Prepositions and Particles Dave Roberts Kyoung Wook Lee Ji Hyun Yoon Introduction We will look at: • Differences between prepositions and particles. • Different types of prepositions. • Use of prepositions in describing space, time and metaphor. • Use of particles in phrasal verbs. • Conceptual meanings of some common particles. Basic forms Differences between prepositions and particles. If the pronoun in a They gathered round sentence is the object him. then it will be located after a preposition: But, where possible, Then they beat him before a particle: up. An adverb can occur He ran quickly between a verb and a through the preposition: supermarket. But rarely between a verb They mercilessly and a particle. In this case beat up the it will occur before the verb: snitch. A preposition can be Is this the place placed before the wh- about which we were form in questions and told? relative clauses: Particles are not used in Up whom did you this way: beat? Differences between Prepositions and Particles Verb + Preposition Verb + Particle Preposition is Particle is stressed unstressed Pronoun after Pronoun before particle preposition Adverb before Adverb not before particle preposition Preposition before wh- Particle not before wh- form in questions, form in questions, relative relative clauses clauses Prepositions We use two distinct types of preposition, simple and complex. -Simple prepositions do not contain nouns. For example, at last. -Single-syllable forms (for, in, of, to, on) have general conceptual meaning. They have a more grammatical function. -Multi-syllable forms have more specific conceptual meaning for the phrase in which they are used. They have a lexical function. - Complex prepositions contain nouns. For example, for the sake of. - Most learners have lots of practice with simple verb + preposition sequences. They are familiar with the use of adverb between verb and preposition: Listen carefully to the instructions. - They also need to be aware that adverbs are not usually placed between a verb and a particle and avoid strange sentences such as: Wash quickly up the Dishes. Simple prepositions One syllable forms. Other simple prepositions carry Occur frequently. more specific meaning. Contribute General conceptual directly to the meaning of phrases in meaning. which they occur. Grammatical Lexical At Of Above Despite By Off Among During for On Before Opposite From To Behind Toward(s) In With Below Under Complex Prepositions (Preposition) + Noun Phrase + Preposition In accordance with By means of On account of For the purpose of In addition to With reference to On behalf of For the sake of In case of In spite of Static Locations In Space A point in space with no relevant dimension. at A narrowly specified point in space. At the park on One or two relevant dimensions. Location narrowed to a surface or linear concept. On the block Two or three relevant dimensions. in A general idea in space. In the city Static Locations In Time at Narrowly specified points in time. At 7pm on Restricted points in time. On Tuesday evening in General locations in time. In November Goal of Movement In Space to Goal of movement in relation to a specific point. He went to the beach On(to) Goal of movement in relation to a surface. He climbed on(to) the pier In(to) Goal of movement in relation to an area. He dived in(to) the sea Source of Movement In Space from Source of movement in relation to a specific point. Get it from the shop off Source of movement in relation to a surface. Get off the sofa out of Source of movement in relation to an area. Get out of the house Source/Goal of Movement In Time to Goal of movement in relation to a specific point from another point. Lines are open from 6 to 9 tonight. Goal of movement in relation to a period of In(to) time. The fine weather continued into November. Path of Movement In Space past Movement in relation to a specific point. Go past the library along Movement in relation to a surface. Go along the main road through Movement in relation to an area. Go through the tunnel Path of Movement In Time past Movement in relation to a specific point. It was past midnight when they finally left through Movement in relation to a period of time. The sunny days continued through October. Location in metaphor The concept of containers to describe space and time can be extended to more abstract concepts. Fall in love Emotions Stay out of trouble Linguistic Put in into words expressions Communication through language. Visual field It’s come into view It’s out of sight now Location in space Point Surface Area Connected position At E On E In E Goal of movement To E On(to) In (to) E Source of movement (away) Off Out of from E E E Path of movement Past Along Through E E E Activity 1: Rosie’s Walk 1. Goal of activity: Learning about prepositions through the story. Practicing using physical prepositions with each other. 2. Type of activity: Group work 3. Approximate time: 20 ~ 25 min 4. Materials : story book and realia 5. Student profile : 1 year of Kindergarten – 7 years old kid, Novice mid. 6. Procedure - Show the pictures of story and talk about them - Read the story book together - Have students fill in the blanks while looking at the pictures. - Have students draw a map of where Rosie went and present it using prepositions of location - Ask a student to come to the front and do as the teacher says Ex> go over the chair – go under the desk -go around the teachers’ table- go past the white board – go through the tunnel. And Have student explain what he/ she did Activity 2: Around the world in 80 days 1. Goal of activity: Learning about prepositions of time and place by making and talking about the schedule. (Information gap) 2. Type of activity: Pair work 3. Approximate time: 30 min 4. Materials : Storybook, worksheet, paper, coloured pencils. 5. Student profile : 1st grader of middle Novice high. 6. Procedure - The class reads the first chapter of the story together and the teacher checks comprehension by asking questions where appropriate. - Highlight the preposition in and explain how it can be applied to both situations. - Do the same with prepositions on and at so that students understand their use in explaining time. - Practice the preposition sentences about the story and make them relevant to the students’ lives. Give some example sentences about the times of events in the story. Students must fill in the blanks with the appropriate preposition, on, in, at. They can use the storybook to help them. - Have students make their own schedule in the given form. - A pair of students will talk about their own schedules and make an appointment. Activity 3: Storyboard Aim of the activity: for the students to imaginatively use prepositions in metaphor. Type of activity: group work. Approximate time: 30 minutes. Materials: large versions of above pictures. Student profile: 4th grade elementary students, low intermediate level, 40 minute class 3 days a week. 12 students in the class. Procedure: - divide students into groups of 3. - give each group small copies of the story pictures (in no particular order). - groups are to try to work out a story using the pictures. The aim is to incorporate prepositions of metaphor in their story. - teams take turns presenting their stories to the rest of the class. The teams are awarded points according to how many appropriate uses they can incorporate into their stories. - The teacher presents their intended story and students identify the uses of prepositions in metaphor. Storyboard ? Jenny Robbie Robbie Robbie ! Jenny Robbie Phil Phil Jenny Particles Preposition forms can be used as particles when in Verb + Particle combinations. These Phrasal Verbs can be used in different ways: Without direct object Get out! Object after the She ran up a big particle phone bill Object before the particle The team didn’t let me down Object before or after the Turn the TV off. Turn off the TV particle Meanings of Particles Particles Conceptual Meanings Up Increase, completion Down Decrease, completion Off Disconnection, completion On Connection, continuation Out Removal, change of state Away Disconnection, unrestrained action Use of the particle up Increase in Level Things are heating up. Size Fill it up. Activity We will stir things up. Readiness They’re all fired up. Awareness He will soon sober up. Visibility I was glad when he turned up. Completion He cleaned up his room. Use of the particle down Decrease in Level Prices have come down. Size The swelling has gone down. Activity We asked them to quiet down. Readiness The troops were told to stand down. Completion All operations have been shut down. Meaning in Context Preposition phrase Information about circumstances of events - In initial position Starting point, setting, framework - In final position Additional circumstantial information Particle Information key to the event itself - Object before particle Shorter, unstressed, pronoun, given - Particle before object Longer, stressed, noun phrase, new Activity 4: TPR activity Goal of activity: Make students understand prepositions by doing activity.(TPR) Type of activity : pair work Approximate time :10~15 min Materials: papers, construction paper, scissors, glue water spray Students’ profile: 2nd graders in elementary school Procedure: - divide students into groups of 2. – distribute 2 pieces of paper, one piece of construction paper, 2 glues, and 2 scissors to each group. - Ask students to stand up and sit down, hands up and down. - Ask them to take out their scissors. -demonstrate how to cut, bend, fold, tear and glue the paper. - Showing visual aid, have students to repeat verbs such as, cut, glue, tear, fold, and bend. - Give directions which include prepositions. (ex. cut out the paper, glue it on the blue construction paper, bend it over, tear it off, fold it over, and mix it up.) - have students follow instructions with actions. - ask one student from each group to describe what just he/she did by using prepositions. -For pair work, have one student give instructions to his/her partner. Then ask the other to follow the instructions. Then, take turns. Activity 5: Traffic signs Goal of activity: students can practice prepositions with traffic signs. Type of activity : group work Approximate time: 30 min. Materials: pictures of traffic signs, direction cards, preposition cards. Students’ profile: novice high, adult learners Procedure: -divide students into groups of 5. –distribute pictures of traffic signs and direction cards to each group. -Ask students to match the traffic signs with direction cards in a group. -distribute preposition cards to each group. Ask them to fill in the blanks of direction cards with preposition cards. -Once they finish the group work, one student from each group read completed sentences. -ask one student in a group to pick up the picture and show it to his/her group numbers. Others will describe the traffic sign with prepositions. -have students take turns to practice prepositions with pictures and direction cards. Do not park ( ) Do not drive ( ) P the area ( ) the the intersection signs Do not turn to go Do not turn right ( ) the opposite when facing a direction red light ( ) the (U-turn) intersection No bicycles allowed ( ) this road Do not turn left ( ) the intersection Slight bend or Pavement curve ( ) the road narrows ( ) ahead Right lane ends ( ). If you are ( ) Pavement is the right-hand slippery when lane, you must wet. Slow ( ) and merge safely with drive with traffic ( ) the lane caution to the left Sharp bend or Winding road ( ). turn in the road ( ). Stop sign ( ). Two roads going Slow down. ( ) the same direction are STOP about to join ( ) one. Drivers on both are equally responsible for seeing that traffic Traffic travels ( ) merges smoothly both direction ( ) and safely. the same road ahead. Keep to the right. between at through in to ahead in ahead at in on with in down to in with on in ahead ahead to ahead ahead in into on Location in time In – At - used to describe location in a specific point in time. at 6 o’clock On – used to describe location in a restricted unit of time. on Friday night In – used to describe location in an extended period of time. in December Types of Phrasal Verbs Non-separable Meanings in context Prepositions are at the edge of the action in a sentence. Particles are often at the centre of the action. Using Prepositions Simple one-syllable prepositions have many possible uses and can describe a wide variety of relationships. The grammatical use depends on the conceptual meaning of the noun phrases that follow them. To understand how prepositions are used we need to understand how spatial locations are perceived, and from this how different types of concepts are defined.
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