Terrorist Organisation Country (base) Years of Leader Objectives Methods
IRA Ireland 1913-22 Michael Collins An independent Irish Republic Took part in Easter Rising in
The Irish Volunteers - - ‘equal rights and equal Dublin, 1916 and guerrilla Civil
Irish Republican Army opportunities for all Irish people’. War with British.
Irgun / Stern Gang Palestine 1931-48 Avaham Tehomi & Remove the British from Bomb explosion at the King
Menachen Begin. Palestine; suppress Arab David Hotel, Jerusalem, HQ of
nationalism; create an Israeli state British, July 1946.
ETA Spain & France 1958 - An independent Basque state in Bombs, kidnapping, shootings.
Euskadi ta Askatsuna Present northern Spain and south-west Eg. murder of Spanish PM
Basque Fatherland & France Blanco in 1970s, attempt to kill
Liberty King Juan Carlos, 1995. Have
killed almost 800 people.
The Red Army Faction West Germany 1960s - Andreas Baader, ‘Violence in the service of the Bombings, assassinations,
Baader-Meinhof Gang 1998 Ulrike Meinhof, class struggle’. robberies. Eg. kidnapping &
Gudrun Ensslin. murder of Hans-Martin Schleyer
FARC Colombia 1964 - Manuel Marulanda Overthrow of the capitalist Kidnapping, murder, bombs,-
Revolutionary Armed Present Velez system in Colombia, replacing it but also full-scale battles – has
Forces of Colombia with a communist government, 12,000 armed members.
redistribution of land and wealth Involved in drug trade.
PLO ‘Palestinian 1964 - Yasser Arafat, Initially destroying the state of Bombings, hi-jacking airliners,
Palestinian Liberation Authority’ Present Israel, later the building of an attacks on Jewish settlements.
Organisation independent Palestinian state.
The Red Brigades Italy 1969-84? ‘Violence in the service of class Kidnapping & murder of
Brigatte Rosse warfare and revoluton’. politicians and businessmen.
Eg. killing of ex-Prime Minister
Aldo Moro in 1978
The Shining Path Peru Late Abimael Guzman, Overthrow Peruvian Government Bombs, kidnapping, murder,
Sendero Luminoso 1960s - Oscar Ramierez and replace it with socialist robberies, extortion, drug
Present Durand, system run by native Peruvian trafficking.
Judith Ramos Indians – free of class and race Have killed upto 12,000 people.
Provisional IRA Ireland & UK 1969- Removal of British from Northern Bombs in pubs and hotels (eg.
The Provos Present Ireland, establishing single united Birmingham, 1974 & Brighton,
Ireland, governed by military 1984), car-bombs, ambushes,
council. intimidation, extortion,
robberies, organising riots.
Japanese Red Army Japan 1970 – Fusako Shigenobu Unclear – generally anti- Hi-jacking airliners, robberies,
1990s imperialist views, but simply extortion, murder – have
committed to support other ruthless reputation.
terrorists particularly in Middle Eg. Lod Airport massacre in Tel
East. Aviv, Israel, May 1972.
Tamil Tigers Sri Lanka 1972 - Velupillai An independent Hindu Tamil Suicide bombers, hacking
The Liberation Tigers of Present Prabhakaran state in the north and east of villagers to death, assassinations
Tamil Eelam mainly Buddhist Sri Lanka (eg. Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi,
1991 & Sri Lankan President
HAMAS ‘Palestine’ 1978 – Sheik Ahmed The creation of an independent Riots, hit squads, Intifada,
Harakat al-Muqawamah Present Yassin Islamic territory of Palestine, suicide bombings,
al-Islamiyya (peaceful ‘from the Red Sea to the banks of
(Islamic Resistance until the Jordan’.
Movement) 1987) (Rival of PLO)
Aum Supreme Truth Japan 1987 – Shoko Asahara A religious cult made up of Kidnapping and murder of
The Powers of 1995? people disillusioned by modern lawyers investigating Aum, use
Destruction & Creation in society, seeks revenge against a of nerve gas (eg. 2 Sarin gas
the Universe society which mocks it. attacks on Tokyo subway trains
in March 1995 – killed 12,
Al-Qaida Several, 1988 - Osama bin Laden The replacement of pro-Western Bomb attacks on US embassies
including Present governments in Islamic countries in Africa, boat-bomb attack on
Afghanistan, with radical Islamist parties; ‘USS Cole’, World Trade Center
Sudan The destruction of ‘repressive’ in 1993, September 11th attacks
US power worldwide. in 2001
Chechen terror groups Russia, 1999 - Many different A free independent Chechnya – Hi-jackings, bombs (eg. 300
Chechnya Present groups currently occupied by Russia. killed in Russian apartment
However many appear to have block attacks 1999), hostage
criminal objectives too. taking (eg. Moscow theatre
2002, Beslan school 2004).
Abu Nidal Palestine 1974-? Abu Nidal Replace Israel with free Palestine
Contras Nicaragua 1980s Various Overthrow Sandinista Govt. Supported by CIA
Action Directe France 1960s-? Attack Socialist Govt Assassination, bombs
Egyptian Islamic Jihad Egypt 1979-98 Abdel Salam Faraj Islamist Govt. for Egypt Murder of President Sadat, 1981
- merged with Al-Qaida, 1998
FMLN El Salvador 1980-92 Overthrow pro-US Govt. Turned to peaceful politics, ‘92
Fretelin Indonesia 1974-01 Independence for East Timor
Hizbollah (Party of God) Lebanon 1982 - Islamist rule in Lebanon; attacks Suicide bombers, murders, open
Islamic Jihad Present on US/Israeli imperialism warfare – has 40,000 troops
INLA (Irish National Ireland & UK 1974 Hugh Torney Remove British from Ulster – Assassination, bombing,
Liberation Army)-IPLO create socialist govt. of Ireland murder, extortion, robberies
Jaish-I-Mohammad India 1999-? Maulana Azhar Independent Islamic Kashmir Hi-jacking, murder
Jemaah Islamiyah Malaysia, Late Abu Bakar Introduction of Islamic Sharia Bali nightclub bomb, Oct 2002
Indonesia 1970s - Law to Indonesia and
Present neighbouring countries
KLA –Kosovo Serbia, Albania 1995 - Various Independent state for Kosovan Had upto 20,000 men in
Liberation Army Present Muslims Kosovan War
PKK – Kurdistan Turkey, Iraq 1978 - Abdullah Ocalan Independent Kurdish state in May have upto 10,000 members,
Workers’ Party Present eastern Turkey/northern Iraq fought Saddam Hussein
LNM – Lebanese Lebanon 1976-80 Kamal Jumblatt Political reform in Lebanon;
National Movement Supported PLO’s aims
MRTA – Movimento Peru 1983 - A communist system for Peru. Seized Japanese Embassy in
Revolucionario Tupac Present Lima, for 4 months, Dec 1996 to
Amaru April 1997
M19 – Movimento 19 Colombia 1974-90 Seized Dominican Republic
Abril Embassy, 1990
PFLP –Popular Front for Palestine 1967 - George Habash, Free independent Palestine Hi-jackings, murders, bombs
the Liberation of Palestine Present Waddi Haddad,
Red Hand Commando Northern Ireland 1970s-? Maintain British rule in Ulster Murder, extortion, intimidation
UDA – Ulster Northern Ireland 1971 - Maintain British rule in Ulster Murder, pipe-bombs, extortion,
Defence Association Present intimidation
UNITA Angola 1966 - Promoting ‘Africanist’ ideals of Fought civil war against Govt.
Present ethnic and rural rights
UVF – Ulster Northern Ireland 1970s-? Maintain British rule in Ulster Murder, extortion, intimidation