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					Brownfield / Landfill
  Contaminated Lands
Topics for Discussion
 • Brownfield Discussion
    –   Definition
    –   Background
    –   Funding & Limited Liability
    –   Regulations

 • Gas Detection
    –   Overview
    –   Engineering Requirements
    –   Equipment
    –   Placement
  Brownfield/Landfill Applications
        What is a Brownfield according to EPA
• “…..real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or
  reuse of which may be complicated by the presence
  of a hazardous substance, pollutant or
• This includes sites contaminated by
  – Controlled substances
  – Petroleum or petroleum
  – Mine-scarred lands
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
idled or under-utilized
commercial or industrial
facilities where expansion
or redevelopment is
complicated by real or
perceived environmental
contamination –
properties with the
potential to become
thriving industrial,
commercial or residential
Brownfield/Landfill Applications

Brownfield Properties
•Estimated 500,000 in the
United States
•Most sites known by
community and not listed
•Brownfields in every
county, urban and rural
  Brownfield/Landfill Applications
In 1994 US EPA responded with
an approach that paved the way
for innovative and creative ways to
assess, clean up, and redevelop
brownfields sites. The 2002 Small
Business Liability Relief and
Brownfields Revitalization Act
expands potential federal financial
assistance for brownfields
revitalization, including grants for
assessment, cleanup and job
    Brownfield/Landfill Applications
•   Post-closure Land Use/Residential &
    Commercial Development of former
    disposal sites
•   Safety regulations (OSHA) drive industrial
    requirements for monitoring hazardous
    conditions (Petroleum and natural gas
    industry), which drove sensor technology
•   Combustible gas monitoring applied in
    industrial settings for safety purposes
•   Combustible gas monitoring applied in
    residential and commercial settings due to
    27 CCR Landfill Gas Monitoring and
    Control requirements and Brownfield and
    industrial development
  Brownfield/Landfill Applications
 Reasons for Brownfield Growth – Title II Government Funding

• Funding
   – $200 million per year (thru “06)
   – Site assessment and cleanup
   – $50 million may be used for
     sites with petroleum
• Liability Clarification
   – Provides Superfund Liability to
     owners, purchasers and
     innocent landowners
Brownfield/Landfill Applications

Structure Gas Monitoring Requirements in 27 CCR
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
     Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR

 •    Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 258.23) Explosive Gas
 •    State Regulations (27 CCR Article 6)
 •    27 CCR Gas Monitoring & Control Regulations
       –   20919.5 (a) 1 Explosive Gas Control.
       –   20921 Gas M&C During Closure/PC
       –   20931 Structure Monitoring
       –   20934 Reporting
       –   20937 Control
       –   21190 Post-closure Land Use
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
      Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR

  •   27 CCR 20919.5 (a) 1 Explosive Gas Control “…owners…must
      ensure that: (1) The concentration of methane gas generated by a
      (MSWLF) facility does not exceed 25 percent of the LEL for
      methane in facility structures…”
  •   20921 (a) (1) requires that “…The concentration of methane gas
      must not exceed 1.25% by volume in air within on-site structures…”
  •   20931(a) “…monitoring network design shall include provisions for
      monitoring on site structures, including but not limited to buildings,
      subsurface vaults, utilities or other areas where potential gas
      buildup would be of concern…”
    Brownfield/Landfill Applications
         Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR

•   20931(c) “…Structures located on top the waste disposal area shall be
    monitored on a continuous basis..”
•   20934 (a)(1) “…monitoring reports shall include: (1) the concentrations of
    the methane….within each on-site structure…”
•   20937 (a)(3) “…the documentation of date, time, barometric pressure,
    atmospheric pressure, general weather conditions and probe pressures…
•   ” 20937 Control (d) “…When the results of monitoring in on site structures
    indicate levels in excess of those specified in Section 20923(a), the operator
    shall take appropriate action to mitigate the effects of landfill gas
    accumulation in on site structures, and public health and safety, shall
    include one or more of the following:…(4) Alarms, …
    (5) Ignition source control…(7) Ventilation…”
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
     Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR

 •   27 CCR 21190 a) Proposed PCLUs (Post Closure Land Use)
     shall be designed and maintained to: …(3) prevent landfill gas
 •   27 CCR 21190 e) “…Construction of structural improvements on
     top of landfilled areas…shall meet the following conditions:…(1)
     automatic methane gas sensors, designed to trigger an audible
     alarm when methane concentrations are detected, shall be
     installed in all buildings…”
 •   27 CCR 21190 e) (8) periodic methane gas monitoring shall be
     conducted inside all buildings…”
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
        Structure Gas Monitoring
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
        Structure Gas Monitoring
Brownfield/Landfill applications
     Gas Measures at PCLU projects
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
      Typical Gas Detection System on Brownfield
   Brownfield/Landfill Applications
Brownfield / Landfill Gas Detection
 Methane & other Toxic gases from
 unused industrial sites may, if
 undetected, pose a potentially serious
 threat to anyone living or working
 nearby. It is essential that such risk be
 minimized by the use of continuous
 and accurate gas monitoring within the
 Sierra Monitor has a solution for
 buildings constructed on Brownfield
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
    Typical Gases Found and Require Monitoring

•    Combustible Gas (methane typically)
•    Ammonia
•    Carbon Monoxide
•    Chlorine
•    Hydrogen Sulfide
•    Nitrous Oxides
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
     Products Used in Detection of Gases

   Sentry System                 IT Series

     4-20mA                      Alarm Only
Brownfield/Landfill Applications

  ↑ Elevator Shaft Sensor ↓   House IR Sensor in Ceiling

                              Vent Riser, % by Volume IR
Brownfield/Landfill Applications

 ↑ Hard Ceiling Mounted Sensor ↓   Acoustic Ceiling Mounted Sensor

                                     8 Channel Sentry Controller
Brownfield/Landfill Applications
                   Location of Landfill Gas Monitors
    Landfill gas monitors are typically placed in three types of locations at or near
    landfills; these are subsurface, surface, or enclosed space. The three types
    of monitoring locations address different landfill gas concerns and can be
    used either alone or together in a sampling program. Note that these systems
    generally do not measure landfill gas levels at points of human exposure.

•   Subsurface Systems—Subsurface systems measure concentrations of
    contaminants in the soil gas at locations beneath the soil-air interface. The
    depth of sampling can range from a few inches to many feet below the
•   Surface Systems—Surface systems measure concentrations of gas within a
    couple of inches above the soil-air interface.
•   Enclosed Space Systems—Enclosed space systems monitor gases in
    indoor air or confined areas overlying or adjacent to landfills, such as
    buildings, subsurface vaults, utilities, or any other spaces where the
    potential for gas buildup is of concern.
    Brownfield/Landfill Applications

                    Gas Sensor Placement Overview

•   Any accessible confined spaces near a landfill where a 5-15% LEL-UEL
    condition would most likely occur
•   Structures on or within 1000 feet of the landfill (homes, buildings,
    warehouses, etc)
•   Basements, sub-floors and raised foundations
•   Utility systems: manholes, vaults, boxes and subsurface trenches, storm
    drains, water & electrical distribution in the vicinity or through the disposal
•   Utility closets, mechanical rooms, bathrooms (utility penetrations)
•   Water wells, excavations (pools)

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