      5.67 m x 13.44 m =

14.      (5.83 m / 2.67 s) / 2.1 s =

15.      9.374 V x 6 =

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                          Unit 01
Dimensional Analysis

Given information:

Unit conversion map:

Convert 14 gallons to kildurkins:

Convert 3.00 bushels to farkins:

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