Prepositions and Particles by 93l430Nn

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									Prepositions and
    Particles

            Dave Roberts
            Kyoung Wook Lee
            Ji Hyun Yoon
               Introduction
We will look at:
• Differences between prepositions and particles.
• Different types of prepositions.
• Use of prepositions in describing space, time
and metaphor.
• Use of particles in phrasal verbs.
• Conceptual meanings of some common
particles.
               Basic forms
Differences between prepositions and particles.

If the pronoun in a       They gathered round
sentence is the object    him.
then it will be located
after a preposition:


But, where possible,      Then they beat him
before a particle:        up.
An adverb can occur              He ran quickly
between a verb and a             through the
preposition:                     supermarket.


But rarely between a verb        They mercilessly
and a particle. In this case     beat up the
it will occur before the verb:   snitch.
A preposition can be        Is this the place
placed before the wh-       about which we were
form in questions and       told?
relative clauses:



Particles are not used in   Up whom did you
this way:                   beat?
    Differences between Prepositions
              and Particles
Verb + Preposition       Verb + Particle
Preposition is           Particle is stressed
unstressed
Pronoun after            Pronoun before particle
preposition
Adverb before            Adverb not before particle
preposition
Preposition before wh-   Particle not before wh-
form in questions,       form in questions, relative
relative clauses         clauses
                Prepositions
         We use two distinct types of
      preposition, simple and complex.
-Simple prepositions do not contain nouns. For
example, at last.
-Single-syllable forms (for, in, of, to, on) have
general conceptual meaning. They have a more
grammatical function.
-Multi-syllable forms have more specific
conceptual meaning for the phrase in which they
are used. They have a lexical function.
- Complex prepositions contain nouns. For
example, for the sake of.
- Most learners have lots of practice with
simple verb + preposition sequences. They
are familiar with the use of adverb between
verb and preposition:
Listen carefully to     the instructions.

- They also need to be aware that adverbs
are not usually placed between a verb and
a particle and avoid strange sentences
such as:
Wash    quickly    up the Dishes.
               Simple prepositions
One syllable forms.   Other simple prepositions carry
Occur frequently.     more specific meaning. Contribute
General conceptual    directly to the meaning of phrases in
meaning.              which they occur.
Grammatical                      Lexical
At      Of                Above          Despite
By      Off               Among          During
for     On                Before         Opposite
From To                   Behind         Toward(s)
In      With              Below          Under
         Complex Prepositions
 (Preposition) + Noun Phrase + Preposition


In accordance with   By means of
On account of        For the purpose of
In addition to       With reference to
On behalf of         For the sake of
In case of           In spite of
            Static Locations
                 In Space
     A point in space with no relevant dimension.
at   A narrowly specified point in space.
                At the park

on   One or two relevant dimensions. Location
     narrowed to a surface or linear concept.
                On the block
     Two or three relevant dimensions.
in
     A general idea in space.
                 In the city
            Static Locations
                  In Time

at   Narrowly specified points in time.

                   At 7pm

on   Restricted points in time.

              On Tuesday evening

in   General locations in time.

                In November
               Goal of Movement
                      In Space

 to       Goal of movement in relation to a specific
          point.
                 He went to the beach
On(to)    Goal of movement in relation to a surface.

                He climbed on(to) the pier

 In(to)   Goal of movement in relation to an area.

                He dived in(to) the sea
            Source of Movement
                     In Space

from     Source of movement in relation to a specific
         point.
                Get it from the shop
 off     Source of movement in relation to a surface.

                Get off the sofa

out of   Source of movement in relation to an area.

                Get out of the house
         Source/Goal of Movement
                     In Time

to       Goal of movement in relation to a specific
         point from another point.

          Lines are open from 6 to 9 tonight.


         Goal of movement in relation to a period of
In(to)
         time.

         The fine weather continued into November.
              Path of Movement
                     In Space

past     Movement in relation to a specific point.

                Go past the library

along    Movement in relation to a surface.

                 Go along the main road

through Movement in relation to an area.

                 Go through the tunnel
               Path of Movement
                      In Time

past     Movement in relation to a specific point.

       It was past midnight when they finally left


through Movement in relation to a period of time.

       The sunny days continued through October.
           Location in metaphor
    The concept of containers to describe space
    and time can be extended to more abstract
                     concepts.
                             Fall in love
Emotions
                         Stay out of trouble

 Linguistic                Put in into words
expressions
                   Communication through language.

 Visual field             It’s come into view
                          It’s out of sight now
            Location in space
             Point    Surface       Area
Connected
 position
             At E      On E         In E

 Goal of
movement
             To E      On(to)       In (to)
                                   E
Source of
movement
            (away)      Off         Out of
             from
               E               E         E
 Path of
movement
             Past      Along       Through
                E         E           E
           Activity 1: Rosie’s Walk

1. Goal of activity: Learning about
prepositions through the story.
Practicing using physical prepositions with
each other.
2. Type of activity: Group work
3. Approximate time: 20 ~ 25 min
4. Materials : story book and realia
5. Student profile : 1 year of Kindergarten – 7
years old kid, Novice mid.
6. Procedure
- Show the pictures of story and talk about them
- Read the story book together
- Have students fill in the blanks while looking at
the pictures.
- Have students draw a map of where Rosie went
and present it using prepositions of location
- Ask a student to come to the front and do as the
teacher says
  Ex> go over the chair – go under the desk -go
around the teachers’ table- go past the white
board – go through the tunnel.
And Have student explain what he/ she did
         Activity 2: Around the world in
                      80 days

1. Goal of activity: Learning about prepositions of
time and place by making and talking about the
schedule. (Information gap)
2. Type of activity: Pair work
3. Approximate time: 30 min
4. Materials : Storybook, worksheet, paper,
coloured pencils.
5. Student profile : 1st grader of middle Novice
high.
6. Procedure

- The class reads the first chapter of the story together and the
teacher checks comprehension by asking questions where
appropriate.
- Highlight the preposition in and explain how it can be applied
to both situations.
- Do the same with prepositions on and at so that students
understand their use in explaining time.
- Practice the preposition sentences about the story and make
them relevant to the students’ lives.
Give some example sentences about the times of events in the
story. Students must fill in the blanks with the appropriate
preposition, on, in, at. They can use the storybook to help them.
- Have students make their own schedule in the given form.
- A pair of students will talk about their own schedules and make
an appointment.
                    Activity 3: Storyboard

Aim of the activity: for the students to imaginatively use
                    prepositions in metaphor.

Type of activity:    group work.

Approximate time: 30 minutes.

Materials:           large versions of above pictures.

Student profile:     4th grade elementary students, low
                     intermediate level, 40 minute class 3 days a
                     week. 12 students in the class.
Procedure: - divide students into groups of 3.
           - give each group small copies of the story pictures
           (in no particular order).
           - groups are to try to work out a story using the
           pictures. The aim is to incorporate prepositions of
           metaphor in their story.
           - teams take turns presenting their stories to the rest
           of the class.
           The teams are awarded points according to how
           many appropriate uses they can incorporate into
           their stories.
           - The teacher presents their intended story and
           students identify the uses of prepositions in
           metaphor.
                            Storyboard

                                                                       ?
                             Jenny   Robbie

    Robbie

                                                       Robbie




!
                                     Jenny
                                              Robbie            Phil
             Phil   Jenny
                   Particles
 Preposition forms can be used as particles when in
 Verb + Particle combinations.
 These Phrasal Verbs can be used in different ways:

Without direct object             Get out!

Object after the               She ran up a big
particle                       phone bill

Object before the particle   The team didn’t let me down

Object before or after the   Turn the TV off. Turn off the TV
particle
            Meanings of Particles

Particles              Conceptual Meanings

  Up                 Increase, completion
  Down               Decrease, completion
  Off                Disconnection, completion
  On                 Connection, continuation
  Out                Removal, change of state
  Away               Disconnection,
                     unrestrained action
             Use of the particle up
Increase in
Level                   Things are heating up.
Size                    Fill it up.
Activity                We will stir things up.
Readiness               They’re all fired up.
Awareness               He will soon sober up.
Visibility              I was glad when he turned up.

Completion              He cleaned up his room.
           Use of the particle down
Decrease in
Level                 Prices have come down.
Size                  The swelling has gone down.
Activity              We asked them to quiet
                      down.
Readiness             The troops were told to stand
                      down.

Completion           All operations have been
                     shut down.
             Meaning in Context

Preposition phrase          Information about
                            circumstances of events

      - In initial position Starting point, setting, framework
      - In final position   Additional circumstantial information

Particle                    Information key to the event itself

- Object before particle    Shorter, unstressed, pronoun, given

- Particle before object    Longer, stressed, noun phrase, new
             Activity 4: TPR activity

Goal of activity: Make students understand
            prepositions by doing activity.(TPR)

Type of activity : pair work

Approximate time :10~15 min

Materials: papers, construction paper, scissors, glue
water spray

Students’ profile: 2nd graders in elementary school
Procedure: - divide students into groups of 2.
        – distribute 2 pieces of paper, one piece of construction
               paper, 2 glues, and 2 scissors to each group.
      - Ask students to stand up and sit down, hands up and down.
      - Ask them to take out their scissors.
      -demonstrate how to cut, bend, fold, tear and glue the
      paper.
      - Showing visual aid, have students to repeat verbs such as,
      cut, glue, tear, fold, and bend.
      - Give directions which include prepositions. (ex. cut out the
      paper, glue it on the blue construction paper, bend it over,
      tear it off, fold it over, and mix it up.)
      - have students follow instructions with actions.
      - ask one student from each group to describe what just
      he/she did by using prepositions.
      -For pair work, have one student give instructions to his/her
      partner. Then ask the other to follow the instructions. Then,
      take turns.
                Activity 5: Traffic signs

Goal of activity: students can practice prepositions with traffic
  signs.

Type of activity : group work

Approximate time: 30 min.

Materials: pictures of traffic signs, direction cards, preposition
  cards.

Students’ profile: novice high, adult learners
Procedure: -divide students into groups of 5.
           –distribute pictures of traffic signs and direction
            cards to each group.
            -Ask students to match the traffic signs with
            direction cards in a group.
            -distribute preposition cards to each group. Ask
            them to fill in the blanks of direction cards with
            preposition cards.
            -Once they finish the group work, one student
            from each group read completed sentences.
            -ask one student in a group to pick up the
            picture and show it to his/her group numbers.
            Others will describe the traffic sign with
            prepositions.
            -have students take turns to practice prepositions
            with pictures and direction cards.
    Do not park ( )     Do not drive ( )



P
    the area ( ) the    the intersection
    signs




    Do not turn to go   Do not turn right
    ( ) the opposite    when facing a
    direction           red light ( ) the
    (U-turn)            intersection
No bicycles
allowed ( ) this
road




Do not turn left ( )
the intersection
 Slight bend or        Pavement
 curve ( ) the road    narrows ( )
 ahead




Right lane ends
( ). If you are ( )     Pavement is
the right-hand          slippery when
lane, you must          wet. Slow ( ) and
merge safely with       drive with
traffic ( ) the lane    caution
to the left
       Sharp bend or         Winding road ( ).
       turn in the road
       ( ).




       Stop sign ( ).        Two roads going
       Slow down.            ( ) the same
                             direction are
STOP                         about to join ( )
                             one. Drivers on
                             both are equally
                             responsible for
                             seeing that traffic
       Traffic travels ( )   merges smoothly
       both direction ( )    and safely.
       the same road
       ahead. Keep to
       the right.
between    at

through    in

  to      ahead

  in      ahead

  at       in

  on      with
 in     down

 to      in

with     on

 in     ahead

ahead    to

ahead   ahead
 in

into

on
         Location in time             In –

At - used to describe location in a specific point in time.


at 6 o’clock


On – used to describe location in a restricted unit of time.


on Friday night


In – used to describe location in an extended period of time.


in December
Types of Phrasal Verbs


    Non-separable
       Meanings in context


Prepositions are at the edge of the
action in a sentence.
Particles are often at the centre of
the action.
                   Using Prepositions


Simple one-syllable prepositions have many possible uses
and can describe a wide variety of relationships.
The grammatical use depends on the conceptual meaning
of the noun phrases that follow them.
To understand how prepositions are used we need to
understand how spatial locations are perceived, and from
this how different types of concepts are defined.

								
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