Instructional Strategies to Increase Learning by pptfiles

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									       Module 4-D
Instructional Strategies to
    Increase Learning
         TED 367
     Methods in Sec. Ed.
                  Reading
• Read the following in the Duplass
  textbook:
  – Unit 5 (topics 21-25) Instructional Approaches
  – Unit 6 (topics 26-36) Methods
      Instructional Strategies to
          Increase Learning
• Organizing Information into Concepts
• Bridging Student Understanding
• Visual Tools
           Introduction
                                    Fits info. into
                                    schema.
                                    Learning has
                                    taken place.


  New
Stimulus


            Brain searches
            existing networks to    Irrelevant,
            find a place where      not useful,
            new information fits.   unimportant,
                                    nonsensical
                                    data gets
                                    discarded.
             Introduction
• Remember the Magical Number (Miller,
  1956):

     Memory span of young adults
     was found to be 7 ± 2 elements
     (chunks) regardless of whether
     the elements were digits, letters,
     words, or other units.
              Introduction
• Let’s look at some strategies to increase
  learning.
Organizing Information into
        Concepts
           Chunking
      List, Group, Label
   Comparing and Contrasting
                Chunking
• Chunking (also known as clustering)
  involves organizing information into larger
  units of information to aid in remembering
  and to support understanding (fit into
  existing neural networks).
                       Chunking
9 individual planets       Groupings of planets
• Mercury                  • Terrestrial:
• Venus                       –   Mercury
• Earth                       –   Venus
                              –   Earth
• Mars                        –   Mars
• Jupiter                  • Jovian:
• Saturn                      –   Jupiter
• Uranus                      –   Saturn
• Neptune                     –   Uranus
• Pluto                       –   Neptune
                           • Ice:
                              – Pluto
               3 Parts of a PC
          (As Seen from Inside PC)
Storage
Devices
                                   Motherboard
                                 (Microprocessor,
                                   cards, RAM
                                    memory)




Power Supply
        List, Group, and Label
1. Teacher asks the students as a group to come
   up with examples of something. Teacher lists
   these on the chalkboard.
2. Teacher asks the students if there are some
   ways to organize the items on the list into
   logical groups (either in dyads or as a group).
• Teacher guides the class into understanding
   the structure of the concept by reorganizing
   the material in a table with labels.

                           (Hilda   Tabb, 1971)
   Comparing and Contrasting
• Locate and record the similarities and
  differences between items.
Bridging Student
 Understanding
     Analogies
 Mnemonic Devices
     Scaffolding
 Advance Organizers
                     Analogies
• All learning requires a bridge from an existing
  idea to a new idea.
• These strategies provides a frame of reference,
  a link to prior knowledge (something familiar),
  and creates a context, a conceptualization for
  new learning.




Existing Knowledge                      New Idea
                Analogies
• “She is a real prima donna!” or “He is a
  real Don Juan!” or “You are a Brutus.”

   If these were said about someone,
   would the impressions you formed
   about the person stay with you longer
   than if an analogy had not been used?
                Analogies
• Parallel construction
• Analogies have:
  – Topic.
  – Characters.
  – A vehicle.
  – Vehicle characters.
Analogy Construction
   Analogies




  Is
like
              Analogies
• If Earth were 24 hours old, dinosaurs
  would have existed about 1 hour ago, and
  humans began about 5 seconds ago.
               Analogies
• If our solar system was shrunk to a length
  of 1 mile and located in Dallas, PA, how
  far would you have to travel before you
  reached the nearest star?
        Mnemonic Devices
• Mnemonic devices help students
  remember information that has no
  connection to prior knowledge.
         Mnemonic Devices
• My Very Educated   •   Huron      • The
  Mother Just        •   Ontario      country of
  Served Us Nine     •   Michigan     Italy looks
  Pizzas.                             like a boot.
                     •   Erie
                     •   Superior
             Scaffolding
• Scaffolding instruction moves
  students carefully from what they know
  to what they don’t know.
       Scaffolding Example
1. The teacher starts with something
   that is familiar and within the
   students’ capacity.
  • In English class: ask students who the
    good and bad guys were in the movie
    Gladiator.
2. The teacher relates this knowledge to
   new knowledge by using metaphors,
   examples, and demonstration.
  • Draw an analogy to characters in
    Macbeth.
         Scaffolding Example
3. The teacher marks critical features of the
   ideas presented by students and models
   the comparison process.
4. The teacher then shifts the burden for
   learning to the students.
  •   Ask students to compare the characteristics
      and motives of characters from Gladiator
      and Macbeth, allowing students to direct the
      discussion.
           Advance Organizers
1. Advance Organizer
  –   Start the lesson by asking if
      the president of the United
      States is a “head of state,”
      what is a head of state, and
      so on and providing a
      definition along the way.
  –   The graphic organizer
      would be introduced to
      graphically depict some
      examples.
        Advance Organizers
2. Progressive Differentiation. The
   teacher examines and defines each of
   the cells in the graphic organizer so that
   they can be understood independently.
3. Integrative Reconciliation. The teacher
   examines the relationships between the
   cells.
   Visual Tools
   Thinking Process Maps
        Venn Diagrams
Discipline-specific Organizers
    Advance Organizers
     Visual Learning Log
              Visual Tools
• Benefits:
  – Helps students change their misconceptions.
  – Helps students organize and represent their
    thoughts.
  – Aids students to connect new knowledge to
    past experiences.
  – Helps students develop concepts (classify
    thoughts into smaller number of categories).
        Thinking Process Maps
•   General procedure:
    1. Identify important concepts in material being
       studied [circle them].
    2. Rank the concepts from general to specific.
    3. Arrange concepts on paper and connect
       related ideas with lines.
Thinking Process Maps




       Primary Concept
           Venn Diagrams
  Items                     Items
 unique                    unique
   to A.                     to B.




 Items
common
to both.
  Discipline-specific Organizers
• Biology: Life-cycle diagrams.
• Math: Decision trees.
• Reading: Text structures.
        Visual Learning Log
• Students keep a graphic log of what they
  have learned.
Using Music/Video
           Some Benefits of Music
             in the Classroom
• Establish a positive             • Improve memory.
  learning atmosphere.             • Facilitate a multisensory
• Build a sense of learner           learning experience.
  anticipation.                    • Help students release
• Energize learning                  tension.
  activities.                      • Enhance imagination.
• Change learner brain             • Provide inspiration and
  wave state.                        motivation.
• Help focus concentration.        • Add fun.
• Help increase attention.         • Provide content
                                     information.

From Music and Learning by Chris
Brewer, 1995.
 Improve Concentration and Focus
• Music stabilizes mental, physical, and
  emotional rhythms.
• Music helps learners attain a state of deep
  concentration and focus in which large
  amounts of content information can be
  processed and learned.
 Improve Concentration and Focus
• Especially effective:
  – Baroque music (Bach, Handel, Telemann)
    that is 50 to 80 beats per minute creates an
    atmosphere of focus that leads students into
    deep concentration in the alpha brain wave
    state.
Student Attitude and Motivation
• With music, a teacher can influence
  students attitudes and motivation to learn.
• Carefully selected music can:
  – Create a positive learning atmosphere.
  – Help students to feel welcome to participate in
    the learning experience.
      Setting the Atmosphere
• Play music as students enter/leave the
  classroom can totally change the
  atmosphere.
  – Enliven (perk up students when they are
    weary).
  – Calm and peace (when students are over-
    energized in some way).
  – Establish a theme.
  – Give students content information.
Music for Focus and Concentration
• Play as background music while students
  study, read, or write to:
  – Increase attention levels.
  – Improve retention and memory.
  – Extend focused learning time.
  – Expand thinking skills.


Example: Canon in D (Pachelbel)
Music for Creativity and Reflection
• Play as background for activities such as:
  – Journaling or writing.
  – Problem-solving or goal-setting.
  – Background for project work.
  – Brainstorming.



Example: Selections by Mozart
 Music for Welcoming Students
• Play as background for entries, exits,
  breaks. Use to:
  – Greet your students.
  – Create a welcoming atmosphere.
  – Set a learning rhythm.



Example: Four Seasons (Vivaldi)
          Music for a Break
• Use for a sound break or movement
  activities to:
  – Increase productivity.
  – Energize students during daily energy lulls.
  – Provide a stimulating sound break to increase
    attention.
  – Encourage exercise/movement.

Examples: Fun songs like…
Wooly Booly, YMCA, The Twist
   Improve Memory of Facts and
             Details
• Improve memory of facts and details
  through songs, chants, poems, and raps
  through rhyme, rhythm, and melody.
  – Either teach this music to students OR have
    them write their own music.
  Schoolhouse Rock



SchoolhouseRock.TV
Content Songs


  Multiplication Rap
   (Teacher Tube)



 SongsForTeaching.com
Fifty, Nifty United States


      Fifty, Nifty U.S.
         (YouTube)
               Review:
             MODULE 4-D
• Organizing Information into Concepts
  – Chunking
  – List, Group, Label
  – Comparing and Contrasting
• Bridging Student Understanding
  – Analogies
  – Mnemonic Devices
  – Scaffolding
  – Advance Organizers
                Review:
              MODULE 4-D
• Visual Tools
  – Thinking Process Maps
  – Venn Diagrams
  – Discipline-specific Organizers
  – Visual Learning Log
• Using Music/Video

								
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