GIS For Location Based Services.ppt

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GIS For Location Based Services.ppt Powered By Docstoc
					             GIS For Location Based
             Services
                                           Shashika Biyanwila

Independent Study Presentation
 As partial fulfillment of M. Sc. Degree
                    Outline

 What is LBS?
 What is GIS?
 Desktop GIS
 Web GIS
 Mobile GIS
 Summary




                GIS for Location Based Services
                       What is LBS ?
 Provide personalized services to mobile users based on
 their current location
    Where am I?
    What is the nearest restaurant, cinema ect.

            Operator                Tracking                    Assistance
            services


                        Range of applications

                   Monitoring                             Information


                        GIS for Location Based Services
                           What is LBS ?
    Mobile Devices




http://www.geo.unizh.ch/    GIS for Location Based Services
What is LBS ? …

  Definition 1 (Virrantaus et al. 2001)
     LBSs are information services accessible with mobile
     devices through the mobile network and utilizing the ability
     to make use of the location of the mobile device.


  Definition 2 (OGC, 2005 )
     A wireless-IP service that uses geographic information to
     serve a mobile user. Any application service that exploits the
     position of a mobile terminal.


                           GIS for Location Based Services
What is LBS ? …

  LBS as an intersection of three technologies




http://www.geo.unizh.ch/publications/cartouche/
lbs_lecturenotes_steinigeretal2006.pdf
  LBS     need to deal with GIS …
                               GIS for Location Based Services
                         What is GIS ?

“A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an organized
collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data,
methods, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store,
update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically
referenced information” [ESRI,1996].


 GIS services (OpenGIS Guide [Buehler & McKee, 1998])
     Geodata Services
     Geoprocessing Services


                         GIS for Location Based Services
Key Features of GIS

 Information from different sources
   Computer databases
    Digital maps
    GPS receiver
    Satellite image

 Data integration



                                 http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/

                         GIS for Location Based Services
Key Features of GIS …


  Projection
  Information retrieval
  Data output
 Overlay
  Topological modeling

                                  http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/




                       GIS for Location Based Services
Data Representation

  Raster Data
     Represent images as a collection of pixels
     A grid of cells covering an image / area
     Higher data volume
     Example of raster formats
           GeoTiff
           ARC/INFO ASCII Grid
           ARC/INFO GRID
           ECW
           IMG
                       GIS for Location Based Services
Data Representation…

   Vector Data
      Use geometrical shapes (Lines, Points, Polygons)
      Low data volume
      Example of vector formats
            Shape files
            MapInfo TAB
            NTF
            TIGER


                       GIS for Location Based Services
Types of GIS

                                          GIS




          Desktop GIS                 Web GIS                   Mobile GIS


 GIS is moving from Desktop systems to Distributed system
    OpenGIS concept
 Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) [http://www.opengeospatial.org]
Develop specifications to increase the interoperability of geospatial data and
geoprocessing software components
                              GIS for Location Based Services
                         Desktop GIS

 Represents the real world on a computer
 Limited to the desktop Computer
 Not everyone can access the applications
 Desktop GIS Functionalities
   View data on a map
    Analyze data
    Create publication quality, professional maps




                         GIS for Location Based Services
Desktop GIS Software

 GIS Software
        Proprietary Software
             - ArcGIS Desktop (ESRI)
             - Envision (Autodesk)
             - MapInfo Professional
        Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)
             - GRASS GIS
             - Quantum GIS (QGIS)

                     GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop (ESRI)

   Includes four software components.
      ArcReader
      ArcView
      ArcEditor
      ArcInfo


                                                    http://www.esri.com/products.html


                      GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop …

   ArcReader
     -An easy-to-use desktop mapping application
     - Allow users to view, explore and print maps
   ArcView
     - A full featured GIS software
     - Allow users to view, analyze, manage and create
     geographic data

                       GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop …

   ArcEditor
     - A powerful GIS desktop system
     - Provide all the functionality of ArcView
     - Provide data edit capability
     - Supports single user editing OR collaborative process




                       GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop…

   ArcInfo
     - The most complete GIS
     - Includes all the functionality of ArcEditor, ArcView, and
     ArcReader
     - Provide advanced spatial analysis, extensive data
     manipulation, and high-end cartography tools



                       GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary Software

2. Envision (Autodesk)

   Integrates GIS spatial data and AutoCad design data
   Perform civil engineering tasks such as
     - calculating elevations
     - cut/fill volumes
     -running flood analyses
   AutoDesk Raster Design is used to edit, modify, and enhance
  raster data

                          GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary Software

3. MapInfo Professional
      A full featured Desktop geospatial solution
      Comes with easy-to-use software and a powerful
      software tool
      Vertical Mapper third party add-on for raster data




                        GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS Software

1. GRASS GIS

     GRASS - Geographic Resources Analysis Support
     System
     Supports various platforms
     Supports for both raster & vector formats




                      GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS Software

1. GRASS GIS…
    Functionalities
      - geospatial data management and analysis
      - image processing
      - graphics/maps production
      - spatial modeling
      - visualization



                        GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS Software

2. Quantum GIS (QGIS)

 Support multiple platforms
   - Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, and Windows

 Support multiple data formats
   -vector, raster, database formats
   -GRASS layers
                                           http://qgis.org/brochure/qgis_brochure_en.pdf

 Extendable functionality using plug-ins

                         GIS for Location Based Services
Applicability for LBS

       Issues…
         Limited to a Desktop PC
         Cannot access remotely
       LBS deals with mobile users
         Need remote access to GIS
         Transfer information between user and the GIS

          Desktop GIS not suitable for LBS

                    GIS for Location Based Services
                      Web GIS

“Web GIS is a Geographic Information System distributed across
 a networked computer environment to integrate, disseminate,
 and communicate geographic information visually on the
 World Wide Web over the Internet.” [Gillavry, 2000]


Disseminate geospatial data and processing tools
 Possible to Process geo-related information with no location
 restrictions.


                       GIS for Location Based Services
Web GIS Architecture


                           Web GIS




  Client-Server Architecture               Distributed Architecture



                      GIS for Location Based Services
1. Client – Server Architecture

  Geoprocessing  Server side & Client side tasks
  Typical three tier architecture
    1. Presentation tier
        - Contains user interface
    2. Application logic tier
        - Model & process GIS data
    3. Storage tier
        - Databases that store GIS data


                           GIS for Location Based Services
1. Client – Server Architecture …

 A typical client-server architecture
            Client        Middle Ware                                 Server

                           Spatial request                                       Internet Map
             Web                                            Web                     Server
           Browser              Internet                   Server                    (IMS)
                        HTML,Image,Map..




  Two types                                                 GIS
                                                           software              GIS
                                                                               database
  - Thin client architecture
  - Thick client architecture
                         GIS for Location Based Services
2. Distributed Architecture

   Both data and processing components are distributed
   The client and server do not refer to a specific machine
   “Geodata anywhere, Geoprocessing anywhere” model
   Distributed object architectures
     - Microsoft's Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)
     - Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
     - Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI)




                          GIS for Location Based Services
IMS Software

  Allow users to access spatial data via a web browser interface
  Interact with web server and spatial database


  Proprietary software                           FOSS software
  - ArcView IMS (ESRI)                           - Minnesota Map Server
  - MapObjects IMS (ESRI)                        - Open-GIS Multiviewer
  - ArcIMS (ESRI)                                - GIS Viewer
  - MapGuide (Autodesk)




                          GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary software

1. ArcView IMS (ESRI)
 Extension of ESRI's Desktop-GIS application- ArcView
 One of the first available Map Server systems
 Requires an open session of ArcView running on the Web
  server with IMS ArcView middleware
 Client cannot change the composition of the received map




                        GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary software

2. MapObjects IMS (ESRI)
 Integrate three applications :MapObjects IMS, MapObjects
  Professional, and ArcExplorer
 Can consider as a programming platform
 For GIS applications - Visual Basic, Visual C + +, Delphi
 For client applications - HTML (JavaScript), ActiveX
 Supports Windows or UNIX-based Web servers
 Uses modern three-tier architecture

                        GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary software

3. ArcIMS (ESRI)
 Most widely used Proprietary IMS software
 A three tier architecture




                      http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/sig/ims-technology-esri.htm
                         GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary software

3. ArcIMS …
 The components of the ArcIMS server :
   - Spatial Server
   - Applications Server
   - Connectors to the Applications Server [Servelets, ColdFusion,
     ActiveX ]
   - Administrator
 Tool for designing map services  need not to program client
 Client receives instructions suitable for processing

                          GIS for Location Based Services
Proprietary software

4. MapGuide (Autodesk)
 Similar capacities to those of ArcIMS
 Provide tools for basic geographical operations
 Own data format –SDF
 Extensions required to convert other formats to SDF format




                        GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server
 World’s leading open source Web-Mapping tool
 Originally developed for the University of Minnesota (UMN)
 Supported platforms : Linux/Apache, Windows NT/98/95
 A CGI program that sits inactive on a Web Server
 Uses information passed in the URL and the Map File to
  process the request



                       GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server…
    The MapServer architecture 
    Client - Web browser
    Server
      - HTTP Server (Apache, IIS)
      - MapServer CGI (mapserve.exe)
      - Map Files
      - Geographic Data
           [ESRI Shape files, GeoTIFF]
                         Illustrated according to diagram from
      http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu/new_users/msappdiagram/
                               GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS software
1. Minnesota Map Server…
How MapServer works?
 http:// <location of the mapserver program> <location of the mapfile> <other parameters>
 http://192.8.10.52/cgi-bin/mapserve.exe? map=/ms4w/apps/app1/htdocs/test.map


    Web        Request                             Request         Mapserver
                                  Web                                              Result
   Browser
                                 Server                                 (CGI)

                                                             test.map


                                                                        Mapfiles


                                GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server…
 Advantages of using MapServer
   - Comes as a standard package which bundles MapServer
     and many required supporting tools
   - No dedicated hardware is required
   - Client is only a web browser
   - Not bounded to any specific language
   - Compliant to the OGC Specification
   - Support for database access (PostGIS, MySql)

                       GIS for Location Based Services
FOSS software

2. GIS VIEWER
 Developed by the University of California, Berkeley at "UC
  Berkeley Digital Library Project”
 Supported platforms : Unix, Linux, Windows NT
 Display geographical information by means of a window
  (viewfinder)




                       GIS for Location Based Services
Applicability for LBS

 Key features of web GIS:
   - Distribute geospatial data over the Internet or an Intranet
   - Limited to hardwired networks
 Features of Mobile devices:
   - Use wireless Internet (low bandwidth, low connection speed)
   - Limited processing power
   - Diversity nature
               Web GIS not suitable for LBS

                        GIS for Location Based Services
                                 Mobile GIS

“Mobile GIS is an integrated software/hardware framework for the
access of geospatial data and services through mobile devices via
wireline or wireless networks.” [http://map.sdsu.edu/publications/Tsou2-CaGIS-
final-short.pdf]



 Mobile GIS can be taken as a sub new research area in Web GIS
 Address issues such as….
     - moving      client side
     - wireless internet
     - limited hardware resources in moving client side
                                 GIS for Location Based Services
Mobile GIS Architecture

                                                                       Client:
                                                                       - Mobile GIS receiver
                                                                       - Positioning System
                                                                       - Mobile GIS software
                                                                       Server :
                                                                       - Geospatial data
                                                                       - GIS content server


 http://map.sdsu.edu/publications/Tsou2-CaGIS-final-short.pdf

 Similar to the traditional client/server architecture in Web GIS
 Use “ Thin Client” structure
                                     GIS for Location Based Services
Mobile GIS Applications


 Two major application areas:
       1. Location Based Services
       2. Field based GIS




                            GIS for Location Based Services
Mobile GIS Technologies for LBS
  LBS deals with cellular phones and vehicle
 based computers  Very diverse in nature




    Integrate the wireless Internet with GIS
    Two main technologies:
      1. WAP
      2. JAVA
                        GIS for Location Based Services
1. WAP based Mobile GIS

 Proposed by Wang Fangxiong and Jian Zhiyong
 Use WAP along with J2EE
             Mobile Client       Wireless network                       Internet   Server

                  WAP                                    WAP                       Web Server
              microbrowser /                            gateway
             J2ME application         WAP                               HTTP
                                                                                            RMI


                                      Mobile                                       Application
                                      Position                                       Server
 Four tier architecture              Center
                                                                  MLP

   1. Presentation tier - UI
   2. WAP service tier - WAP gateway +Web server                                    Spatial
                                                                                   Database

   3. Application tier – Application server
   4. Data service tier – Spatial database
                                GIS for Location Based Services
2. JAVA based Mobile GIS

     Proposed by Xiaoqing Zhou, Xinming Tang, Zhao Fan and
      Zhongping Wang
     Client side – J2ME
     Server side – J2EE
     Three tier architecture
       1. Client tier
       2. Web service tier
       3. Data tier



                        GIS for Location Based Services
Mobile GIS Technologies for Field
applications

 Need computationally intensive devices with large display
  screens.
      Ex : Pocket & Tablet PCs
                                                           ArcGIS Mobile (ESRI)
                                                           ArcPad (ESRI)
 Available Software :
                                                           MapInfo MapXtend
   - Cross platform
                                                           IntelliWhere
   - Independent of hardware devices                       (Intergraph )
                                                           Onsite


                         GIS for Location Based Services
Applicability for LBS




       Mobile GIS developed for LBS !




                   GIS for Location Based Services
                        Summary

 Introduction to LBS
 Introduction to GIS
 Different types of GIS (Desktop GIS, Web GIS, Mobile GIS)
       - Overview
       - Available Architectures
       - Available software / technologies
       - Applicability for LBS




                        GIS for Location Based Services
                                 References
 Stefan Steiniger, Moritz Neun and Alistair Edwardes, Foundations of Location Based
Services, CartouCHe1 - Lecture Notes on LBS, V. 1.0
 Geographic information system [online]. Available from:
 Wikipedia < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system>
 Geographic information system (GIS) poster. Available from :
 < http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/ >
 Product overview [online]. Available from: < http://www.esri.com/products.html>
 Desktop GIS software for Hydrological Application [online]. Available from :
 < http://www.swhydro.arizona.edu/archive/V3_N3/featurette2.pdf>
 Geographic Resources Analysis Support System [online]. Available from:< http://grass.itc.it/>
 QGIS brochure [online]. Available from : < http://qgis.org/brochure/qgis_brochure_en.pdf>
 A.A. Alesheikh, H.Helali, H.A.Behroz, Web GIS: Technologies and Its Applications,
Symposium on Geospatial Theory, Processing and Applications, Ottawa 2002
 Hussein Helali, Design and Implementation of a Web GIS for the City of Tehran, Master’s
Thesis, Department Of Geodesy And Geomatics Engineering, K.N.Toosi University Of
Technology, September 2001

                                 GIS for Location Based Services
                                References
     Internet Map Services [online]. Available from :
    <http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/sig/internet-map-services.htm>
     Map Object Internet Map Server version 2 brochure [online]. Available from
    < http://www.esri.com>
     MapServer New Users [online]. Available from
      http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu/new_users
      Nimalika Fernando, Web GIS based Post -Tsunami Recovery Management tool for Sri
      Lanka, Master’s Thesis, Keele University, September 2006
      Li Luqun, Li Minglu, A Research on Development of Mobile GIS Architecture,
      Environmental Infomatics Archives, ISEIS 2004
      Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Integrated Mobile GIS and Wireless Internet Map Servers for
      Environmental Monitoring and Management,2004
     Ye Lei, Lin Hui, Which One Should be Chosen for the Mobile Geographic Information
      Service Now, WAP vs. i-mode vs. J2ME?, Springer Science, 2006
      Wang Fangxiong , Jiang Zhiyong, Research on A Distributed Architecture of Mobile
      GIS Based on Wap
      Xiaoqing Zhou, Xinming Tang, Zhao Fan, Zhongping Wang, Research of LBS Based
      on Java and An Application Solution
     ArcGIS Mobile brochure [online]. Available from: http://www.esri.com/arcgismobile
     ArcPad: Mobile GIS, An ESRI White Paper , September 2004
                                GIS for Location Based Services
QUESTIONS ???




  GIS for Location Based Services
THANK YOU !!!

				
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