Photography Timeline by L3DWv62W

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									Photography Timeline

   The Eriksen Version
              5th Century
• Greek philosophers describe the optical
  principles of the camera obscura
The camera obscura (Latin for 'dark room')

• is an optical device that projects an image of its
  surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing
  and for entertainment, and was one of the
  inventions that led to photography. The device
  consists of a box or room with a hole in one side.
• Light from an external scene passes through the
  hole and strikes a surface inside where it is
  reproduced, upside-down, but with color and
  perspective preserved.
• The image can be projected onto paper, and can
  then be traced to produce a highly accurate
  representation.
                   1553
• Giovanni Battista Porta publishes details
  of construction and use of the camera
  obscura. It is first used to view solar
  eclipses
               1664-1666
• Isaac Newton discovers that white light is
  composed of different colors
               1725-1727
• Johann Heinrich Schulze discovers and
  experiments with the darkening action of
  light on mixtures of chalk and silver nitrate
                  1806
• William Hyde Wollaston invents the
  camera lucida
             Camera Lucida
• performs an optical superimposition of the
  subject being viewed upon the surface upon
  which the artist is drawing.
• The artist sees both scene and drawing surface
  simultaneously, as in a photographic double
  exposure. This allows the artist to duplicate key
  points of the scene on the drawing surface, thus
  aiding in the accurate rendering of perspective.
• At times, the artist can even trace the outlines of
  objects.
              1814-1826
• Joseph Nicéphore Niépce achieves his
  first photographic image with a camera
  obscura
  One of the two earliest known evidences of
photographic activity, taken by Nicéphore Niépce
       in 1825 by the heliograph process
                   1819
• John Herschel discovers the photographic
  fixative, hyposulfite of soda and coined the
  term photography.
                  1825
• Peter Mark Roget demonstrates the
  persistence of vision with his Thaumatrope
                 Thaumatrope
• is a toy that was popular in Victorian times. A disk or
  card with a picture on each side is attached to two
  pieces of string. When the strings are twirled quickly
  between the fingers the two pictures appear to combine
  into a single image due to persistence of vision.

• Roget, who used one to demonstrate persistence of
  vision to the Royal College of Physicians in London in
  1824. He based his invention on ideas of the astronomer
  John Herschel and the geologist William Henry Fitton.

• The coined name translates roughly as "wonder turner"
  in modern Greek.
                  1826
• Joseph Nicéphore Niépce uses bitumen of
  Judea for photographs on metal, makes
  the first successful camera photograph on
  a pewter plate: »View From My Window at
  Gras« - a direct positive he called a
  »heliograph«. Exposure was
  approximately eight hours.
View From My Window at Gras
                 1832-33
• Image animation novelties Phenakistoscope
  and Zoetrope invented
                  1837
• Daguerre's first daguerreotype
             Daguerreotype
• in which the image is exposed directly onto a
  mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a
  coating of silver halide particles deposited by
  iodine vapor.
• In later developments bromine and chlorine
  vapors were also used, resulting in shorter
  exposure times.
• The daguerreotype is a negative image, but the
  mirrored surface of the metal plate reflects the
  image and makes it appear positive in the
  proper light.
• Thus, daguerreotype is a direct photographic
  process without the capacity for duplication.
                  1840
• Alexander Wolcott issued first American
  patent in photography for his camera
                  1846
• Carl Zeiss opens optical
  instrument factory in Germany

• First known photograph, a
  daguerreotype, is taken of
  The White House and
  President (Polk) and First
  Lady by John Plumbe, Jr.
                  1856
• Photojournalism of Crimean War by Roger
  Fenton, James Robertson, and Carol
  Popp de Scathmari

• Thomson takes the first underwater
  photograph at a depth of 5 feet
          Photojournalism
• is a particular form of journalism (the
  collecting, editing, and presenting of news
  material for publication or broadcast) that
  creates images in order to tell a news
  story.
• It is now usually understood to refer only
  to still images, and in some cases to video
  used in broadcast journalism or for
  personal use.
                 1871
• Pigeons used to carry micro photographed
  messages across enemy lines in Franco-
  Prussian War.
                    1872
• John W. Hyatt begins manufacturing
  celluloid with the intention of
  manufacturing billiard balls, which until
  that time were made from ivory.
              Muybridge
• begins photographic motion studies and
  continues project until 1887; the first
  photographs are of a horse in motion
                    Platinotype
• are photographic prints made by a monochrome printing
  process that provides the greatest tonal range of any
  printing method using chemical development.

• Unlike the silver print process, platinum lies on the paper
  surface, while silver lies in a gelatin or albumen emulsion
  that coats the paper. As a result, since no gelatin
  emulsion is used, the final platinum image is absolutely
  matte with a deposit of platinum (and/or palladium, its
  sister element which is also used in most platinum
  photographs) absorbed slightly into the paper.[1]
                          1873
• The platinotype process is patented by
  Willis in England




     Before development          After development
                1888
• Eastman markets the Kodak camera and
  roll film-
• "You Press The Button and We Do The
  Rest."
                 1889
• George Eastman applies for patent on
  motion-picture roll film
                   1891
• The first telephoto lenses begin to appear
                 1893
• Thomas Alva Edison patents the
  kinetoscope
               Kinetoscope
• The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture
  exhibition device. Though not a movie
  projector—it was designed for films to be viewed
  individually through the window of a cabinet
  housing its components—the Kinetoscope
  introduced the basic approach that would
  become the standard for all cinematic projection
  before the advent of video.
• It creates the illusion of movement by conveying
  a strip of perforated film bearing sequential
  images over a light source with a high-speed
  shutter.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetoscope
                 1900
• First mass-marketed camera, The Brownie
• is the name of a long-running and extremely
  popular series of simple and inexpensive
  cameras made by Eastman Kodak.
• The Brownie popularized low-cost photography
  and introduced the concept of the snapshot. The
  first Brownie, introduced in February, 1900,[1]
  was a very basic cardboard box camera with a
  simple meniscus lens that took 2¼-inch square
  pictures on 117 rollfilm.
• With its simple controls and initial price of $1, it
  was intended to be a camera that anyone could
  afford and use, leading to the popular slogan,
  "You push the button, we do the rest."
• The camera was named after the popular
  cartoons created by Palmer Cox.
                  1904
• The Lumiere brothers announce the
  production of Autochrome plates for
  making camera images in full color
                   1913
• Eastman Kodak Company establishes first
  industrial photographic research laboratory
                1935
• Eastman Kodak markets Kodachrome film
               Kodachrome
• is the trademarked brand name of a type of color
  reversal film that was manufactured by Eastman
  Kodak from 1935 to 2009.
• Kodachrome was the first successfully mass-
  marketed color still film using a subtractive
  method, in contrast to earlier additive
  "screenplate" methods such as Autochrome and
  Dufaycolor, and remained the oldest brand of
  color film.
• On June 22, 2009 Eastman Kodak Co.
  announced the end of Kodachrome production,
  citing declining demand.
                 1948
• Edwin Land markets the Polaroid camera
               Digital Cameras
The first recorded attempt at building a digital camera
was in 1975 by Steven Sasson, an engineer at Eastman
Kodak.
 It used the then-new solid-state CCD image sensor
chips developed by Fairchild Semiconductor in 1973.
The camera weighed 8 pounds (3.6 kg), recorded black
and white images to a cassette tape, had a resolution of
0.01 megapixels (10,000 pixels), and took 23 seconds to
capture its first image in December 1975. The prototype
camera was a technical exercise, not intended for
production.
                   1987
• Eastman Kodak enters the electronic still-
  video market with seven products for
  recording, storing, manipulating,
  transmitting and printing electronic still
  video images
                 1988
• Sony and Fuji announce new digital
  cameras
•
  Eastman Kodak announces a 4 megapixel
  CCD
•
  PhotoMac is the first image manipulation
  program available for the Macintosh
  computer
                 1990
• Adobe Photoshop 1.0 (TM) is the second
  professional image manipulation program
  available for Macintosh computers
•
  Eastman Kodak prototypes an electronic
  camera back designed for the needs of
  photojournalists
                  1993
• Adobe Photoshop is available for MS-
  DOS/Windows platforms
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