Chapter 1: The Science of Physics

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Chapter 1: The Science of Physics Powered By Docstoc
					Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                    Unit 01
                                               Introduction to Chemistry

CHEMISTRY = the study of the composition of matter, its chemical and physical changes, and the changes
that accompany these changes.

Scientific law vs. theory:
Scientific law-



Scientific theory-



THE WAY SCIENCE WORKS
Science involves critical thinking, or applying logic and reason to observations and conclusions.

Observation vs. Inference:
Observation-



Inference-



Variables and Controls: A variable is anything that can ____________ in an experiment.
   Independent variable: The variable being ______________ or _______________ by the scientist.
   Dependent variable: The variable being _____________ or __________________ by the scientist.
A __________________________ tests only one variable at a time.

The Scientific Method: A series of logical steps to follow in order to solve problems.
    _____________________
    FORMULATE A ___________________________
    FORM A __________________________
    DESIGN AND CONDUCT AN ___________________________
    MAKE ________________________
    ___________________ AND ___________________ DATA
    DRAW _______________________
    FORMULATE __________________________ and ________________________________

Making Measurements: measurements are made in this class using SI units.
  __________________: distance between 2 points
  __________________: space occupied.
  __________________: the amount of matter in an object.
  __________________: the force with which gravity pulls on a quantity of matter.

Accuracy vs. Precision:
Accuracy-

Precision-

(ex: a scale may be precise to the nearest 100th of a gram, or +/- 0.01g )

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                    Unit 01
                                               precision vs. accuracy




        increasing
        precision




                                               increasing accuracy

Density =

Example: What is the mass of 10 mL of a liquid that has a density of 3.76 g/mL?




Temperature Conversions
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy in a system.
              ____ = Kelvin
              ____ = degree Fahrenheit
                  ____ = degree Celsius
                  ____ =Rankin (we won’t use this one in this class)


         K=                                    oF =                          oC =


Percentage Error: Calculate this value in labs where the accepted value is given.

         % error =



ORGANIZING DATA: Data is organized and presented in tables, charts, and graphs.
  Graph - visual representation of data
  1) _________________
  2) ____ and ____ axis labeled
  3) ______________ for both the x and y axis
  4) ______________ is evenly and correctly spaced for data
  5) ______________ when appropriate

LINE GRAPH: best for displaying data that ______________________.
    – Independent Variable: _____________________
    – Dependent variable: _______________________

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                   Unit 01


BAR GRAPH: useful when you want to _________________ data for several individual items.

PIE CHART: ideal for displaying data that are ______________________________________.



                                                     Matter
Matter = anything with mass and volume
Classification of Matter:




Law of Conservation of Matter (Mass): matter cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may, however, be transformed

Virtually everything that is, is made up of atoms.

Currently, we have about ________ kinds of atoms. In the natural world there exists ______ different
kinds of atoms. The others have been artificially produced in laboratories.

We call each kind of atom an __________________________, and we give it a specific name and symbol.

Atoms are made up of __________________, _______________________ & ____________________.
Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of atoms. Electrons travel around the nucleus.
Different kinds of atoms are different because they have different numbers of ____________________.
We list elements by their _________________________________, the # of protons.

Physical properties: characteristics that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.
       Examples:

Physical change: a change in the physical form or properties of a substance that occurs without a change in
composition.
       Examples:

Chemical property: describes a substance’s ability to change into a different substance.
       Examples:

Chemical change: occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances.
(bonds are broken and bonds are formed)
       Example:

         Indications of a chemical change…


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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                    Unit 01
                                                   Phases of Matter
Kinetic Theory:
     All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles.
     These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temp., the faster the particles move.
     At the same temp., more massive (heavier) particles move slower than less massive (lighter) particles
Solids:
     Definite Shape? _________
     Definite Volume? ________
     Molecules in a solid are ____________________________ and constantly vibrating.
Liquids:
     Definite Shape? _________
     Definite Volume? ________
     Some liquids flow more easily than others. The resistance of a liquid to flow is called ___________.
            o Honey has a high viscosity compared to water
Gases:
     Definite Shape? _________
     Definite Volume? ________
     The particles in a gas are spread ____________________________, but can be compressed by
         pumping them into a restricted volume.

Changes of State:




Energy Transfers:
    ENERGY is the ability to _____________ or move matter.
    Energy is _______________ when substances melt or evaporate.
          o NOTE: our bodies cool down when our sweat evaporates.
    Energy is ________________ when substances freeze or condense.

Melting: Change of state from _____________ to ________________
    Energy (heat) is _____________ by the substance that is melting.

Freezing: Change of state from _____________ to ________________
    Energy (heat) is _____________ by the substance that is undergoing freezing.

Evaporation: Change of state at the surface of a _____________ as it passes to a ________________
    Results from random motion of molecules that occasionally escape from the liquid surface.
    Energy (heat) is _____________ by the liquid. (Cooling of the liquid results)
    Can happen at any time.

Condensation: Change of state from _____________ to ________________
    Energy (heat) is _____________ by the substance that is condensing. (Warming of the liquid results)



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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                           Unit 01
Boiling: Change of state from _______________ to _______________
     Occurs _______________ the liquid.
     Boiling point/temperature is determined by ________________
     Energy is ______________ by the liquid

Phase Change Graph




        Boiling & freezing points depend on the pressure.
                                                   Phase Diagrams

        a phase diagram shows the equilibria pressure-temperature relationship among the different phases
         of a given substance.

                            H 2O                                              CO2




         AB =                                      AC =                                  AD =

        triple point = Point ______
         The point at which all 3 phases of a substance (solid, liquid, gas) can coexist at equilibrium.



        critical point = Point ______
         The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure.

              o   critical temp =
                  The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied. (H 2O=374ºC)

              o   critical pressure =
                  The pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature. (H2O=218 atm)

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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                                      Unit 01
                                                   Significant Figures

_______________ IS THE LANGUAGE OF ___________________!

Scientific Notation: scientist use special notation to express VERY LARGE or very small numbers.
Ex: 300,000,000 m/sec =                                Ex: 1,007,000,000 sec =

Ex: 0.000 000 000 004 76 m =



Significant Figures
Atlantic - Pacific Rule:
        –Decimal Present: Count from the Pacific side
        –Decimal Absent: Count from the Atlantic side
Start counting at the first non-zero number and count until you reach the end of the number

Ex. I: 3.00700

Ex. II: 300,700

Significant Figures in Calculations
When multiplying and dividing, limit and round to the least number of significant figures in any of the
factors.

Example:
23.0 x 432 x 19 =

When adding and subtracting, limit and round your answer to the least number of decimal places in any of the
numbers involved in the calculation.

Example:
123.25 + 46.0 +86.257 =




Determine how many significant figures are in each of the following measurements:

1.       0.0034050 L

2.       33.600 m

3.       7500.0 g

4.       47,900 mm

5.       7,000,000,001 miles

6.       8.07 Hz



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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                                             Unit 01
Round each of the following measurements off so that they each contain 3 significant figures (you may
use scientific notation if you prefer):

7.       366.2 L

8.       9,047,022 mg

9.       12.76 g

10.     999.9 J



Perform the prescribed operations. Round your answers to the proper number of significant figures.
Include the appropriate units in your answer.

11.      36.57 m / 3.21 s =



12.      41.37 g + 13.3 g + 42.9 g =



13.      5.67 m x 13.44 m =



14.      (5.83 m / 2.67 s) / 2.1 s =



15.      9.374 V x 6 =




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Honors text: Chapters 1-3 & Ch 13 (sections 2-4)                          Unit 01
                                                   Dimensional Analysis

Given information:




Unit conversion map:




Convert 14 gallons to kildurkins:




Convert 14 barrels to hogsheads:




Convert 3.00 bushels to farkins:




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