University of Sulaimani College of Science Department of Chemistry Course book of Environmental Chemistry 2012-0213 Third year chemistry students (junior students) The Teacher: Dr. Khalid M. Omer, PhD in chemistry Hall no: 02 Chemistry Department Time: Tue 8.30-10.30 AM Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Overview: Environmental chemistry is a rather young and interdisciplinary field of science. It’s aim is a complete description of the environment and of transformations occurring on a local or global scale. Environmental chemistry also gives an account of the impact of man’s activities on the natural environment by describing observed changes. At present environmental science consider as one of the most vital sciences since it deals with sources, reactions, fate of the chemical and biological species in the air, water and soil, and how human activities affect on these. A great number of environment issues, have grown in size and complexity day by day, threatening the survival of mankind on earth. We study about these issues besides and effective suggestions in the environment studies. Course objective The main objective of this course focuses on the introduction of the environmental chemistry to the students describing what the environment, environmental science, and how one can keep our environment clean and friendly. The course also focuses on the main problems of the environmental pollution and the methods of controlling and preventing of pollution. Environmental pollution which could be defined as the contamination of air, water, land or food in such a manner as to cause real or potential harm to human health or well-being, or to damage or harm nonhuman nature without justification. The question of when harm to nonhuman nature is justified is a sticky one and is addressed during this course. A major purpose of this course, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. Syllabus Lecture 01: Introduction to environmental chemistry and significance of environmental studies in human life. Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates chemical, physical and biological sciences (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. While Environmental chemistry can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity on these. Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to environmental and other areas of science. Lecture 02: Type of pollutants, Components of the Earth/Environmental Segments Types of pollutants that harm the environments are addressed in this lecture, like stock pollutant, fund pollutant and notable pollutant. Components of the earth will be explained also, namely, lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Lecturer 03: Air pollution It is a substance or effect dwelling temporarily or permanently in the air, which adversely alters the environment by interfering with the health, the comfort, or the food chain, or by interfering with the property values of people. Lecture 04: Chemistry of ozone, ozone hole The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Lecture 05: Particulate matter, Global warming Particulate matter (PM) is the term for particles and liquid droplets suspended in the air. The size of particles is directly linked to their potential for causing health problems. Lecturer 06: Photochemical smog, Acid rain Many urban centers in the world undergo episodes of air pollution during which relatively high levels of ground-level ozone-an undesirable constituent of air if present in appreciable concentrations at low altitudes in the air that we breathe-are produced as a result of the light-induced chemical reaction of pollutants. This phenomenon is called photochemical smog. The chief original reactants in an episode of photochemical smog are molecules of nitric oxide, NO, and of unburned and partially oxidized hydrocarbons that are emitted into the air as pollutants from internal combustion engines; nitric oxide is also released from electric power plants. Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides reach the air and are transformed into sulfate or nitrate particles. When combined with water vapor, they are converted into sulfuric or nitric acids. Acid rain can adversely affect aquatic life, erode stone buildings and marble statues, and seriously threaten trees and crops. First exam Lecture 07: Water pollution, Water Pollution categories, and water pollutants Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals or other foreign substances that are detrimental to human, plant, or animal health. These pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural runoff; sewage and food processing waste; lead, mercury, and other heavy metals; chemical wastes from industrial discharges; and chemical contamination from hazardous waste sites. Worldwide, nearly 2 billion people drink contaminated water that could be harmful to their health. Lecture 08: Causes of water pollution, pathogens, chemicals, and other contaminants The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water, and what is a contaminant. Lecture 09: Waste Water Treatment, Domestic Waste Water Treatment, Industrial Waste Water Treatment, Purification of water Domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminant from waste water and household sewage, both runoff and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds. Lecturer 10: Land pollution, wastes, sediments Soil (land) pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. Lecturer 11: Noise pollution The noise originates from human activities, especially the urbanization and the development of transport and industry. Though, the urban population is much more affected by such pollution, however, small town/villages along side roads or industries are also victim of this problem. Noise is becoming an increasingly omnipresent, yet unnoticed form of pollution even in developed countries. Though noise pollution is a slow and subtle killer, yet very little efforts have been made to ameliorate the same. It is, along with other types of pollution has become a hazard to quality of life. Lecturer 12: Radioactive pollution Radioactive pollution can be defined as the release of radioactive substances or high- energy particles into the air, water, or earth as a result of human activity, either by accident or by design. Since even a small amount of radiation exposure can have serious (and cumulative) biological consequences, and since many radioactive wastes remain toxic for centuries, radioactive pollution is a serious environmental concern even though natural sources of radioactivity far exceed artificial ones at present. Second exam Lecturer 13: Green chemistry Green chemistry consists of environmentally friendly, sustainable chemicals and processes whose use results in reduced waste, safer outputs, and reduced or eliminated pollution and environmental damage. Green chemistry encourages innovation and promotes the creation of products that are both environmentally and economically sustainable. Lecturer 14: Seminars presentation Lecturer 15: Seminars presentation Final exam References: 1. E. Burcu Özkaraova Güngör, Environmental technologies new developments, ed., 2007 I-Tech Education and Publishing. 2. J. Jeffrey Peirce, P. Aarne Vesilind, Ruth F. Weiner, Environmental Pollution and Control, 4th ed., 1997, Elsevier Science & Technology Books. 3. Anil Kumar De, Arnab Kumar De, Environmental Studies, 2nd ed. 2005, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers. Useful link 1. http://www.epa.gov/ 2. http://www.theozonehole.com/ 3. http://www.airquality.co.uk/ Exams and grading policy Various Activities (5 Marks) Short tests are taken without prior notice about either the next lecture or pervious lecture. (duration of the quiz mostly is 5 minutes) Mid-term exams (40 Marks) Consists of two exams, each one will be taken after taking 12 hours of the course, i.e. after each six weeks. (20 marks for each exam) Seminar (5 Marks) Each student has to prepare a seminar (from 5 to 15 pages) about any particular topic in environmental chemistry. Each student has 5 to 10 minutes to present. Final exam (50 Marks) Final exam covers all the materials that are taken during the whole semester.
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