97 PHRASAL VERBS

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					                               PHRASAL VERBS

Three rules for separating phrasal verbs from verb + preposition combinations

Rule1: Wh- question Rule:
The word in question is a preposition if it can be moved to the front of a wh- question. Example:
        I come from Atlanta.
We know "from" is a preposition because the following, though formal-sounding, is acceptable to our ears:
        From where do you come?


Here's what happens to the particle in a phrasal verb when we apply this rule:
        She threw out the old newspapers.
This sentence becomes awkward and ungrammatical when we apply the wh- question rule:
       *Out where did she throw the old newspapers?


Rule 2: Relative Clause Fronting Rule:
The word in question is a preposition if it can be fronted in a relative clause. Example:
        They learned about water skiing.
"About" is a preposition because the following sentence is grammatically correct though not common.
         Water skiing, about which they learned, is not as easy as it looks.


Let's look at what happens to the particle in a phrasal verb when we apply this rule:
        I should hand in my paper early.
This sentence becomes awkward and ungrammatical when we apply the relative clause fronting rule:
       *My paper, in which I should hand early, is my last one this term.


Rule 3: The Insert Adverb Rule:
The phrase in question is a verb + preposition combination if an adverb can be inserted between the verb
and the preposition. Here's an example:
        My wife argued with the waiter.
"Argued with" is a verb + preposition combination because the following sentence is grammatically correct.
        My wife argued endlessly with the waiter.


Let's look at what happens to a phrasal verb when we apply this rule:
       Can you pick up my friend from the airport?
Now, here's the ungrammatical sentence produced when we insert an adverb within the phrasal verb:
       *Can you pick quickly up my friend from the airport?


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                          LIST OF PHRASAL VERBS

1. Separable
break into - go into a house or room forcibly
bring up - raise; care for from childhood
call off - cancel; order away
carry on - continue
carry out - fulfil; complete; accomplish; perform
count in - include
count out - exclude
count up - calculate; count; add to a total
cross out - eliminate
cut off - interrupt; sever; amputate
cut out - eliminate; delete
cut down - reduce in quantity
figure out - interpret; understand
fill in - complete (a printed form)
fill out - complete (a printed form)
fill up - fill completely (a container)
find out - discover
give back - return
give out - distribute; announce
give up – stop doing, surrender something
hand down - deliver; pronounce formally; leave as an inheritance
keep up - continue; keep the same pace
leave out - omit
let down - disappoint
pass out - distribute
pick up - come to meet an escort; lift with hands or fingers; learn casually
point out - indicate
put off - postpone
set up - arrange
take back - return; retract a statement
take down - remove from a high position; write from dictation
take in - understood; fool; deceive; make smaller (in sewing)
take over - take; assume command of
tear up - tear into small pieces
tell off - scold; reprimand
think over - consider
think through - consider from beginning to end
think up - create; invent
try on - put on a garment to verify the fit
try out - test
turn down - refuse; lower the volume
turn out - produce; force into exile, extinguish (a light)
wind up - finish, tighten the spring of a watch or machine
work out - solve
write down - record
write out - write down every detail; spell out
write up - compose; prepare (a document)
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2. Inseparable

call for - come to get; require
care for - like; guard; supervise; maintain
carry on with - continue
catch up with - cover the distance between oneself and
come across - find accidentally
come along with - accompany; make progress
come by - find accidentally
count on - rely on
do away with - abolish
do without - deprive oneself of
drop in at/on - visit casually without planning
drop out of - leave; quit
face up to – take responsibility for; have courage to deal with
get away with - do without being caught or punished
get by with - manage with a minimum of effort
get in - enter (a vehicle)
get off - descend from; leave
get on - enter (a vehicle); mount
get on/along with – have a friendly relationship with
go over - review
hold on to - grasp tightly
keep up with - maintain the pace of
live on - support or sustain oneself by means of
look after - take care of
look back on - remember nostalgically
look down on - feel superior to
look forward to - to think with pleasure about a future event that you expect to enjoy
look up to - respect; admire
put up with - tolerate
run away with - leave; escape from
stand for - represent; permit
stand up for - support; demand
stand up to - resist
stick to - persist
stick up for - support; defend
take after - resemble
talk back to - answer impolitely
talk over - discuss
tell on - report misbehaviour to authority
turn into - become
watch out for - be careful for




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3. Intransitive

blow up - explode; lose one's temper
break down – stop working, functioning
call up - telephone
carry on - continue as before; misbehave
catch on - understand
catch up - cover the distance between oneself and a moving goal
check up - investigate
check out - leave; pay one's bill
come along - accompany; make progress
come back - return
come through - succeed
come to - regain consciousness
drop in - visit someone casually without planning
drop out - abandon some organized activity; leave; quit
find out – discover; learn
get away - escape
get by - manage; either just barely or with a minimum of effort
get up - rise
get through - finish
give out - become exhausted
give up - surrender; fail to finish
go back - return
go off - explode
go on - happen; continue
go out - stop burning; leave one's residence
grow up - mature
hang around - remain idly; dawdle
hang up - replace a telephone receiver on its hook
hold on - grasp tightly; persevere; wait while telephoning
hold out - continue to resist; persevere; persist
keep on - continue
keep up - maintain the required pace or standard; continue
pass out - become unconscious
pass away/on/over - die
run away - escape; leave; leave quickly without permission
show up - arrive; appear unexpectedly
shut up - stop talking
stand by - wait; be prepared to assist
stand up - stand; rise from sitting; last; endure
stay over - remain at someone's house overnight or longer
take off - leave the ground
take over - assume command
throw up - vomit
turn out - succeed; come; appear, as at a public meeting
turn up - arrive; be found unexpectedly
watch out - be careful
wear out - become unusable through use; become used up
work out - be successful


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