Great Coal Strike

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No. 201                                                                                                                                   :~:.m
                                                                                                                                                                         (;fI/II '                                                25¢
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       14 April 1978

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        .IbltCrisIs oJ Leadersblll
                                                                                                                                                                                                      >~~~~ ....      dhi1hn Biair/LialS0n
Miners marching in memory of John Hull, the Patoka, Indiana striker killed by company thugs February 3.

   The 1977-7'1', coal strike was the most                                                         (UMWA) threw back a second take-             1960's. The operators had been gearing       from the companies. Among the district
explosive political event in the recent                                                            away "tentative agreement," the bour-        up for this confrontation ever since the     leaders there is no one who put forward
history of the American working class.                                                             geoisie suddenly realized it had a tiger     summer of 1975: coal stockpiles in early     a strategy to win the strike, to protect
Jimmy Carter tried to "cool it" for                                                                by the tail. In a panic Carter invoked       December were at a record high,              and extend the gains the UMWA has
almost three months, the big business                                                              Taft-Hartley. state cops began riding        production from non-union mines was          won in the pasi through struggles as
press did its best to keep it off the front                                                        shotgun on scab coal trucks and federal      mounting rapidly, and the companies          bitter as this one. But the settlement,
pages, and the big wheels of the labor                                                             agents swarmed through coal country          tried to demoralize the miners by            while a setback, is only a ceasefire, not a
movement turned their backs on the                                                                 arrogantly serving their poisonous           provoking a wildcat over medical care         rout. Newsweek (7 April) understood
miners until the strike threatened to                                                               injunctions. Yet it was not the cops.       last summer.                                 this vital fact, headlining its wrap-up
close down the heartland of U.S.                                                                   courts, coal operators and capitalist                                                     story, "The Miners' Bitter Truce." So
                                                                                                                                                   On the eve of the contract strike
industry and freeze out the East-Central                                                           politicians who finally forced the miners                                                 did Jimmy Carter with his plans for a
                                                                                                                                                BCOA head Joseph Brennan was
states. But down at the base, in the ranks                                                         back. The treachery of the UMW A                                                          government investigation of "produc-
                                                                                                                                                threatening that "The UMWA is not
of u.s. labor, millions of workers                                                                  leadership and the absence of a class-                                                   tivity" and "labor stability" in the mines.
                                                                                                                                                the only game in town." The companies
followed the miners' struggle with avid                                                             struggle alternative were what did in the                                                 Both the miners and the bosses realize
                                                                                                                                                figured they would starve out the
attention and sympathy. While the                                                                   strike, as many miners saw the hopeless                                                  there are hard battles ahead.
                                                                                                                                                "strike-happy" miners, who would
 UA W did nothing in the face of 300,000                                                            prospect of endlessly voting against        crawl back chastened after a debilitating
layoffs in the depths of the 1974-76                                                                sellout contracts handed them by                                                         Class War in the Coalfields
                                                                                                                                                strike and accept miserable terms. Yet
depression; while New York City unions                                                              Arnold Miller & Co. What is most            the miners refused to knuckle under.           The Great Coal Strike of 1978 was as
threw in the towel during the bank-                                                                 galling is that the miners' tenacity         Eighty thousand of them struck for 10       harsh as the winter in which it took
manipulated "fiscal crisis," and "rebel"                                                            brought them so close to winning            weeks in last summer's health card           place. Because of this it exposed the
steel union bureaucrats meekly accepted                                                             despite their despicable misleaders.        wildcat, and during the contract strike      realities of the class struggle with a
extension of the hated ENA no-strike                                                                   In the end the coal strikers went back   they used their traditional roving           clarity seldom experienced in this
 pact, the coal diggers out in the                                                                  to the pits with a contract that is          pickets to shut down half of all non-       country of the great consensus and law
 Appalachians stood up and fought back.                                                             universally despised as a major step         union coal production in the country.       and order. Marxists have always said
They stopped a concerted offensive by                                                               backward for the UMW A. Finding no           With no one to mobilize opposition they     that laws are merely the expression of
 the operators that was supposed to                                                                 leadership among so-called "dissidents"      burned one contract proposal after          the balance of class forces. But when has
"teach them a lesson."                                                                              on the Bargaining Council, the ranks         another. It took 110 days to wear down      this been so vividly obvious as in
                                                                                                    finally accepted (with substantial oppo-     the miners' resistance and still the coal   Carter's ineffectual imposition of the
  Instead, with their unsurpassed
                                                                                                    sition and no illusions about what they      bosses didn't get their no-strike clause.   Taft-Hartley Act. The vast majority of
militancy the miners rocked the U.S.
                                                                                                    were getting) a contract which gave up       Even then 43 percent voted against the      U.S. union officials claim they can't
ruling class and inspired all of the rest of
                                                                                                    to the already profit-bloated energy         sellout, virtually the same proportion as   engage in militant tactics such as "hot-
the labor movement. The outpouring of
                                                                                                    trusts one of the major conquests of this    rejected Miller's 1974 contract (and the    cargoing" (boycotting) scab products
donations to the strikers and the appear-
                                                                                                     proud union. When it was over the           bosses know well how little "labor          because this is outlawed under T -H. But
ance of union-led caravans in the
                                                                                                     miners' cradle-to-grave health care         peace" that produced in the coalfields).    the miners proved it can be done. They
coalfields were actions unheard of in
                                                                                                     system was gone and they are now                                                        shut down non-union mines with their
recent decades. Bosses and union leaders                                                                                                           The United Mine Workers is in deep
                                                                                                     threatened with firing when they strike                                                 militant tactics while scab coal was
from one end of the country to the other                                                                                                        trouble. Its top leaders are known and
                                                                                                     over such life-and-death issues as mine                                                 dumped on the highways, coal barges
began to worry that their people might                                                                                                          despised as outright traitors to those
                                                                                                     safety.                                                                                 burned on the rivers and railroad
become infected with "miners fever." If                                                                                                         who elected them, Judases who might as
                                                                                                        But the UM WA membership did not
the lengthy 1969 G E strike and the 1970                                                                                                        well be getting their 30 pieces of silver                         continued on page 4
                                                                                                     return to the mine portals with its
postal strike-when Nixoncalled out the
                                                                                                     militancy broken. Far from it. At every
:\ational Guard in NYC--shocked the
                                                                                                     step they frustrated the major objective
country into realizing the class struggle
                                                                                                     of the Bituminous Coal Operators
was not dead, the impact soon wore off.
 But the coal miners' defiance of bosses,
government and union leaders alike
                                                                                                     Association (BeOA): to write into the
                                                                                                     contract provisions allowing the dismis-
                                                                                                     sal and penalization of strikers and
                                                                                                                                                      Frenzied ILWU Tops
could lead to a wave of labor militancy
that would be difficult to extinguish.
   After the 160,000 striking members of
                                                                                                     strike leaders. By this means the BCOA
                                                                                                     had hoped to put an end to the massive
                                                                                                     wildcat strikes which have swept
                                                                                                                                                      Attack Militants   3
 the United Mine Workers of America                                                                  through the Appalachians 'since the late
Racist Anti-Immigration
Furor in Britain
LONDON, ApriI8--ln an effort to rally
popular support for the next parliamen-
                                              as committed to harsh and racially
                                              discriminatory controls as are the

tary elections (expected in late 1978 or      Liberals and Tories. l.abour's sole
early next year) the opposition Conser-       response to Thatcher's outburst has
vative Party has sought to make               been to point to its own restrictive
exclusion of non-white immigrants its         measures and the fact that immigration
campaign hobby horse. Tory deputy             dropped some 25 percent in 1977 over
House of Commons leader William               the previous year as proof that the
Whitelaw. speaking at a party conven-         l.abour Party isn't "soft" on immigra-
tion in Leicester. announced Friday that      tion. Lahour Horne Secretary Merlyn
a future Conservative government              Rees defended his party's record proud-
would impose across-the-board quotas          ly, saying: "The exclusion figures speak
on immigration to Britain.                    for themselves." Responding to the
   Consenative Party leader Margaret          charge that "What you really mean is
 rhatcher had launched the racialist          that immigration control is a dC\ice to
uproar over the Liberal-Labour coali-         kecp out coloured people." Rees stated:
tion government's immigration policy in       "That is what it is .... I don't think we
a nationwide television address on            should hide from it and that's what
January 30. Thatcher demagogically            people are concerned ahout" ( Weekend
claimed that if present immigration            World. 4 February 1978).
policies continued, by the end of the
                                                 Thc current racial unrest in Britain
century Britain woulj be deluged by
                                              has a long history. Beginning in the late
some four million Pakistani or "New                                                          Margaret Thatcher speaking at recent Tory conference.
                                              1950's. a significant population inflow
Commonwealth" immigrants: "That is
                                              from the Caribbean and Indian subcon-          ployment. the situation is ripe for the      ers, around the ql1estion of foreign
an awful lot. and I think it means that
                                              tinent began. the result of the fact that      exacerbation of racism.                      imports, Thornett's 1977 campaign for
people are really rather afraid that this
                                              Commonwealth populations continued                Those leftists who continue to peddle     general secretary in the Transport and
country might be swamped by people of
                                              to hold British citizenship. Although the      illusions in the Labour Party or simply      General Workers Union avoided the
a different culture."
                                              Tories initially encouraged this immi-         indulge in rhetorical "fight back"           question entirely.
   Thatcher's ploy seems to have paid
                                              gration. widespread economic stagna-           verbiage cannot counter the increasing-
off. as a National Opinion Poll showed                                                                                                       But with consummate hypocrisy born
                                              tion in Britain resulted in a racialist        ly shrill cries that the immigrants are      of desperation, the WSL central leader-
that the Tories' popularity soared 13         backlash, highlighted by the Notting
percentage points following her speech.                                                      somehow to blame. So long as the             ship has recently decided to take up the
                                              Hill racial riot of 1958. In 1962 the first    working class continues to accept the        question of immigration as a factional
Further, the Conservative Party victory       of a series of increasingly restrictive
in the March bye-elections in Ilford                                                         framework of capitalist irrationality        weapon in order to attack the departed
                                              immigration acts was passed.                   and thus conceives of improving its own      Trotskyist Faction and the international
North. where they captured a former
Labour seat, was attributed by polls             Today, the overall non-white popu-          increasingly miserable condition""at the     Spartacist tendency (iSt). During the
directly to the fact that 48 percent of the   lation is just under three percent of the      expense of some other sector of the          last month, WSL leaders have dema-
voters who switched from Labour to            total population, and even differential        population, divisions within the work-       gogically attacked the iSt's Marxist
Tory were influenced by the immigra-          birth rates combined with continued            ing class are bound to grow.                 analysis of the immigration question at
tion issue.                                   levels of immigration will not shift this         Both the Labour Party leadership and      public meetings and in their press:
   This latest Tory carripaign occurs in a    dramatically by the turn of the century.       reputed Labour "left" M P's have amply           "This c,ombination of ultra-left postur-
                                              Britain's continuing economic crisis has       demonstrated their full collaboration in          ing with abject opportunism and rejec-
context of inc~casing racial polarisation                                                                                                      tion of any form of serious agitation for
and escalating violent clashes betwlen        acted to "naturally" discourage immi-          enforcing racialist policies. This was            the Trotskyist program in any country
the fascist National Front, wL~ h has         gration. In fact, the total population of      seen in the failure of the Labour and             in the world is the real essence of the
repeatedly organised provocative race-        Britain has actually dropped, as more          TUC [Trades Union Congress] official-             international Spartacist tendency.
                                              people are leaving the economically            dom to give more than grudging token              "It is reflected in their attitude to
hatred marches, and leftists and immi-                                                                                                         immigration laws--where 'left' denun-
grants. By making the issue their own         depressed country than are entering.           gestures of support to the largely Asian
                                                                                                                                               ciation of restrictions on immigration
the Conservatives are seeking to under-         The real reasons for the rise in racial      women strikers at Grunwicks last year.            are combined with grovelling capitula-
cut the increasingly active National          tensions and violence lie in the rotting       The Tribunites' call for protectionist            tion to the worst kinds of nationalism,
Front and right-wing demagogues like                                                         import quotas appeals to the same                 reminiscent of Tory leader Margaret
                                              fabric of social life in Britain. In the                                                         Thatcher.
Enoch Powell. Despite a series of             decaying inner cities, where "New              chauvinism. Only a revolutionary lead-
                                                                                                                                              '" ... on a sufficient scale immigration
militant strikes in the summer and            Commonwealth" immigrants are over-             ership, committed to a consistent                 flows only exacerbate national antago-
autumn, the ruling Lib-Lab coalition          whelmingly concentrated, Labour's              struggle against all the myriad forms of          nisms and in extreme cases could even
has managed to keep the lid on wage           austerity policies-particularly spend-         oppression in capitalist society, has the         wipe out the national identity of small
                                                                                             sapacity to mobilise the strength of              countries.' (Workers Vanliuard,
increases-- prompting the Tories to seek      ing cuts . are making life increasingly                                                          17.3.n)"
political advantage in the explosive area     miserable for the population. With             Britain's powerful trade-union move-
                                                                                                                                                     -"In Defence of a Revolutionarv
of race relations.                            deteriorating health, education and            ment to smash this racisn'l and national                  Orientation. Against Sectarian
   In fact, the Labour Party tops are just    housing conditions and rising unem-            chauvinism which seek to set worker                       Abstentionism," Socialist
                                                                                             against worker.                                           Press, 29 March 1978
                                                                                                                                          The WV article quoted from was
                                                                                             Workers Socialist League
                                                                                                                                          entitled "Racist Furor in Australia over
                                                                                             Attacks Leninist Immigration
                                                                                                                                          'Boat Peoplc'" (from the March 1978
                                                                                             Policy                                       Australasian Spartaeist). Readers of
                                                                                                In the aftermath of the recent split of   Soeialisl Press would not suspect that
                                                                                             the Trotskyist Faction from the right-       our article was an attack on the "white
                                                                                             centrist Workers Socialist League            Australia" policies of the labour bu-
                                                                                             (WSL) led by Alan Thornett (the              reaucracy. nor that the sentence which
                                                                                             Trotskyist Faction subsequently fused        so scandalises the WSL is directed
                                                                                             with the London Spartacist Group--see        against the utopian demand for doing
                                                                                             "Spartacist League Founded in Brit-          away with all immigration laws (and
                                                                                             ain." WV:"io. 198,24 March 1978), the        consequently borders) under capitaijsm.
                                                                                             WSL leadership has "discovered" the          Our article went on:
                                                                                             immigration question, an issue in which          "While aggressively opposing all forms
                                                                                             heretofore it has demonstrated little             of raciallv and nationallv discriminato-
                                                                                             interest.                                         ry quotas. communists' do not advise
                                                                                                With its narrow economist trade-               capitalist governments on their neces-
                                                                                                                                               sarily chauvinist and exploitative immi-
                                                                                             union orientation. the WSL had charac-           gration polin'. which opens and closes
                                                                                             teristically argued that the deep divi-           its portals in Ime with economic and
                                                                                             sions in the working class exacerbated            political expediency. We intransigently
                                                                                             by racialist immigration policies were           defend the rights of migrant workers
                                                                                                                                              "legal" or not against chauvll1ist
                                                                                             not a "burning question" and had                  persecution and deportation. We de-
                                                                                             consistently failed to address this issue         mand lull eitill:nship rights for all
                                                                                             programmatically in the unions. Like its          migrants,"
                                                                                             formal position against import controls.       M arcover. as we stated in "The
                                                                                             its position 011 immigration has been        Leninist Policy Toward Immigrationl
                                                                                             confined to its press- not carried           Emigration" (WI' 1\0. 36. 18 January
                                                                                             forward as a part of its actual interven-    1974). the fact:
                                                                                             tion in the working class. Despite the          "that \\e do not advocate the principle
                                                                      John Sturrock/Report
                                                                                             tangible chauvinism whipped up among             of unlimited immigration as an immedi-
Fascist National Front rIdes the latest wave of raclslhysterla under slogan
                                                                                             trade unionists. particularly car work-                          COlIl fillied Oil page X
"Britain for the British."
2                                                                                                                                                    WORKERS VANGUARD

After Sabotagmg Mine Solidariq Strike

FrenziedlLWU Tops Attack Militants
 OAKLAND, April 8-The 33rd annual                                                                                                     demand that the chair restore order.
 constitutional and contract convention                                                                                               Numerous militants from the floor
 of Local 6 (Bay Area warehouse) of the                                                                                               rushed to Mandel's defense, preventing
 International     Longshoremen's and                                                                                                 a physical assault from occurring.
 Warehousemen's Union (I LW U), held                                                                                                  Recognizing that sentiment was against
 here today, was systematically disrupted                                                                                             the goon attack, International
 by the union leadership itself. Feeling                                                                                              secretary-treasurer Curtis McClain
 the heat after having sabotaged an                                                                                                   hurriedly descended from the podium to
 International Executive Board (IEB)                                                                                                  direct the goons back to their seats.
 resolution for a one-day West Coast                                                                                                  Mandel denounced this deliberate
 dock shutdown in solidarity with the                                                                                                 attempt to quash dissidents and ended

 striking coal miners, IL WU officials                                                                                                by calling for rejection of the officers'
 from International president Jimmy                                                                                                   report.
 Herman on down spent most of the time                                                                                                   While Eickman paid verbal homage to
 frantically denouncing the Militant                                                                                                  "democracy," it was made clear that the
 Caucus (MC). Attempting to physically                                                                                                leadership approved of the intimida-
 intimidate the class-struggle opposition                                                                                             tion: the chair refused to grant Mandel
 with goon squads and at one point                                                                                                    extra speaking time to make up for the
 cutting off the floor microphones, the                                                                                               disruption, and Eickman later went out
 ILWU tops managed to antagonize a                                                                                                    of his way to announce the names of the
 good part of the Local 6 membership                                                                                                  official sergeants-at-arms for the
 present with their ham-handed tactics.                                                                                               convention-the same men who com-
    The message from the worried bu-                                                                                                  prised the original goon squad! This
 reaucrats was clear: they will fight                                                                                                 blatant threat led one outraged delegate
 tooth-and-nail against any "miners'                                                                                                  to get the floor later and (while making
                                             ILWU president Jimmy Herman
 fever" in the ILWU, especially in view of                                                                                            it clear he opposed the MC) denounce
 the upcoming longshore contract battle                                                                                               the use of "physical intimidation." The
 in June. But while Herman and his           obey the order of the NLRB to negotiate      Illinois strike in 1977. Woolston called    officers' report was quickly adopted on
 cronies won the votes at this rubber-       with Local 6 and reinstate the strik-        for voting down the officers' report.       a voice vote.
 stamp convention, they can no longer be     ers.... The Handyman strike [in which a         At this point perennial witchhunter         After praising his successor in the
 sure of acquiescence from the ranks.        picketer was killed by a scab] continued     Paul Heide--a retired former president      Local 6 presidency, Eickman launched
 Twice in recent months the ranks have       throughout 1977.... We gave them a           of Local 6---got up to boast about his      an attack against an unnamed "member
 rejected the leadership's reactionary       good fight for 14 months [at which point     membership in the Alameda County            of Local 6" who gave news releases to
 schemes in favor of the class solidarity    the leadership not only abandoned the        Democratic Party, denounced the Mili-       the press "even though he didn't have a
 policies advocated by the Militant          fight but refused to give the strikers       tant Caucus as "counterrevolutionar-        right to speak for the International or
 Caucus. Last fall workers at the Owens-     union membership]. ... A five-day strike     ies" (!), "employer agents" and "govern-    Local 6 or any other union body." This
 Illinois glass plant rejected the leader-   at Elmar Eiectronics, Sunnyvale in July      ment agents," said it was time to      crude hatchet job was obviously direct-
 ship's orders to cross molders' picket      was concluded when the company               "wipe it out." But his foam-flecked         ed at Mandel, who publicized the March
 lines. After the Me's denunciation of       started bringing in scabs, and some of       speech was simply embarrassing for the      10 IEB motion while Herman and Co.
 this criminal strikebreaking order given    the Local 6 strikers returned to             incumbent leadership, who would not         were trying to bury it. The latest issue of
 by business agent Joe Villegas, the East    work .... " In every case these strikes      permit him to make a motion.                "Longshore-Warehouse Militant" (6
  Bay membership voted to reverse the        were stabbed in the back by the Local 6         But when Bob Mandel, a Local 6           April) published by the Militant Caucus
 order and forced the scabherding            leaders' failure to mobilize the union in    Executive Board member and leader of        describes how the IL WU International
 Villegas' removal from office. Then last    their dlfense.                               the M C, began speaking, the union          bureaucrats tried to suppress their own
 month the East Bay membership reject-                                                    leadership went off the rails. Noting the   half-hearted motion:
 ed Local 6 president Keith Eickman's           Under political activities, Eickman       treachery of inviting the mayor and the         "Herman, who fought tooth and nail at
 Officers' Report, which opposed even        boasted that, "In Oakland Local 6            Democratic Party into the union con-            the IEB to prevent passage of the strike
                                             helped elect Mayor Lionel Wilson." He                                                        authorization, moved to suppress news
 the IEB's paper call for the one-day
 sympathy dock shutdown, and over 10         didn't mention, however, that Wilson's
                                             cops subsequently helped break the
                                                                                                            ouswr       1
                                                                                                                      1 HE
                                                                                                                                          of it leaking out. After Local 10
                                                                                                                                          president Larry Wing's public an-
 percent of the East Bay ranks signed an
  MC petition for the work stoppage.         picket lines of striking Blue Cross                             RAC%ST                       noun'cement of the IEB action at the
                                                                                                                                           March II S.F. miners solidarity coali-
    The IL WU bureaucracy made it clear
                                             workers! As for the proliferation of                       BUREAUCRATS                       tion meeting was carried on KPFA

 at the very beginning that this conven-
                                             houses with substandard wages and
                                             working conditions because they are not
                                                                                          iA             BUILD . A                        radio, and Local 6 general executive
                                                                                                                                          board member Bob Mandel and Local

                                                                                                                                           19 president Dick Moork were quoted
 tion would have no real power whatso-
 ever. After adoption of the agenda
                                             part of the master contract, Eickman         ::[NO         CLASS CONSCIOUS {                 by AP on March 13 regarding the
 Eickman rammed through a series of
                                             simply lied through his teeth asserting:
                                             "We do not have substandard houses in
                                                                                                            LEADERSHXP.·                  International's strike authorization call,
                                                                                                                                          Dan Beagle, editor of the [ILWU]
 outrageous      restrictions,  including:                                                       u~\.         :EN THE    '                 Dispatcher and Herman's hand-picked
 "delegates will not speak longer than
                                                                                          '~\'\G#\ \1 " .    UNIGNS ,                     flunkey, issued a lying denial to the
                                               Quick to grab the mike in the
                                                                                               . r~~.i';~\t MILITANT CAUCUS               press. He claims these statements were
 five minutes on anyone resolution" (a
 rule not applied to officers, of course);
 "all resolutions must be voted up or
                                             discussion period was business agent
                                             Joe Figueiredo, well-known supporter
                                             of the Communist Party (CP), who
                                                                                          n~SSf~t VAR.E.IfCMl.$! WION.
                                                                                          :\\~~~ jcR>'S:fhN1        !lr Union·
                                                                                                                              I 1         'erroneous' and that the IEB simply
                                                                                                                                          'gave the executive officers the authori-
                                                                                                                                          ty to look into that question of a
 down-no amendments to be accepted"                                                                                                       shutdown and other ways of helping the
 (to avoid getting "bogged down into         proclaimed his continued loyalty by                                                          mine workers.' This bulls hit was flatly
 details," .Eickman explained); and "all     praising the "excellent" officers' report.                                                   contradicted by statements of president
                                             (Throughout the rest of the convention,                                                       Moork of Local 19 and president
 contract resolutions be referred to the                                                                                                  Almeida and IEB rep Loveridge of
 1979 convention" (because it's "too         CP supporters abandoned all pretense                                                         Local 13 to the press confirming the IEB
 early now to start discussing what we       of opposition.) In contrast, MC member                                                       action. Fourteen dars after the IEB
 want in the 1979 contract"). Having thus    Peter Woolston ripped into Eickman's                                                         motion was passed,' the first official
 stacked the cards in their favor, the       report, pointing out the traitorous ties                                                                        continued on page 10
 bureaucrats proceeded to hack away          to the strikebreaking Democrats (who
at the only significant left-wing            imposed Taft-Hartley on the miners)
 opposition-the Militant Caucus.
    The take-off followed the officers'
                                             and the need for a workers party to fight
                                             for a workers government.                                                                 WO/iKERS
report---a self-congratulatory white-
wash read by Eickman, but at the same
                                                Woolston emphasized the impor-
                                             tance of the longshore division in
                                                                                          Bob Mandel, right.                           "NOI/,/i/)
time a damning report. The Local 6                                                                                                      Marxist Working-Class Weekly
                                             organizing new houses and winning                                                          of the Spartacist League of the U.S.
president correctly noted that "organiz-     strikes through such militant tactics as     vention, Mandel denounced the Inter-
ing is the main issue confronting the        hot-cargoing and called for warehouse-       national officers for "sabotaging what        Published weekly, except bi·weekly in August
union." in the face of devastating job                                                                                                  and December. by the Spartacist Publishing
                                             men to prepare sympathy-strike action        could have been the most important            Co, 260 West Broadway, New York, NY 10013
losses due to automation and runaway         to defend the longshoremen in the up-        labor action in 30 years.... We could         Telephone: 966-6841 (Editorial). 925-5665
shops (especially to Nevada). Eickman        coming contract battle. But he noted         have put Taft-Hartley in the ground           (Business). Address all correspondence to
                                                                                                                                        Box 1377. GPO. New York, NY 10001.
estimated that since June 1976 the           that such tactics would not come from        once and for alL ... "                        Domestic subSCriptions: $500 per year.
warehouse division alone has lost 500        the present leadership. either of the           Mandel went on to attack Carter's          Second-class postage paid at New York, N.Y
jobs.                                        International or the Local. Eickman was      "human rights" campaign as an anti-           Opinions expressed in Signed articles or
                                                                                                                                        letters do not necessarily express tile editorial
strikes in the recent period: "Automatic     a witness for the defense in the recent      Soviet and anti-labor crusade, but at         viewpoint.
 Plastics-this strike started in April of    union trial of ex-BA Joe Villegas, who       this point several menacing goons began'
 1976 and is continuing as of this           was voted out of office because of hili      collecting around him at the mike,           No. 201                    14 April 1978
date .... The company has refused to         scabherding activities in the Owens-         finally forcing him to stop his speech to
Great Coal                                  every battle front. They proved they had
                                            the economic muscle to put the compan-
                                            ies against the wall and the guts to stand
                                                                                            fought for the right to strike against the
                                                                                            companies, the arbitrators and the
                                                                                            courts. The ten-week wildcat of 1977.
                                                                                                                                            troopers. They continued to choke off
                                                                                                                                            the supply of coal and by early February
                                                                                                                                            the once cocky coal business consumers
(continued from page     1)
                                            up to the government. But it is next to
                                            impossible to take on the entire bour-
                                                                                            although sparked by drastic health
                                                                                            benefit cutbacks, was in fact integrally
                                                                                                                                            began to scream for help.
                                                                                                                                                Just as the miners' grip tightened on
                                            geoisie singlehandedly, even in a simple        tied to the upcoming contract battle that       the bosses' throats, Miller caved in to
bridges on coal spurs were blown up.        economic strike. The coal miners                both sides knew centered on the issue of        virtually everyone of the operators'
Washington put off using the "slave         urgently needed the backing of industri-        "labor discipline."                             demands. However, as soon as news of
labor act," openly admitting they feared    al action by key unions elsewhere, labor           This strike was deliberately provoked        the horrendous February 6 contract
it would be defied; and when it was         protest strikes against Taft-Hartley and        by the BCOA. which wanted to use the            proposal got out. furious miners rose up
finally decreed, the government had to      a work ing-class political offensive to         health card as a bargaining chip to get a       and threw it back in his face. They were
scour the mining towns to find a few        win public opposition to the. strike-           no-strike clause in the national negotia-       not about to accept terms which called
dozen scabs who actually "obeyed the        breaking Democrats.                             tions. As he had in every previous              for firings and fines for "strike instiga-
law." This lesson must not be lost on          The complete disintegration of the           wildcat. M iller did the bosses' bidding        tors" and miners who respected picket
union militants elsewhere.                  U M WA leadership under the hammer              and forced the strikers back to work.           lines; which dissolved their health and
   Socialists often refer to the venal      blows of the miners' strikes as well as the     When the contract fight began in                retirement funds and allowed Sunday
sellout union bureaucrats as "labor         refusal of the entire trade-union bu-           December. the most militant section of          work and hated incentive schemes. Mass
lieutenants of the capitalist class."       reaucracy to undertake militant acts of         the union, centered in West Virginia,          demonstrations were held throughout
Seldom has there been a more despi-         solidarity in defense of the miners             had gone for weeks without paychecks.           the coalfields denouncing Miller's con-
cable example of how "responsible           proves the urgency of the Spartacist            It is significant that in the vote on the
labor statesmen" are agents of the class                                                                                                    tract and demanding his resignation.
                                            League's fight to replace the present           final contract offer, West Virginia's           Thousands signed recall petitions and
enemy within the workers movement.          sellouts flot with slicker "refor:n"            Districts 17 and 29, which had borne the        hundreds stormed into Washington on
Every time the BCOA sneezed Arnold          bureaucrats but a genuine class-struggle        brunt, of the M iller-knifed wildcats,          February 10, occupying the UMW A
Miller began quivering uncontrollably.      leadership of the labor movement.               voted heavily in favor of ending the            headquarters and forcing an over-
His bargaining team was hand-picked         However incompetent Arnold Miller               strike. reflecting the weariness of these       whelming no-vote by the union's Bar-
by the Labor Department (as was the         may be-and there is no doubt that he is         mll1ers.                                        gaining Council.
U M WA International headquarters           one of the least capable of U.S. union
staff). then reshuffled by the govern-                                                         As the contract deadline approached,             With Miller completely discredited
                                            officials--it is the policies of subservi-      the Spartacist League pointed to the            and the coalfields in an outraged
ment when M iller's first proposed pact     ence to the company dictates, the phony         miners' most urgent needs: the unlimited        uproar. the Spartacist League pointed
was turned down by the Bargaining           "friend of labor" Democratic Party and          right to strike. no restrictions on roving      the way to dump the traitorous negotia-
Council. The "dissidents" among dis-        the capitalist government which must be         pickets, an end to the pro-company              tors and place the strike in the hands of
trict leaders were just as eager to do      rejected. The "progressive" reformers           arbitration system; guaranteed health           the ranks: electing district-wide strike
Carter's bidding and produced a second      like Miller and Sadlowski with their ties       benefits without deductions and higher,         committees and demanding a special
contract which was overwhelmingly           to liberal Democrats are equally as             equalized pensions; total UMW A con-            convention to elect a new negotiating
rejected by the ranks. On the other side    incapable of leading the workers'               trol over safety; a shorter workweek            team.
of the table sat a man who foreshad-        struggles to victory as the reactionary         with a big pay boost and full cost-of-              While the federal government had
owed the future of these fakers. The        Meany bureaucrats.                              living protection; an end to raCial and         monitored the coal talks with little faith
BCOA's Brennan is a former UMWA                Yet in 1972 the vast majority of the         sexual discrimination and the victimiza-        in Arnold Miller, it was clearly shocked
official. who like many former bureau-      U.S.left hailed Miller's election as a          tion of union militants-union control           by the depth and force of the miners'
crats from the corrupt Boyle regime         '~victory," and to this day not a single
                                                                                            over hiring. We also raised the demands         outrage. With Miller in semi-seclusion,
went over to management after being         one of these pseudo-revolutionary               necessary to take the coal industry out         Labor Department agents scurried
kicked out of union office.                 groups has repudiated its earlier support       of the hands of the parasitic energy            around in search of someone in the
   Here was a vivid example of what         to this traitor. The SL refused to bow to       conglomerates: for the nationalization          union hierarchy willing to deal who still
Leon Trotsky called the crisis of           the dangerous illusions in Miller's since-                                                      had enough credibility to make it stick
                                                                                            of the mines and the construction of a
proletarian leadership-I60,OOO miners       buried Miners for Democracy (MFD)                                                               with the ranks. The government courted
                                                                                            workers party to replace the
practically bringing the companies and      and called for an uncompromising                Republican/ Democratic big business             "dissident" members of the Bargaining
the United States government to their       struggle for the independence of the                                                            Council, and three of them-Jack Perry,
                                                                                            government With a government of the
knees in the greatest strike in 30 years,   unions from the capitalist state. It is this                                                    Ken Dawes and Tom Gaston-were
but with no one to lead them to victory.    program, the only program that told the                                                         added to the UMW A negotiating team.
If the militant coal strikers were forced   truth about what the MFD represented,               While the bosses correctly gauged th~           Within a few days the so-called
to accept a contract that represented a     that militants in the UMW A must grasp          cowardice of the Miller bureaucracy,            "dissidents" proved as pliable as Miller.
defeat after fighting off gun thugs and     if they are to avoid endless strikes            what they totally underestimated was            The Bargaining Council knuckled under
state cops; lasting six months (when you    without victory and the eventual gutting        the militancy, determination and soli-          to a pattern-setter agreement worked
count the 1977 wildcat) without income      of their Onion.                                 darity of the miners themselves. The            out behind the scenes with the independ-
or strike benefits; defying Taft-Hartley,                                                    miners dug in and fought back with             ent P&M coal company. Yesterday's
Jimmy Carter and everything the             The Challenge of the Miners'                    everything they had. Wave after wave of         critics went out to try to sell the new
capitalist state could throw at them, it    Militancy                                        roving pickets swept through the coal-       . pact, whose terms were only marginally
was because of the treachery of the                                                          fields shutting down scab mines. Even          better than the earlier February 6
U MW A leadership-and the absence of          The miners' explosive confrontation            in areas not particularly noted for their      sellout. Miller blew $40,000 on a pro-
anyone to replace them who had a            with the coal operators, the government          militancy, mass miners pickets were            ratification media campaign and Carter
program for effectively waging class war    and their own misleaders was the                commonplace. Thus in northwestern               threatened to bring down Taft-Hartley
in the coalfields.                          product of an anger and fighting spirit          Alabama in early February it took some         should the miners resist sellout No.2.
   This strike made crystal clear, if it    that has been steadily growing in the            200 state troopers assisted by helicop-         But the ranks weren't buying. Copies of
wasn't already, that it takes more than     coalfields. For over a decade, coal              ters to rescue a handful of scabs from the     the contract were consumed in coalfield
simple trade unionism to win labor's        production has been increasing sharply,          wrath of 1,000 union miners. Huge               bonfires and district leaders were booed
fight. Class collaboration, looking just    tens of thousands of new, young miners           stockpiles sat unused, the bosses afraid       down. Miners went to the polls and
 for a "deal" with the bosses, means        have entered the industry. Massive               to try to move them. Despite two               spurned their leaders with a lopsided 70-
defeat for the miners and all workers.      wildcats shut down the majority of the           martyred dead and hundreds of arrests,          to-3D percent rejection.
The coal miners must be armed with a        unionized mines in every year of the last        the miners were not intimidated by the
                                                                                                                                                His more subtle efforts reduced to
political program to fight the enemy on     contract. The strikes of 1975 and 1976         _ operators' gun thugs or vicious state
                                                                                                                                            ashes, a frantic Jimmy Carter turned to
                                                                                                                                            bigger guns. Within hours of the final
 The miners were squared off in a virtual war with the coal operators, the cops and the strikebreaking                                      vote tally, the U.S. president was on i
                                                                                                                                            national TV invoking the Taft-Hartley
federal government. They needed a leadership with a program to win the war, capable of waging a                                             Act and ordering the miners back to
political fight against the government's threats. Instead they were saddled with men whose faith and                                        work. Administration officials had
 illusions in the enemy camp led to paralysis. Below, District 17, Cedar Grove, West Virginia miners                                        considered seizing the mines but heIdi
                                                                                                                                            that tactic in abeyance, partly due to
prepare to vote down sellout contract No.2.                                                                                                 opposition from the mine owners. They
                                                                                                                                            were also fearful that negotiating
                                                                                                                                            directly with the combative mine work-
                                                                                                                                            ers would embroil it in the same morass
                                                                                                                                            that had destroyed Arnold Miller
                                                                                                                                             politically and reduced the BCOA to
                                                                                                                                             squabbling disarray. The problem with
                                                                                                                                            Taft-Hartley was that nobody •really
                                                                                                                                             expected it to work. Carter tried to put
                                                                                                                                             teeth in his injunction by the unprece-
                                                                                                                                             dented mO\e of naming over a thousand
                                                                                                                                              UM WA regional and local union
                                                                                                                                             officials. branding them as criminals
                                                                                                                                             with threatened jail and fines should
                                                                                                                                             they so much as encourage another
                                                                                                                                             miner not to return under the slave-
                                                                                                                                             labor law. Miners were outraged at the
                                                                                                                                             sight of hundreds of trenchcoat-c1ad
                                                                                                                                             federal marshals chasing up the hills
                                                                                                                                             and hollows to serve the strikebreaking
                                                                                                                                              When Carter slapped a Taft-Hartley
                                                                                                                                           injunction on the strike, singling out
                                                                                                                                           over a thousand UM WA officials for
                                                                                                                                           jail and fines. the Spartacist League

4                                                                                                                                                    WORKERS VANGUARD
                                                                                                                                                                    saw rebel strikes in the 50s and the early
                                                                                                ,           ~~~?              ~~~?          ~~El> ,                 60s and it never got you a thing. This
                                                                                                                                                                    rebel movement ... never had any
                                                                                        \~\;. ~\~       H             S'AfT       LAB ')?'LEr.
                                                                                   ~v- <j>,'i' 1m'1£(II£'! J.lFJiri.Ey, fI\~~.
                                                                                                                                                                    chance of success until we got some real
                                                                                                                                                                    responsible leadership.... Believe me,
                                                                                                                                              '1f<                  men, believe me, if this thing isn't done
                                                                                        ~~I)of Ir~NK \I~ SW'
                                                                                       ~,*,\        ?    ...-..   -
                                                                                                                      Il/Irlll£l' ? 'l~rLt)'7G>:I
                                                                                                                                   '-.   f i -I   ~   ,
                                                                                                                                                                   -legally, if it isn't done within the
                                                                                                                                                                    framework of the law, then you're not
                                                                                                                                                                    going to get it. ..."
                                                                                                                      -        I
                                                                                                                                                                M any miners were not happy with the'
                                                                                                                                                              M FD's reliance on the agencies of the
                                                                                                                                                             bosses' government. Though Boyle was
                                                                                                                                                             thoroughly discredited by his notorious
                                                                                                                                                             disregard for the miners' safety and the
                                                                                                                                                             widely held conviction that the corrupt
                                                              TAFT""                                                                                          UM WA chief had played a hand in
                                                         t~                                                                                                  Yablonski's assassination (for which he
                                                                                                                                                             was later jailed), Miller won with only
                                                                                                                                                             55 percent of the vote. Mike Trbovich
                                                                                                                                                             later conceded that the MFD's court
                                                                                                                                                  Oliphant   suits against the union had cost them a
                                                                                                                                                             lot of votes.
                                                      After the second sellout contract was burned in the coalfields the                                        Nyden quotes one retired black
                                                      bourgeoisie went into a panic. For everyone knew that the Taft-                                        miner, Rufus Clark, who had been
                                                      Hartley Act wouldnot get the strikers back to work. "Taft can mine                                     president of the Clyde No.3 mine in
                                                                                                                                                             western Pennsylvania where both Ya-
                                                      it, Hartley can haul it," miners by the thousands replied to Carter.                                   blonski and Trbovich were later presi-
                                                                                                                                                             dent: "How can you trust a movement
                                              AP                                                                                                             that brings in people who have always
                                                                                                                                                             been against the laboring man. Who
                                                                                                                                                             appoints the Secretary of Labor? Nixon
 solidarized with the miners' solid defi-             union mines which threaten the bargain-           role as a conduit for government                     does! Nixon's going to supervise this
 ance. We called for the rest of the labor            ing power and very existence of the               influence in the union. Nyden is fre-                election. And who backs Nixon? Big
 movement to rise and stop the govern-                UMWA.                                             quently quoted in the pages of the                   Business. No, I've never cared a damn
 ment's strikebreaking ploys with protest                Though the terms of their contract are         Communist Party's Daily World, which                 for Big Capital!"
 strikes and mass rallies.                            a setback for the UMWA, the miners                slavishly tailed Miller, and he does not                If Arnold Miller failed to impose the
    The miners proved perfectly capable               know that they were not conquered by              want to draw the obvious conclusions.                "labor peace" the government hoped
of repulsing Taft-Hartley. But with their             their avowed enemies; they were betray-           But the facts he presents are damning.               for, it was not because he didn't try.
defiance of the government, refusal to                ed by their own leaders. The miners                  In commenting on the government's                 After taking office, he and the other
cross picket lines and powerful commit-               returned to work bitter and disgusted             attitude toward MFD, Nyden cites an                  M FD leaders opposed the mpshroom-
ment to their "no contract, no work"                  but not broken. To prepare for the                article, "Anarchy Threatens the King-                ing wildcats, enforcing Boyle's hated
tradition, the miners had reached the                 inevitable new battles, the miners need           dom of Coal," from Fortune (January                  contract. They rammed through the
limit of trade-union militancy. When                  now to regroup and draw the crucial               1971), a magazine which reflects the                 1974 contract, trading off the miners'
 Miller quickly agreed to yet another                 lessons of their strike. First and fore-          thinking of some of the biggest bankers              demand for the right to strike in
sellout contract and the majority of the              most is the need to fQrgea leadership             and industrialists in the U.S. Shaken by             exchange for an unwieldy grievance
 Bargaining Council approved it, it                   committed to fighting the control and             the 1969 Black Lung strike and the 1970              procedure capped by binding pro-
became even clearer that what stood                   dictates of the capitalists and their             wildcat spearheaded by the Disabled                  company arbitration. In the years since,
between the miners and clear-cut victory              political parties. For it was the ties            Miners and Widows, big business                      the bureaucrats freely resorted to red-
was the vacuum of leadership at the top               between the quislings in union office             decided that Boyle had to go:                        baiting union militants and even in-
of the UMWA. In spite of their heroic                 and the bosses' government and politi-                 "The problem of dealing with a work             voked disciplinary penalties against
efforts, many miners decided that with                cians that blocked the miners victory.                 force that is no longer under union             leaders of wildcats. Nor was this the
                                                                                                             discipline would be difficult enough for        policy of Miller alone-on these issues,
their current misleadership they simply                                                                      the companies. But they are now faced
could not do any better.                              The Collapse of the UMWA                                                                               he was supported unanimously by his
                                                                                                             with the prospects of signing a new
   The miners were squared off in a                   Leadership                                             contract on October I with a union              running mates, Harry Patrick ami Mik.e
                                                                                                             president whose mandate to hold office                             cuntinued on page 6
virtual war with the coal operators, the                 Although one could hardly guess it                  is questionable, to say the least."
cops and the strikebreaking federal                    today, Arnold Miller was brought to
government. They needed a leadership                                                              Nyden goes on to record the attitude of
                                                      office by a reform movement which
with a program to win the war, capable                                                            the operators and the Nixon
                                                       promised to return the UMWA to its
of waging a political fight against the                                                           administration:
                                                       membership. It is only a little over five
government's threats; leaders who                                                                     "The operators would normally shud-
                                                      years ago that Miller's Miners for              der at the possibility of having a militant
would aggressively mobilize the ranks                  Democracy swept the gangster Tony               rank-and-file slate elected to office. But
and reach out to the rest of the labor                Boyle out of office. Liberals and most          dissatisfaction with Boyle's regime was
movement for militant support. Instead                so-called radicals alike enthused over a        generating so much conflict and touch-
they were saddled wi'th men whose faith                                                                ing off so many wildcat strikes every-
                                                      "new day" for the labor movement. The           where in Appalachia in the late 1960's,
 and illusions in the enemy camp led to               Spartacist League foretold that Miller          that the operators and the pro-business
 paralysis. Even the minority of the                  would prove a disaster for the miners            Nixon i administration realized there
 Bargaining Council members who                       and a willing tool of the federal               would never be any chance for steady
 consistently voted no on the BCOA/                   government. For he was fundamentally             production in the nation's coal mines
 Miller/Carter terms had no conception                                                                 until an honest election was conducted
                                                      the candidate of Nixon's Labor Depart- .'        in the UMW."
 or program for leading the miners on an              ment and a section of Democratic Party                 -Paul Nyden, Miners for
 offensive against Carter and the Demo-               liberals. A broad section of the capitalist               Democracy: Struggle in the
 cratic P.arty. Continued defensive bat-              class backed the MFD against Boyle                        Coal Fields
 tles, even by the most courageous but                precisely because the latter had lost         The -Nixon Administration, which
 leaderless army, can never win a victory.            effective control over the UM WA was busy covering up its wiretapping/
    When miners narrowly voted for the                membership.                                 burglary of Watergate and its secret
 last deal, although they had beat back                  The MFD from its inception kow- Cambodia bombings, was hardly inter-
 the BCOA's anti-strike provisions, they              towed to the desires and dictates of ested in honesty; it wanted a more
 still did not have the right to strike and           capitalist politicians in Washington and "responsible," trustworthy leadership to
 will still have to face down the arbitra-            their emissaries in the coalfields. Jock tame the UMW A. And the MFD tried
 tors and courts. They lost their free                Yablonski, a longtime member of the to oblige. Nyden records one revealing
 medical benefits and the U M W A health
 care program, 30-year-old landmarks of
                                                      Lewis-Boyle machine, ran against Boyle confrontation between miners who,                               WORItERS III1HGU,RJ
                                                      only on the urging and under the angered over a rigged election in District
 the labor movement. Pensions remained                supervision of the Ralph Naders and 5, wanted to strike and/or seize the
 inadequate and unequal, with 93 per-                 Joe Rauhs who provided the crucial          District headquarters, versus Ken Ya-
 cent of the retirees collecting a paltry             links to the Democratic Party liberals.     blonski's wretched legalism at an M FD
 $275 a month. The miners knew that                   Rauh masterminded Yablonski's cam- rally in Cokesburg, Pennsylvania in
 with such a contract it would be difficult
                                                      paign and based his entire strategy on April 1971:
 to organize the growing number of non-               appealing to the courts and Nixon's                                                                         Workers Vang!@rd                               I
 ,I¢                                              ;
                                                      Labor Department to virtually take
                                                                                                      "Yablonski: ... if you don't act respon-
                                                                                                                                                             I Marxist Working-Class Weekly
   FORUM                                              over the UMW A. After Yablonski was
                                                                                                      sibly and if you don't act within the law
                                                                                                      that you claim you want the protection                 I    of the Spartacist League                       I
                                                                                                      of. then you disgrace the movement that                     One year subscription (48 issues): $5-
       The Great Miners Strike                        murdered. this same strategy dominated
                                                                                                                                                             I    Introductory offer: (16 issues): $2.lnternation-1
               of 1978                                the Miller/Trbovich/Patrick lash-up,            you belong to.
                                                                                                         "Voice from the crowd: What is the                       al rates: 48 issues-$20 airmail/$5 seamail;    I
           How They Could Have Won
                                                      with lawyers Ken and Chip Yablonski
                                                      along with Rauh calling most of the
                                                                                                      law')                                                  I
                                                                                                                                                                  16 introductory issues-$5 airmail.
                                                                                                                                                                  -includes Spartacist                           I
                                                                                                         "Yablonski: The law says that you
   Speaker:                                           shots.                                          must resort to the courts if your union                     Name
         MARK LANCE                                                                                   officials violate your union Constitu-
         Workers Vanguard correspondent in West
         Virginia and Kentucky
                                                         The SL's warnings have been fully
                                                      confirmed by Miller's unbroken record
                                                                                                      tion. And that is what we're going to
                                                                                                                                                             I    Address                                        I
   Saturday, April 22 at 7:30 p.m.                    of treachery since coming to office. But           "Voice: The courts don't control me.                I    City                                          I
   Lehman Auditorium                                  now. in a soon-to-be published book             They don't control me. How long will it
                                                                                                      take') How long ...[continued shouting]                I    State                         Zip             I
   Barnard CoHege
   116th and Broadway
                                                      based on a 1974 Ph.D. thesis capping
                                                      three years of work with Miners for
                                                                                                         "Yablonski: I don't want no damn                    I    Make checks payable/mail to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ~1    I
       NEW YORK                                       Democracy. former University of Pitts-
                                                                                                      rabble rouser ruining this thing. Act
                                                                                                      responsibly once in your life. We cannot               I    Spartacist Publishing Co.,                    I
       Donation: $1                                   burgh professor Paul Nyden provides,
                                                      perhaps massive evidence of the M FD's
                                                                                                      resort to mob rule. We cannot resort to
                                                                                                      irresponsible and illegal activity.... I
                                                                                                                                                             '-   Box 1377 GPO, New York, NY 10001
14 APRIL 1978                                                                                                                                                                                                   5
Great Coal                                                                 union (he brought five separate law suits
                                                                           against the U M W A during last year's
                                                                           election campaign), He is simply tied
                                                                                                                           "The thing most likely to keep our
                                                                                                                           experiment [the no-strike Experimental
                                                                                                                           Negotiating Agreement] alive is the
                                                                                                                                                                                      The highly publicized donations from
                                                                                                                                                                                   the Steelworkers, Auto Workers and
                                                                                                                                                                                   Communications Workers to the
Strike...                                                                  into a more conservative clique in the
                                                                           UMWA hierarchv.
                                                                                                                           probability that the coal miners will
                                                                                                                           have a long, bitter strike. That will
                                                                                                                                                                                   U M W A sums which in fact amounted
                                                                                                                                                                                   only to about $1 for every member of
(continued from page 5)                                                       It has become' quite the fashion in          remind our members once again how                       these giant unions were a response to
                                                                           recent years for dissidents and office-         little sense there is to such a pattern                 the rank and file's mushrooming sup-
Trbovich, as well as by the pro-Boyle                                      seekers in the bureaucratized unions to         ... unless you have a suicide complex."                 port for the miners, expressed in many
clot on the union's International Execu-                                   call in the courts and/or Labor Depart-         After the strike was over, Fred Kroll,                  plant gate collections and caravans
tive Board grouped around Lee Roy                                          ment to fight their battles with the            president of the railroad union BRAC                    carrying food and money to the miners,
Patterson.                                                                 entrenched officialdom, But the bitter          denounced the miners for being "out of                  and an attempt to head off any more
   The groveling of the Miller-led                                         experience of Arnold Miller should              control." And UA W president Doug                       militant or direct defense of the miners
bureaucracy became downright scan-                                         serve as a sharp warning not just to            Fraser, who served as a key adviser to                  strike. Even in the face ofTaft-Hartley,
dalous in the just concluded strike.                                       miners but to all workers not to trust          Labor Secretary Ray Marshall, de-                       not a single major union leader de-
Wayne Horowitz and the Federal                                             this strategy or those who push it. It is       clared that "at critical moments in the                 manded protest strikes to stop this
Mediation and Conciliation Service                                         the government's control of the union           coal talks the President, Secretary of                  strikebreaking attack. Only in the west
literally selected the key UMWA nego-                                      movement that is the greatest threat to         Labor and Director of the Federal                       coast Longshore union did the member-
tiators (including Harry Huge, who                                         both union democracy and to the fight           Mediation Service acted decisively,                     ship force their International Executive
only shortly before had outraged miners                                    against the employers.                          sensibly and most importantly, fair-                    Board to adopt such a resolution, which
when he voted as the union's representa-                                      The government's drive to foist the          Iy.... " This was after Carter tried to                 the top officials then suppressed and
tive to cut health benefits), advised                                      Miller/MFD clique on the UMWA in                smash the strike with Taft-Harley!                      refused to act on.
M iller on his selection of a publicity firm                               1972 and its invoking of Taft-Hartley                                                                       On the left the Spartacist League was
(since he had fired virtually his entire                                   today were merely two sides of the same            Throughout the strike the leaders in                 virtually alone in unceasingly struggling
staff), then wrote the first two contract                                  coin. In both instances it was motivated        maritime, rail, Teamsters and steel                     for genuine acts of solidarity with the
proposals. As the strike wore on, Miller                                   by the same desire to break the militancy       unions permitted the shipment and use                   miners-pUblicizing the efforts of steel
& Co. were more and more exposed as                                        and solidarity of the rank and file. The        of scab coal. Thus the bosses were                      worker militants to fight for a joint
mere rubber stamps for Carter, Mar-                                        past five years of the U M W A under-           enabled to avoid an acute economic                      coal! steel strike, as well as the fight of
shall and the Labor Department                                             scores the central lesson that the first        crisis that would have quickly brought                  steel and maritime workers to demand
   M iller's opponents in last summer's                                    condition for a real class-struggle labor       them to their knees. The betrayal of the                that their unions hot-cargo scab coal. In
election provided no alternative in the                                    movement is complete independence               steel and rail union bureaucrats, both in               response to Taft-Hartley, the SL de-
strike. Harry Patrick-having recently                                      from the government. its agencies and           closely related industries, was particu-                manded protest work stoppages and
accepted a high-paying job with the                                        courts.                                         larly notable. Thus the railroad work-                  publicized resolutions to this effect that
federal anti-poverty agency ACTION-                                                                                        ers hauling scab coal were in fact                      were passed' by UA W Local 6 in
chimed in his endorsement of the last                                      Oust the Bureaucrats! Build a                   working without a contract under                        Chicago, as well as the Bay Area's
two sellout pacts. Lee Roy Patterson                                       Workers Party!                                  provisions of the anti-strike Railway                   Amalgamated Transit local and the
popped his head up to be quoted each                                                                                       Labor Act; now that the coal strike is                  ILWU.
time as saying "sellout," then disap-                                         In recent years, the miners have been        over, the bosses and the government will
                                                                                                                           go after them. And steel workers, with                      Carter's invoking ofTaft-Hartley was
 peared again, biding his time for a                                       unique in their determination to defend
                                                                                                                                                                                   a powerful reminder that the Democrat-
comeback. Miners should remember                                           themselves through militant struggle.           thousands of their numbers laid off by
                                                                                                                           the same steel barons who were among                    ic Party, as well as the Republican,
that at no time in their long and crucial                                  The entire labor bureaucracy hates and
                                                                                                                                                                                   stands for union busting, for strike-
struggle with the operators and the                                        fears this militancy, above all terrified       the most hard-line anti-union mine
                                                                                                                           operators, were told by their leaders to                breaking and for the repression of the
government did Patterson seek to                                           that it could spill over to their own
                                                                                                                                                                                   working class. Congressmen of both
 provide any leadership. How could he?                                     membership. Thus on the eve of the              just keep on working stockpiled and
                                                                                                                                                                                   parties united behind Carter's moves
 Like Miller, Patterson calls on the                                       strike, a top aide to Steelworkers              scab coal as their brothers in the Mine
                                                                                                                                                                                   against the miners and, throughout the
government to "straighten out" the                                         president Lloyd McBride commented,              Workers fought alone.
                                                                                                                                                                                   strike, Democratic governors like Ken-
                                                                                                                                                                                   tucky's Julian Carrol as well as their
                                                                                                                                                                                   Republican counterparts like Indiana's
                                                                                                                                                                                   Otis Bowen mobilized their cops and

 Remember the Traitors!                                                                                                                                                            state troopers against the miners.
                                                                                                                                                                                       This strike should be a lesson to all
                                                                                                                                                                                   workers that every major struggle must

"< ....

                1.,,··:"·-··,· ,,:/'"
                ",;,"'.' '''':'''''';'
                                                                                                                                                                                   lead ultimately to a confrontation with
                                                                                                                                                                                   the capitalist government, which, far
                                                                                                                                                                                   from being "neutral"-as the labor
     •.->1;,_                                                                                                                                                                      bureaucrats claim--is the armed fist of
                                                                                                                                                                                   capital. Through the Democratic and

                                                                                                                                                                                   Republican parties which they finance
                                                                                                                                                                                   and control, the bosses mete out their
                                                                                                                                                                                   "justice" to all who rebel militantly
 :t                                                                                                                                                                                against their oppression under
                                                                                                                                                                                   capitalism to striking coal miners,
                                                                                                                                                                                   Vietnamese peasants and the residents
'\".                                                                                                                                                                               of the black ghettos. The capitalist
                                                                                                                                                                                   parties prefer to maintain their rule
                                                                                                                                                                                   peaceably; but when the exploited get
                                                                                                                                                                                   "out of hand," bloody force is used.
                                                                                                                                                                                       Workers must demand that their
                                                                                                                                                                                    unions cease support for the Democrats
                                                                                                                                                                                   and Republicans and fight instead for
                                                                                                                                                                                   the unions to build a workers party to
                                                                                                                                                                                   fight for a workers government. M il-
                                                                                                                                                                                    lions of workers' dollars and their votes
                                         WelsblatlCharleston. Daily Mail                                      WV Photo                                                  WV Photo
                                                                                                                                                                                   are wasted in every election supporting
Arnold Miller (on anti-strike penalties                                    Harry Patrick: "The contract will not he        Jack Perry District /7 president backed                  the same politicians who slash the
in first contract): "I'm not totally                                       re-opened. The right to strike people (:an      the contract repudiated by miners 70/30                  budgets, break the strikes and start the
convinced that what we've done will                                        strike until Hell (ree::es over" (Louisville    "... the hest of two evils." (Charleston                 wars. A workers party would fight not
stop them (wildcats), hut it goes a long'                                  Courier JournaL 31 August /975).                Gazette 3 March /978)                                    onlv to mobilize the labor movement in
Imy toward it." (A p, /0 Fehruarr /978)                                                                                                                                             united struggle against the capitalists
                                                                                                                                                                                   and their parties but to form a workers
                                                                                                                                                                                   government that .would expropriate the
                                                                                                                                  Space does not permit l/S /() Ril'e
                                                                                                                                                                                    privately owned mines, mills, banks and
                                                                                                                                !Jwper ackn(}ll'/edKment /() all the                big industries, allowing them to be run
                                                                                                                                  [',\I Jf A hureal/era!.1 lI'ho helped             for the interests of society not the
                                                                                                                              Arnold .\filler hetrar the miners, Sur                fantastic profits of a few.
                                                                                                                              s!Jeeialmention ml/st KO 10 those Ilho                   The obstacle to such a policy is the
                                                                                                                              ,Ien'ed the operalOn in their (}lIn lUI'!'            same trade-union bureaucracy that does
                                                                                                                               e,I!Jl'cialh the ,w-called "dis,lidm!.I,"            its best tu stifle every manifestation of
                                                                                                                                    f)i,lrrict ::3 (lI'e.lfern ":el1l11c/.;\)       \\orking class independence, While the
                                                                                                                              prl',lidclIi !(!/I1I1I1' Ca,llol1 pllshed Ihe         miners \\ere locked in combat with the
                                                                                                                                agreellll'lIl Ihal III/IllT\ )'oled dOI\1I
                                                                                                                                                                                    COd l operators and the government,
                                                                                                                                  70/30 a,l "SOlllclhilig ,1'1111 call iiI,'
                                                                                                                                                                                    (jL'orge \1eany \\as busy trying to
                                                                                                                                I\'ilh, " ,-ll1olher "dil.lidelll," !lIil1ols
                                                                                                                                f)1.1!ri" I:: head ":CII f)UlIl',I, led Ihe         Ingratiate himself with Carter and the
                                                                                                                              push in the Bargail1ing COllllcilt"r Ihe               Democrats un Capitol Hill. If the
                                                                                                                               lallle deal \I'hile /zis "aides" ruuRhed             president feels Taft-Hartley is "his only
                                                                                                                              lip lIlillCn O!J!,o,lnl f() Ihe pacl. Ju/zn           alternati\e." said \1eany, "then we
                                                                                                                                 Gu::ek, head or f)istricr 6 ill Ohio               won't critlci/e him."
                                                                                                                               trulliedjcJr hOlh \filler al1d CariN,                    lhe fight tor labor's political indepen-
                                                              WV Photo                          John Bla" Pholoreporlers           warnillg thaI l'ulil1K 110 "II'olild              dence necessarily requires the fight to
Lou Antal: ".. .hest contract lI'e could                                   Lee Roy Patterson: "/ don't knOll' I\'hy             I'irtllallr de.l!rur" Ihe IIl1iol1 it Tatl-          oust the treacherous, class-
                                                                           the miners in /test r'irginia are dOll'n                        Harller lI'as il1l'uked.                  collaborationist union bureaucrats who
get. Everyhodl"s greedl' and lI'ants more.                                                                                                         .           --....

How can you get more (( there isn't anr                                    and I can't seem to find out" (Sunday                                                                     prop up the Democrats and Republi-
more" (UP!, 27 Fehruary /978).                                             Gazette Mail. 8 August /976).                                                                             cans. Both tasks are at the top of the

    6                                                                                                                                                                                         WORKERS VANGUARD
                                                                                           good will of the capitalist state as the                           did not call for a special convention.
                                                                                           Millers and Sadlowskis.                                                Behind the M RSC's refusal to
                                                                                              From the beginning of the strike, the                           struggle for a new leadership during the
                                                                                           policy of these groups was indistinguish-                          strike lay the fact that it simply had no
                                                                                           able from that of the labor bureaucracy.                           program for victory. Despite its militant
                                                                                           Both spent their energies on organizing                             posturing, the M RSC has always
                                                                                           platforms for reformist bureaucrats to                             tailored its demands to the existing
                                                                                           ballyhoo their phony "solidarity" with                              norms of reformist trade unionism,
                                                                                           the miners, while their own trade-union                            consciously avoiding mention of the
                                                                                           supporters consistently refused to sup-                             need to fight racial oppression, to build
                                                                                           port resolutions raised by militants for                           a workers party or to expropriate the
                                                                                           class-struggle defense of the strike. In                           capitalists. In this strike, it rejected even
                                                                                           the Bay Area, for example, the SWP                                 the fight to organize delegations of
                                                                                           took the lead in opposing a motion                                  miners to demand that other unions hot-
                                                                                           presented to a meeting of some 200 trade                           cargo scab coal. Instead, it accepted
                                                                                           unionists to implement the ILWU's call                              Miller's policy that labor solidarity
                                                                                           for a one-day strike against Taft-                                 would be limited to appeals for funds,
                                                                                           Hartley, while the CP abstained. The                               clothes and food, and merely wanted to
                                                                                           SWP's Militant even had the gall to                                channel relief aid through its own small
                                                                                           write an article during the strike about                           "support committees" as an alternative
                                                                                           why militants should not demahd                                    to the various District and International
                                                                                           solidarity strikes with the miners and                             relief funds.
                                                                                           hot-cargoing of coal!                                                  Most of the remaining American left
                                                                                              In the aftermath of the strike, the CP                          groups put in equally dismal perfor-
                                                                                           published a statement in the 30 March                              mances. The Progressive Labor Party,
                                                                                            Daily World which hailed the settlement                           which has degenerated into a crazed
                                                                                           as a "real victory for rank and file                               semi-syndicalist cult, featured endless
                                                                                           miners, as it is a victory for all of                              idiotic ravings in Challenge which made
                                                                                           organized labor." The statement, which                             the miners instead of the gun-toting
Vicious cop assaults against the miners exposed the fake                            UPI
                                                                                           amounted to a thorough whitewash of                                scabs and cops look like provocateurs.
"neutrality" of the government. Two miners were murdered and                               the traitorous UMWA bureaucracy,                                   "Hail Miners Violence!" was one typical
                                                                                           contained not one word of criticism of                             headline. The WOrkers League's Bulle-
hundreds arrested defending their picket lines. Aboye, state                                                                                                  tin stridently denounced Miller's ties to
                                                                                           the contract provisions, even claiming
troopers arrest a UMWA local president in Norton, Virginia.                                that the right to strike was "strength-                            the Labor Department. But these
Both Democratic politicians like Kentucky Governor Julian                                  ened"! An article in the 7 April Militant,                         political bandits were absolutely silent
                                                                                           entitled "Outcome of the Strike," while                            about why they had enthusiastically
Carroll and Republican Governor Bowen of Indiana ordered                                                                                                      backed Miller in 1972 or, even more
                                                                                           more r;ritical of Miller, nowhere admit-
their strikebreaking thugs into action against the miners.                                 ted that the SWP had supported Miller                              outrageously, called last summer for
                                                                                           for years!                                                         support. to Lee Roy Patterson-
                                                                                             .Like the SWP and CP reformists, the                             distinguishing themselves as the only
agenda necessary to forge a fighting          boosted Arnold Miller to power, most         Maoists of the Revolutionary Commu-                                left group to back this red-baiting, right-
labor movement.                               of the American left had foresworn the       nist Party (RCP) had no program for                                wing former ally of Tony Boyle!
                                              struggle against government manipula-        the crisis ofleadership that was blocking                             These pseudo-revolutionaries are far
The Coal Miners and the Left                  tion of the labor movement. With the         a victory to the strike. In fact, the RCP                          from being the furious "reds" who have
   When the combination of massive            exception of the Spartacist League, they     came out in the March issue of Revolu-                             been blamed forthe UMWA's problems
struggles and bureaucratic sabotage has       either cheered Miller or made a few          tion against the effort to dump Miller!                            by bureaucrats from Patterson to Miller.
confronted the miners in the past, many       perfunctory criticisms of the M FD's         (The RCP's forerunner, the Revolution-                             In fact the real problem with the CP,
have looked to the left for new leader-       reliance on the courts and Labor             ary Union, had given "critical support"                            SWP and the rest of the reformist gang is
ship. Socialists, many of whom learned        Department. Now, after five years of         to Miller in 1972). Denouncing it as a                             that their program doesn't go beyond the
their trade unionism in the more              betrayal by the MFD leaders, which           "diversion" that had won the support of                            simple trade unionism of Miners for
politicized labor movements of Britain        have rendered Arnold Miller perhaps          "some" rank-and-file miners (like                                  Democracy. That is why they supported
and southeastern Europe before immi-          the most thoroughly despised trade-          maybe 90 percent!), the RCP writes off                             the M FD in 1972 and why they covered
grating to the U.S., played a leading role    union bureaucrat in the U.S., not one of     the justified hatred of 160,000 miners for                         up for Miller's strikebreaking until
in the union's fierce early organizing        the groups that supported him in 1972        Arnold Miller as the work of a group of                            literally thousands of miners were
battles. Later, after the longest strike in   has repudiated that position. Unwilling      "opportunist urion hacks." It is of                                clamoring for his head. In the recent
the union's history, four and a half          and unable to learn the lessons of           course true that many UMWA officials                               strike the determined militancy of the
months in 1922, the employers launched        history, these fake leftists have served     who endorsed the "recall Miller" cam-                              miners pushed to the limits of trade
a unionbusting offensive which reduced        notice that they will back the next two-     paign are no better than he. But to refuse                         unionism, to the point where it became
the union to a shadow of its former self      bit "progressive" faker that comes down      to come out for removing Miller on                                 brutally clear that what was needed was a
with no resistance from John L. Lewis.        the pike.                                    these grounds is to serve as his last-ditch                        program and a strateBY that could
Thousands of miners flocked to the new           The two largest groups on the left, the   defense!                                                           overcome the attacks of the bosses and
Communist Party (CP) in response. A           Stalinist Communist Party and the now           The small Miners Right to Strike                                the capitalist parties. But the reformists
relatively unknown CPer got one-third         ex-Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party.       Committee (M RSC), which is political-                             have no such strategy and program any
of the total in the 1924 UM W A               have long since abandoned any struggle       ly supported by the RCP, was equally                               more than Arnold Miller does. So it is
presidential election.                        against the policies of the reformist        incapable of providing any direction for                           not surprising that many of them called
   The "Save the Union Committee," an         union bureaucracy. When the SWP and          the militant miners. offering only more                            the final settlement a "victory."
alliance between the CP and John              CP demand that the federal government        "militant" rhetoric: "Vote no and hang                                The miners will surely be confronted
Brophy, a longtime socialist leader in        clean up the unions. when they back          tough." But the mine workers were                                  now with a host of aspiring leaders
Pennsylvania, won mass support in the         union-busting affirmative action suits       plenty militant already. What they                                 seeking to dump discredited UMWA
U M WA with its program of stopping           against the unions, when they call on the    lacked was leadership and the M RSC .                              leaders. Many of these will be District
the wage-cuts, organizing the unorgan-        federal government to send troops to         had no idea of how to provide it. The                              officials who played no better role and
ized. nationalizing the mines and build-      Boston to "protect" blacks-they dem-         M RSC did not call for strike commit-                              would have done the same had they held
ing a labor party. It is almost certain       onstrate the same touching faith in the      tees, did not call for replacing Miller,                                                               continued on page 8
that Lewis' victory over Brophy in the
1926 election was due to massive vote
fraud. Even in the depth of the depres-       The outpouring of donations to the strikers and the
sion years, socialists, Stalinists and
                                              appearance of union-led caravans in the coalfields
Trotskyists led bitter miners strikes in
Illinois, Ohio,      Pennsylvania and
"Bloody Harlan" county in Kentucky.
                                              were actions unheard of in recent decades. Below,
                                              striking u.s. farmers donate food while, right,
                                                                                                                      .~     ZClC 0"'1'1" " .... "7.          ~"LI..2      $00131   oxca.,                                                g

   Left-wing influence in the UMWA            Newcastle, Australia dockworkers telegraph vow to
                                                                                                                     g       "'00    co .. SV     '39                                                                                    C)
was suppressed by the virulent anti-
communism of Lewis, who ex'pelled his
                                              hot-cargo coal exports to U. S.        Corn/New York Times
                                                                                                                             IEWeASf[.$V I.! 91 UI 21 .....

opponents in droves. and the Stalinism
which thoroughly corrupted the Com-                       ,""
                                                     ',.. ~."'JI>
                                                               ...                                                           S~ARTACJST Plal1SUQ et
                                                                                                                            lOX     1.577 G,.

                                                                                                                            IEIi'YMUy I'HINEWYOltl
munist Party. The CP's attempts to                                                                                                                                                                                                    ~
build a new union in the coalfields from                                                                                                                                                                                              g
 I92~ to 1933. when the U M WA had                                                                                          PLUSE COIVEY TO THE UlilTEr; STATES                  !'lI"£W~I(DS   TH£ rOLLO'WrJfG fII£SS"CE             '"
virtually ceased to exist outside of                                                                                        THIS JthCASTLE          Ii'Ar£ll'~OffT Q~OUP 0,       UIIO,s   co,,"tISUG I"     "~IrU'E
Illinois and the Pennsylvania anthracite                                                                                   VIIOIS E".[SS 'HEI. SU'""", '0 THE us "IIE.S II 'HEI. JusT ".UGilLE                                       S
fields. was aborted by its sectarian                                                                                        to 'UIlTot.U LIVIJfG          STA~A.llDS       ........ IUJFITS SIO" wE COML-DllM&n     HTE~~T 11" ~
refusal to work with anyone who did not
                                                                                                                                                                                                         LEGISU~IOI                  ~
                                                                                                                           THE C""E. AC"'"ISUArro. TO ""LE"E'" 'HE """A.HEY
accept its control. Later the CP zig-
                                                                                                                           "'GAllS! TMESE         li'~n:Jts   JI.u ATTL,."r TO 5"11511       ;~[Sf   SUIKES     ST~p    1"115    _
lagged so far to the right that it                                                                                         GROUp THllltlF"OI'tE DECIDU THAT lJI THE [IJ[IlI 0, ,ur                ATTu,,,r   TO £.''iPO/l'T      ()
embraced Roosevelt's attacks on the                                                                                        COAl.    F7tO", NEWCASTLE TO THE 1I111HED STATEs ... COllllnlH: IUM "EnActD 011I                      §
famous 1943 miners strikes and labeled                                                                                     THOS£     SIfI~[IfTS     I III SU'P'OltT   Qr   HI(                                                   3
Lewis a fascist for striking against the                                                                                                                                                                                         :l

wartime gO\ernment. The Trotskyists of                                                                                     "'1IlIIs STopt FUALlY "[           SU'~r        HfTOIfATIOlAl SOLlUAItJTY A"'Ola WOiIlKEJts           g'
the Socialist Workers Party (SWP).
                                                                                                                           OF' ALL UT lOIS AID C. .ltAfULATE THE US "IIEJts U                    THEHt STAliJ ClDpt             g
however. continued to stand by the
                                                                                                                                   " " "OS( ptptES!Dl'T .EWCASTL£ WATPFltOIf 6ftOUP OF U.IOIS
   By the time the federal government                                                                                                                                                                                           ;;
decided that Tony Boyle had to go and·

14 APRIL 1978                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 7
 Great Coal                                                                                                6) For real union democracy: one-
                                                                                                         year terms. annual conventions. one-

                                                                                                         year contracts! No union official to be
                                                                                                         paid more than the highest-paid working           LETTER
(confined from page 7)                                                                                                                                     Jerusalem. Israel
                                                                                                            7) Smash all anti-union laws, like             4 April 1978
 M iller's office. There will also be among
                                                                                                         Taft-Hartley. with united. militant labor
thosc coming forward miners who                                                                          action!                                           Dear friends of the "Workers Van-
played honorable and militant roles in                                                                                                                     guard".
the strike. But unless these new leaders                                                                   ~) End racial and sexual oppression!
                                                                                                                                                              I have read with great attention
absorb the political lessons of the                                                                      For union control of hiring-promotion
                                                                                                                                                          your report about the Israeli sea-
 U !'vt W A's experience over the last five                                                              by seniority to eliminate all forms of
                                                                                                                                                           men in California and the attempt
years, unless they are committed to a                                                                    company discrimination! Smash the
                                                                                                                                                           of "lim" Company to expell them
complete break with the politics of class                                                                Klan. the Na7is and all other fascist
                                                                                                                                                           from the striking ships. and also
collaboration, they too will necessarily                                                                 groups!
                                                                                                                                                          your accurate description of the
succumb to the powerful pressures that                                                                     9) End the parasitic monopolies'                background.
the capitalists and their politicians apply                                                              domination of basic natural resources:               I want to add one point about the
to keep the unions in line.                                                                              expropriate the mines and the entire             present and one about the past. In
    The militancy and courage which the                                                                  energy industry without compensation!            one country the attempt of "lim"
miners have repeatedly displayed have                                                                                                                     Company was completely success-
not yielded a leadership to match these                                                                     10) No support to the strikebreaking
                                                                                                         Democrats and Republicans. the parties           ful and at once: of course I speak
qualities. Nor will simply more militant                                                                                                                  about South Africa. "lim" together
struggles produce such a leadership.                                                                     of big business! Oust the bureaucrats and
                                                                                                         build a workers party. based on the              with the Israeli authorities applied
Seventy-six years ago Y. I. Lenin, who                                                                                                                    for help to South African
led the Russian workers in their success-                                                                unions. to fight for a workers govern-
                                                                                                         ment that will expropriate industry and          authorities against two "lim" ships
ful revolution, wrote that "The history of                                                                                                                and the seamen were taken from
all countries shows that the working class                                                               the banks and run society in the interests
                                                                                                         of working people!                               them by force and flown to Israel.
exclusively by its own effort is able to                                                                                                                  Scabs were introduced into the
develop only trade-union consciousness.                                                                     The vital importance of working-class         ships.
i.e., the conviction that it is necessary to                                                             leadership has been demonstrated with               And about the past. The famous
combine in unions, fight the employers                                                                                                                    seamen's strike in 1951 was mainly
                                                                                                         renewed intensity by the heroic miners
and strive to compel the government to                                                                   strike. The aspiring careerists in the           broken by a mobilization of scabs.
pass necessary labor legislation, etc."                                                                                                                   from the kibbutzim movement,
                                                                                                         U M W A will spurn the hard struggle to
(What Is To Be Done?). The miners                                                                        cohere a programmatically based c1ass-           who could easily "serve" for a few
today are among the most, if not the                                                                     struggle opposition. They will use the           months as "temporary seamen" and
most trade-union conscious workers in                                                                    anti-communism which has been fueled             then return to their kibbutz when
the U.S. But what Lenin wrote remains                                                                    by capitalist propaganda and the real            the strike was completely broken.
                                                                                    John Blair/Liaison
true today. Miners must be won to a                                                                      betrayals of the fake lefts. mainly the             Generally speaking. I can only
                                                     Gun thug violence did not stop the
Trotskyist leadership and a class-                                                                                                                        advise you to deal once, when you
                                                     miners. UMWA march honors John                      shamelessly reformist, pro-Miller Com-
struggle program for their struggles to              Hull.                                               munist Party. to whip up opposition to           have time and opportunity with this
break through the limits imposed by                                                                      the militant miners who fight for it. They       piece of deception called the
pro-capitalist leaders. the employers                      transitional demands. stemming from
                                                           today's conditions and from today's           have no real alternative to Miller~their         "kibbutz"!
and the state. Otherwise their magnifi-                                                                  policies are only an alternative way to
                                                           consciousness of wide lavers of the                                                            Sincerely and with friertdship,.
cent combativeness will go to naught, as                   working class and unalterably leading to      lose. It is the Trotskyists of the Spartacist
tragically occurred in the coal strike of                                                                                                                 Yours.
                                                           one final conclusion: the conquest of         League who have consistently put
                                                           power by the proletariat:"                                                                     Israel Shahak
1977-78.                                                                                                 forward a program for victory.•
trad ition of revolutionary leaders of the              Over the last several years the pages of
working-ctass movement like Marx,                    ~'Vorkers   Vanguard have covered the
Lenin and Trotsky, who unceasingly                   struggle of militants in auto, steel,
fought the opportunist peddlers of
illusions, not least when these opportun-
                                                     longshore. maritime. phone and other
                                                     unions to forge such a programatically
                                                                                                         Anti-                                           are different. as they are imperialist
                                                                                                                                                         oppressors. But this is not the Leninist
                                                                                                                                                         position. Leninists uphold the right of
ists falsely called themselves "socialists"
or "communists." In refusing to capitu-
                                                     based opposition as the nucle\ls of a new
                                                     leadership. A program for the UMW A.                Immigration                                     all nations to self-determination,
                                                                                                                                                         though this right is generally simply not
late to "progressive" fakers like Miller
and Sadlowski, we counterpose the
building of a militant opposition in the
                                                     incorporating the lessons of the working-
                                                     class movement generally as well as of the
                                                     miners' own struggles, would include
                                                                                                         (co'lfinued from page 2)
                                                                                                                                                         in question for the imperialist and
                                                                                                                                                         presently oppressing nations. On a
unions based on a class-struggle pro-                                                                                                                    general programmatic level the denial of
                                                     such demands as:
gram. As Leon Trotsky wrote in 1938 in                                                                       ate demand certainly does not mean          the right to self-determination to op-
                                                        I) For the unlimited right to strike                 that we support the immigration poli-
the Transitional Program, the founding                                                                                                                   pressor peoples flows from the
                                                     and picket·-down with compulsory                        cies of bourgeois states.... It would be
document of the f"ourth International:                                                                                                                   Pabloite/New Left conception that
                                                     arbitration and court injunctions! For                  impermissible. for example. for a
        "It is necessary to help the masses in the                                                           communist parliamentary fraction to         there are "good" and "bad" peoples and
                                                     total U M W A control over safety: no
        process of the daily struggle to find the                                                            vote for any immigration quotas, even       that the "bad" peoples have forfeited
                                                     faith in the government's inspectors!
        bridge between present demandsand the                                                                'liberal' ooes. in a bourgeois parlia-      their demoGratic rights.
        socialist program of the revolution. This       2) Restore the health fund. controlled               ment."                                         Writing shortly before the outbreak
        bridge should include a system of            by the union. with guaranteed full
                                                                                                             In an attempt to make stick some of         of World War II, Trotsky noted that
                                                     medical coverage! Equalize and ~aise all
                                                                                                         the slanders which it is slinging. the          despite the shameful "white Australia"
                                                     pensions--retirement after 20 years in
                                                                                                         WSL leadership has to ignore the                immigration policy. Australians did not
                                                     the union!
                                                                                                         principled and consistent fight against         forfeit their right to self-determination:
                                                        3) For a shorter workweek with no
     SPARTACIST LEAGUE                                                                                   anti-immigration hysteria and other             "Naturally no Australian worker or
                                                     loss in pay and a full cost-of-living
     LOCAL DIRECTORY                                 escalator clause! Eliminateovertimeand
                                                                                                         forms of national chauvinism led by             farmer wishes to be conquered and
     ANN ARBOR                  (313) 663-9012                                                           Spartacist-supported groupings in the           subjected to Japan. For a revolutionary
      cia SYL. Room 4102                             create jobs through fewer hours
      Michigan Union. U of Michigan
                                                                                                         trade unions. When in early 1975 U.S.           party it would be suicidal to say simply
      Ann Arbor MI 48109                                                                                 authorities whipped up hysteria against         we are 'indifferent' to this question. But
                                                        4) For a militant organizing drive.
     BERKELEY                                                                                            "illegal aliens." threatening to step up        we cannot give to a bourgeois, an
     OAKLAND                    (415) 835-1535 .     including U MW A strike action, to bring
      Box 23372                                                                                          mass deportations. not only did the             essentially imperialist government the
      Oakland. CA 94623
                                                     the non-union mines under U M W A
                                                                                                         Spartacist League/ U.S. actively partici-       task of defending the independence of
     BOSTON                       (617) 492-3928     contract. Down with company unions
      Box 188
                                                                                                         pate in and initiate demonstrations             Australia" ("Letter to Australians."
                                                     like the SLU!
      MIT Station                                                                                        against the racist frenzy. but caucuses         December 1937. Writings. 1937-38).
      CambCldge MA 02139                                5) Keep the government. its agencies
                                                                                                         politically supported by the SL, such as           National oppression and race hatred
     CHICAGO                      (3121427-0003      and courts out of the unions~no
      Box 6441 Ma:n P 0                                                                                  the Militant Solidarity Committee of            will not be rooted out with utopian
      Chicago IL 60680
                                                     support to those who bring the Labor
                                                                                                         UA W (car workers) Local 906 (New               fantasies of dissolving national bounda-
     CLEVELAND                    (216) 566-7806
                                                     Department a'nd courts into union
                                                                                                         Jersey). campaigned for full citizenship        ries under capitalism. Such pipe-dreams
      Box 6765                                       affairs!
      Cleveland. OH 44101
      Box 663A. General P 0
                                                                                                         rights for foreign workers. And in early
                                                                                                          1977. responding to U.S. Immigration
                                                                                                         and Naturalization Service raids in San
                                                                                                                                                         appeal only to those who are unwilling
                                                                                                                                                         to undertake the tasks of proletarian
                                                                                                                                                         .        ..            ..
                                                                                                                                                         mternatlOna!Jsm--wmntng workers to
                                                         spar;~:~st LeagU:/B;~ain
      DetrOit MI 48232
     HOUSTON                                                                                              Francisco-area warehouses, the Mili-           the program of international class
      Box 26474                                      (                                                   tant Caucus of IL WU (dockers and               solidarity. intransigent defence. of all
      Houston. TX 77207                                  public forum
     LOS ANGELES                 .(213) 662-1564
                                                                                                         warehouse union) Local 6 called for             victims of racialist oppression, and
       Box 26282. Edendale Station                                                                       union "flying squads" and strike action         above all the unrelenting struggle to
       Los Angeles CA 90026
     NEW YORK                     (212) 925-2426
                                                         The Rebirth of Trotskyism                       to stop the raids. Where has the WSL            construct a truly international vanguard
      Box 1377 GPO                                              in Britain                               made the question of defence of immi-           party.
      New York. NY 10001                                                                                 grants a fighting issue in the unions?             It is no accident that those WSL
       POBox 2034                                        WSL SPLIT-SPARTACIST                                Nor can the WSL leaders deal with           members who actively sought answers
      Chula Vista. CA 92012
                                                               LEAGUE FOUNDED                            the very real examples of the- problems         to the central questions of international
     SAN FRANCISCO                (4151863-6963                                                          created by asserting the unconditional          proletarian policy were drawn to the
       Box 5712                                          Speakers: Joe Quigley and Alastair Green
       San FranCISco CA 9410,                                      SUB Central Committee                  mass "right to unlimited immigration"          banner of the iSt. In sharp contrast to
                                                                                                          under capitalism (e.g.. Jews in Palestine.     the petty parochial workerism of the
     TROTSKYIST LEAGUE                                   Friday. 21 April 7:30 pm
                                                                                                                                                         WSL. the Spartacist League/Britain
     OF CANADA                                           Caton Settlement House                           Americans in northern Mexico. Turks
                                                         129 SI John's Way. N19                           in Cyprus). Ifpushed on this question an       will be in the forefront of the battle
     TORONTO                     (416) 366-4107
      Box 7198 Station A                                                                                  honest WS L loyalist might reply that          against the racialist poison spewed by
      Toronto OntaCio
                                                         Ring 01-278-2232 tor more information.           there are problems raised by these             the Thatchers. Powells & Callaghans
     VANCOUVER                    (604) 254-9166
                                                                                                         examples. but that nations like Holland         worshipping the corpse of their long-
       Box 26. Station A
      Vancouver B C
                                                         LONDON                                          and Belgium - cited in the WVarticle-           dead Empire.•

 8                                                                                                                                                                 WORKERS VANGUARD
 4,000 Protest·
 Apartheid at Davis
·Cup Matches

                                                                                                                                                                        Marianna Volkov
                                                                                               Pyotr Grigorenko, left, with Mstlslav Rostropovlch In New York.


   Over 4,000 protesters besieged the          from international athletic competition,
                                                                                               Protest Kremlin
                                                                                               Banishment Of
International Davis Cup tennis compe-          and it is a legitimate target of militant
tition between the u.s. and South               protest against the murderous apart-
African teams at Vanderbilt Uni-                heid regime. Moreover, this tennis
versity in Nashville, Tennessee with            tournament-which is an occasion for
the object of driving South Africa out of
Davis Cup play and, more generally, to
protest the apartheid system of white
supremacy. On March 17, the opening
                                                national glorification, much like the
                                               Olympics-particularly in the context
                                                of South Africa's attempt to achieve
                                                international respectability via the
day of the competition, hundreds of             merest step of token desegregation in             On March 10 the Soviet government        vakia was "the one we should be
armed police wearing flak jackets and           sports, is an appropriate focus for            made public a decree signed last month      following-in other words, democrati-
riot helmets escorted participants and          protests of revulsion against the apart-       by Leonid Brezhnev depriving 70-year-       zation and socialism, for there can be no
spectators through the crowd of angry           heid regime.                                   old political dissident and former Red      socialism without democracy."
demonstrators.                                      Many of the participants, however,         Army major general Pyotr Grigorenko            While some Soviet dissidents such as
   The following day an even larger             see' the protest as part of a broader          of his citizenship and barring his return   Solzhenitsyn now profess to have been
police mobilization confronted the              campaign .to boycott all things South          to the USSR. Grigorenko is currently in     motivated by religious convictions all
protesters, while inside the university         African, from sardines to Krugerrands.         the United States for medical treatment     along, the tone of the post-1968 dissi-
gymnasium bomb squads searched the              As revolutionary socialists and interna-       and demands to be allowed to return         dent movement was set by those like
grandstands and cops patrolled the              tionalists, we do not support the              home.                                       Grigorenko and Kosterin who advocat-
courts during play. Despite this massive        demand for a total economic and                   Grigorenko, who is accused of having     ed Dubcek-style self-reform of the
mobilization of the armed thugs of the          cultural boycott of South Africa. In           "inflicted damage to Soviet prestige,"      bureaucracy. In recent years almost all
state, however, the demonstrations have         general ~uch boycotts ace nothing but          was a war hero, decorated with the          of them have moved sharply to the right,
been quite successful. Less than 20             ineffectual utopian moralizing.                Order of Lenin during World War II.         and like Sakharov embrace the cold
percent of the seats for what is one of the         Moreover, the liberal-moralist desire      He was later head of the department of      warriors of imperialism in the name of
premier events of international tennis          to destroy the South African economy           cybernetics at Frunze Military Acade-       "human rights." Nowhere has this shift
were occupied.                                  would, if realized, actually increase the      my. After Grigorenko began his career       been more pronounced than in the case
    The Vanderbilt demonstrations are           oppression of the black masses and             as a dissident in the early 1960's,         of Grigorenko.
the ,culmination of a months-long               strengthen the apartheid system. Unem-         however, he was reduced to the rank of         At a recent speech at Harvard
campaign spearheaded by the left-             . ployed blacks would be sent back to the        private, expelled from the Communist        University the depth of his disillusion-
liberal American Coordinating Com-              desperately impoverished Bantustans            Party and incarcerated for more than        ment and political degeneration was
mittee for Equality in Sport and Society        where they have far less economic and          five years in prisons and psychiatric       clearly revealed. "I oppose all ideology,"
(ACCESS) and supported by the                   social power than they have as urban           hospitals.                                  he stated. "Hopefully we learn from our
 National Association for the Advance-          workers. It is through their potential            'Ve vehemently protest this bureau-      mistakes. When I began communist
 ment of Colored People (NAACP). The            power as organized labor that South            cratic outrage, a procedure which has       activities I believed that communism
demonstrators come largely from near-           Africa's black masses can attack and·          also been used against several other        was the future light of man. I want to
 by black colleges.                             eventually overthrow the apartheid             Soviet dissidents in recent years. Valery   know nothing more about commun-
    The organizing for this anti-South          system.                                        Chalidze, Zhores Medvedev, Vladimir         ism." He also stated that he supports
 Africa protest, which has been pursued             The real political danger of the liberal   Maksimov and Mstislav Rostropovich          Solzhenitsyn's attacks on Western
 mainly in the South, has provoked              anti-South Africa boycott activity lies        were all stripped of their citizenship      liberals for being too "soft" on the
 violent racist reaction. Last February         not in the impact on its intended              while abroad. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn         USSR.
                                                target-which is nil-but in the illusions       was deprived of his S'oviet citizenship        The theme of Grigorenko's talk was
 Richard Lapchick, a professor at
                                                it fosters in the righteousness of Ameri-      when he was expelled from the USSR in       "peace," and like all such "universal"
Virginia Wesleyan and leader of
                                                can imperialism. By criticizing viola-          1974. As Trotskyists we struggle to oust   and "apolitical" themes this' comes
ACCESS, was beaten senseless in his
                                                tions of "human rights" in South Africa,       the Kremlin bureaucracy and re-             down to support of the capitalist class.
office by a gang of racist hoodlums who
                                                the Carter administration is ddiberately       establish workers d~mocracy in the          Grigorenko not only praised Jimmy
carved "niger" [sic] on his chest. The
                                                seeking to restore the moral authority of       USSR, including the right of free          Carter for raising "morai" considera-
state authorities did nothing to appre-
                                                 U. S. foreign policy, which was seriously     political expression extending even to      tions in foreign policy, but went on to
 hcnd them. In fact. the official medical
                                                weakened through the decade-long               such thorough anti-Communists as the        laud such "peacemakers" as Ian Smith
examiner declared the wound "self-
                                                 massacre of million.s of Indochinese          demoralized Grigorenko has become-          of Rhodesia and King Juan Carlos of
 inflicted'"                                                                                                                               Spain:
                                                 workers and peasants. We do not call          provided they do not actively work for
    South Africa's Davis Cup team is all                                                                                                       "Some wars are ine\itable and some.
                                                 upon the bloodstained American ruling         the overthrow of the Soviet degenerated
 white, except for a last-minute, token                                                                                                        such as the American Revolution. are
                                                 class to end the oppression of the black      workers state.
 coloured (mixed race) Vanderbilt stu-                                                                                                         both just and necessary. Wars of
                                                 masses perpetrated by its South African          Grigorenko was long a representative         national liberation are just if liberation
 dent named Peter Lamb ..The composi-
                                                 ally.                                         of the left wing of the amorphous               cannot be achieved otherwise, but today
 tion of this team is a flagrant display of                                                                                                    I think other avenues are available. Ian
 South Africa's policy of barring hlacks            \Ve call on organized laborto boycott      dissident movement. In 1963 he founded
                                                                                                                                               Smith has prO\ided this answer unless
                                                all arms shipments to the murderers of         the "U nion of Struggle for the Revival         his advisers mess it up. His solution is
                                                 Sowcto and to mobilize militant inter-        of Leninism," which studied State and           through peaceful means. Juan Carlos
                                                 national labor protests to force multina-      Revolution and distributed leaflets            also is trying through peaceful means to
                                                 tionals with South African holdings to        critical of the Khrushchev regime. He           solve the CataJonian and Basque
                                                 recognize black unions and eliminate all                                                      problems."
                                                                                               also carried on a long struggle for the
                                                apartheid practices in their operations.       rights of the Crimean Tatars. In the late   Finally, the Red Armywarhero-turned-
                                                 It is not the moralistic "boycott South        1960's he, together with Old Bolshevik     pacifist, whose will has been broken by a
                                                 Africa" campaign but_ international           Alexis Kosterin and a loose grouping of     decade and a half of Stalinist persecu-
   Make payable/mail to Sparlacus Yo.uth         labor solidarity which will strike a blow     younger dissidents, joined in hailing the   tion, left no doubt that his diatribe
   Dublishlng Co Box 825. Canal Street PO        for the oppressed black masses against                                                    against war was really directed against
   New York. New York 10013
                                                                                               "Prague Spring" of 1968. Grigorenko
                                                 apartheid terror..                            wrote that Dubcek's path in Czechoslo-                         continued on page 10

14 APRIL 1978                                                                                                                                                                          9
     Frenzied ILWU                                       vital for any serious organizing drive.
                                                            Eickman bureaucratically ruled that a        French Popular                                       reconstruction of the Union of the

     Tops ...                                            vote to approve the officers' proposal
                                                         would automatically end the voting on
                                                         the other resolutions. However, he had
                                                                                                         Front...                                             What Next?
                                                                                                                                                                 Prior to the elections, the reformist
     (continued from page 3)                                                                             (com inlied from page f 2).
                                                         to surmount a challenge to the chair,                                                                parties has actively attempted to reduce
           acknowledgement that the officers had         and this required three votes before he         it is too soon to predict their exact                the level of strikes and other working-
           in fact been authorized to hold a one-        received his backing by 150 to 70 (with         composition.                                         class struggles in order to reassure the
           day work stoppage appeared in a March         the help of CP supporters like                                                                       bourgeoisie prior to an electoral victory
           24 Dispatcher. adding cautiously. 'if         Figueiredo ).                                   Union of the Left on its Death
           and when they see fit.' They never did                                                                                                             of the Union of the Left. By the same
           'see fit: and that same day the miners           As the convention drew to a close in         Bed                                                  token, the government had attempted to
           reluctantly voted for a contract that was     the late afternoon the itchy bureaucracy            In the aftermath of the electoral                piece off the working class with minor
           worse than the 1974 agreement they            again mobilized its goon squad against          fiasco, the Union of the Left will no                crumbs here and there in order to gain
           had wildcatted against for three
           years .... However. the East Bay Divi-        the Militant Caucus to emphasize the            doubt finally be put to rest. The PS will            the marginal votes needed for victory.
           sion Local 6 membership at their March        IL WU tops' determination to prevent            pursue its options independent of the'               Now, however, the PCF in particular,
           meeting. by voting to concur in the IEB       any militant action: Retired Interna-           PCF and in negotiations with the                     and to a lesser extent the PS, will be
           calL repudiated the disgusting position       tional secretary-treasurer Lou Gold-            Giscard government. The PS has                       forced at least verbally to take stronger
           of Local 6 president Eickman who was          blatt gave a major filibustering speech in      already announced its intentions to                  anti-government positions, while the
           the on!r memher o( the fEB       10   \'ote
           a~ainst'the 24-hour ·strike."                 which he warned the delegates against           publish its "own" version of the Com-                government can be expected to signifi-
                                                         "self-appointed saviours" (his long-time        mon Program, and one of its national                 cantly reinforce its austerity plan (as
        The subsequent presentation by In-               title for the Militant Caucus) and              leaders, Claude Estier, has ventured                 indicated by the reappointment of
     ternational president Jimmy Herman,                 assured the membership that while               that:                                                economist Raymond Barre, author of
     who spent no less than half an hour in a            tough times lay ahead, the present                     "By the force of things the Union of the      the present austerity plan, as prime
     frenzied denunciation of the Militant               "excellent" leadership team would see                  Left is becoming much more a de facto         minister).
     Cau(;us, made it clear how much the                 the union through them. His speech was                 unity in action ... than the organic
                                                                                                                union based on a contract which has             The focus of French political life will
     International had been stung by this                carefully timed to precede an MC                       enabled the left to make gains for the        probably be transferred from the patent
     issue. After paying lip service to union            resolution calling for solidarity with the             past five years."                             maneuvering of the political parties to
     democracy, Herman blustered that                    longshore division in the upcoming                            -quoted in Rouge, 25-26 March          the trade unions. Prior to the elections,
     those who tell us to "engage in revolu-             longshore contract battle-including             While the departure of the M RG marks                the obscure polemics within the Union
     tion" should make a revolution by going             hot-cargoing struck cargo, reinforcing          the end of the Union of the Left of old,             of the Left had a real social importance:
     "into hiding." Frantically defensive                picket lines, and sympathy-strike ac-           the future remains an open question.                 the question of which gang of reformists
     about the charge that the International             tion. The motion brought an immediate           What remains is the projected forma-                 would have the whip hand in a Union of
     officers sabotaged the mine solidarity              denunciation from McClain and was               tion of new popular-front alliances in               the Left government (while preparing to
     strike call, Herman listed five motions             duly voted down. But when Mandel rose           the form of "national unity" (Giscard's              administer some variant of the govern-
     passed by the IEB on March 9-10, the                a little later to expose a perfunctory CP-      pet project) or the "union of the people             mental austerity plan, perhaps even
     final one being: "Authorize officers to             sponsored resolution supporting the             of France" (to use the PCF's favor~d                 worse, after the elections). But now the
     call a stoppage of work if in our                   ILWU /Teamster warehouse alliance, a            term from the past).                                 polemics have been reduced to verbal
     judgement it would be helpful." The                 goon squad began to collect around him              Over the past six months the ostensi-            gymnastics preparatory to some kind of
     actuallEB motion left only thedateofa               as he criticized the treacherous behavior       ble pre-election break-up of the popular             realignment and a new, probably
     dock walkout up to the International.               of the ILWU jTeamster bureaucrats in            front has been the subject of media                  enlarged, "national unity" formation.
     and the 24 March Dispatcher describes               the last warehouse strike in 1976.              sensationalism featuring an unholy
     the motion as authorizing the officers              Abandoning all democratic pretense,             alliance of the "far left" and the                       The government will certainly try to
     "to ask the longshore division to hold a            Eickman ordered the floor mike shut off         bourgeois press. While in the U.S. the               take advantage of the left's defeat by
     one-day work stoppage in a demonstra-               and refused to allow Mandel to                  New York Times was orchestrating an                  turning the screws of Prime Minister
     tion of support for the Mineworkers."               continue.                                       anti-Communist barrage demanding                     Barre's austerity plan. Typical in this
     Period.                                                                                             "proof" of the PCF's independence                    respect was a report in Le Monde the
                                                            This disgusting spectacle of the union
                                                                                                         from the Kremlin, the French "far left"              week following the election, that previ-
        Herman complained about newspa-                  leadership disrupting and sabotaging
                                                                                                         piped in to bemoan the lack of "unity"               ous predictions of some 16,000 layoffs in
     per headlines announcing the IL WU                  the Local 6 convention should make it
                                                                                                         wit.hin the popular front. For the French            the French steel industry over the next
     strike call, all because somebody called            clear that the "progressive" IL WU
                                                                                                         would-be Trotskyist groups the claim                 year and a half had been deliberately
     the press to "announce for us"! Still               leadership is not fundamentally differ-
                                                                                                         that the Union of the Left no longer                 miscalculated by the government and
     trying to pass the buck for his own                 ent from the strikebreakers like Arnold
                                                                                                         existed served as a convenient pretext to            steel industry, and that the real number
     inaction, Herman baldly asserted, "That             Miller and George Meany in its fierce
                                                                                                         preserve a veneer of "orthodoxy"; with               of layoffs projected would be closer to
     phone call sabotaged the union's ability            opposition to any militant union action.
                                                                                                         the popular front "finished" they                    30,000 or even 40,000. However, despite
     to get our membership in gear." This                If the ILWU is to move forward, these                                                                initial demoralization over the defeat of
     flimsy excuse was never explained, and              traitors must be dumped by a new lead-          claimed to be voting for the now
                                                                                                         "independent" PCF and PS.                            "their" organizations, faced with re-
     in any case the International's earlier             ership committed to class struggle-and
                                                                                                             In contrast, the Ligue Trotskyste de             newed attacks on their standard of
     lying attempts to deny that a motion                the Militant Caucus has demonstrated
                                                                                                         France (LTF, the French sympathizing                 living the volatile French workers will
     mandating a dock walkout was ever                   its determination to lead that fight. •                                                              be forced to react to demand a halt to
     passed shows how much it wanted to                                                                  section of the international s.partacist
                                                                                                         tendency) maintained throughout the                  the erosion of their real wages.
     "get the membership in gear." After
     Herman finished his slanderous diatribe                                                             protracted parliamentary maneuvers                       While both PCF leader Georges
     an MC member rose to ask time to                                                                    that breaking from the bourgeoisie and                Marchais and Mitterand have obedient-
     answer. Eickman snapped back that
     there would be no discussion on Her-                Grigorenko...                                   the class independence of the proletariat
                                                                                                         were the decisive questions facing the
                                                                                                          French proletariat.
                                                                                                                                                              ly shown up at the presidential palace to
                                                                                                                                                              confer with President Giscard d'Es-
                                                                                                                                                              taing, the real news after the election has
     man's "report"!                                     (continued from page 9)                             In fact every indication was that the            been the series of meetings at the
        Perhaps the only business discussed              class war, i.e., against revolution. In         "rift" was simply a grand maneuver to                request of the unions, for the first time in
     In any detail by the convention delegates           discussing World War I, he said:                determine who would get what in the                  many years. Giscard's meetings with the
     was the issue of Spanish translation of                  "There is another reason for war-the        event of the anticipated Union of the               political parties have the stated aim of
     union materials and readings-an im-                      left. The Serbian terrorists also helped    Left victory. To take but one example,              moving toward some form of "national
     portant question since approximately                     start World War I. The Bolsheviks aiso     at the "height" of the "discords" a single            unity" center-left coalition. This "histor-
                                                              wanted war. Lenin spoke on this. The
     one third of the warehouse membership
                                                              program for turnir.g an imperialist war     issue of Le Monde (23 February) quoted               ic compromise" a lafranraise is proble-
     is Spanish-speaking. The Militant Cau-                   into a ci\'il war is a program for war."    parallel statements from the PCF and                 matic in the extreme and the actual aim
     cus led the way at the last three Local 6                                                            PS. According to Marchais:                           is most likely to split off the right wing of
                                                            While the Kremlin bureaucrats pre-
     conventions in raising this issue when                                                                      "'We communists. our intentions are          the PS to serve in a center coalition with
                                                         vent many Soviet citizens from traveling
     the union leaders opposed any transla-                                                                      clear. We want unitv; we want to defeat       Giscard's heterogeneous UDF. In con-
                                                         abroad and/or emigrating, they have                     the right; we want 'a new left majority
     tions. This year the officers came in with                                                                                                                trast, the meetings with the CFDT and
                                                         prO\cd quite willing to exile the most                  which will enable us to form a Union of
     a token proposal to translate the union                                                                     the Left government with communist            the CGT (as well as all other unions and
                                                         right-wing of the dissidents. They know
     constitution. but not the master con-                                                                       ministers ... ."                              the employers' association) have a more
     tract.' Translation of the contract, they           that the ravings of a Solzhenitsyn-an
                                                         extreme reactionary even by Western              And according to Mitterrand:                         immediate purpose--namely working
     argued. should be made a bargaining                                                                         "'The strength of the Socialist Party         out parameters within which the unions
     demand in 1979! In effect, the officers             standards. who wishes to return to
                                                         tsarist times with the knout and the                    cannot be dissociated from the Union of       can appear to uphold the workers'
     were joined with the employers in                                                                           the Left .... The new Socialist Party was     interests while not making any demands
                                                         Black Hundreds will not attract So-                     built and developed around the Union
     keeping L.e Spanish-speaking members                                                                                                                      which cost the government more than it
                                                         viet youth. Compared to the Trotskyists                 of the, Left strategy .... The goal of the
     ignorant of the contract provisions for                                                                                                                   wants to pay.
                                                         of the Left Opposition-who had to be                    Union of the Left is to attain a common
     at least another year.                                                                                      government."
                                                         physically exterminated down to the last
        Against this there were three other              man and woman before Stalin could                    Despite all the internal quarrels the           Role of the "Far Left"
     proposals, including a Militant Caucus              sleep easily in the Kremlin-the pro-              Union of the Left existed throughout
     proposal to translate "all important                imperialist dissidents pose far less of a        the past period since all parties agreed               The electoral campaign of the "far
     official union literature" such as the              threat to the bureaucrats.                       that they would form a common                       left" was a major debacle. Although the
     contract and constitution, as well as the              The \oicesv.hich the Stalinists most          government were they to win a parlia-               percentage of the total vote received (3.3
     union bulletins and "major discussion at            wish to silence are those which expose           p"pntary majority. Today this is no                 percent) was about the same as in 1973,
     union meetings and conventions." In the             how the bureaucracy has hetrayed the                  '!,er the case and the Union of the Left       this total percentage (which includes the
     discussion, MC member Pete Farruggio                cause of the October Revolution, who                   lers are all dutifully pa~ading to the        left-reformist social-democratic PS U)
     sarcastically suggested that one of the             call for a return to the path of Lenin.                see. But new popular front lash-ups           was maintained only by the fact that

     many items needing translation into                 Only a Trotskyist party, struggling to               : still on the agenda and the "far left"        both the Ligue Communiste Revolu-
     Spanish is Eickman's assertion that "we             oust the parasitic bureaucratic caste               is already begun its new "unity" push.           tionnaire (LCR) and Lutte Ouvriere
     do not have substandard housing in                  through political revolution, while               \Vhile the various components of the               (La) ran in vastly more areas this year
     Local 6." This would enrage many                    defending and extending the conquests             popular front might well clamor: "The              than in 1973. Whereas the LCR had
     Spanish-speaking members who are                    of October. can achieve real democracy            Union of the Left is dead--Long Live               received an average of 1.8 percent of the
     concentrated in substandard houses. He              for the working people of the Soviet              the Union of the Left." perhaps the fake-          votes in areas where it ran candidates in
     also noted that Spanish translations are             Union .•                                         Trotskyists will chime in "For the                 1973, this year it received only 0.9

     10                                                                                                                                                                   WORKERS VANGUARD
percent on the average. And Lutte             .rally with the PS in Nice (Informations         PCF-PS government, for reciprocal                  working class, by claiming that the
Ouvriere, which virtually dissolved its        Ouvrieres, 22 February)!                        withdrawal of PCF and PS candidates                workers have "no short-term political
organization into a vast electoral ma-           To justify its capitulation, the OCI          on the second round," for "action                  perspectives," the LCR claims as its own
chine in order to run candidates in every      was forced to cook up the theory that its       committees" a la OCI, and so on. The               the popular frontist illusions of the
district (with 470 candidates, La ran          parliamentarist approach was justified          central difference between the two is              working class. In an assessment of the
more candidates than even the PCF!),           by the bonapartist regime installed by          that while the OCi capitulates primarily           second round, LCR honcho Krivine
received an average of only 1.7 percent        de Gaulle in 1958. Devoting an entire           toward the social democrats, the LCR               exclaims:
of the votes, as opposed to 2.33 percent       book to the question of the popular             directs its affections toward the Stalin-              "At one blow, all the hopes built upover
                                                                                               ists. Alain Krivine. /ider maximo of the             . so many years have collapsed like a
in 1973.                                       front. the OCI authors spend 350 pages                                                                 house Of cards. Defeat is hard to bear,
                                               demonstrating that the popular fronts in        LCR, stressed at a number of public                    but it is even more unbearable because
   By its own account, La, the smallest        France and Spain in the 1930's and more         meetings that the LCR agreed with                      victory was within grasp....
of the three main ostensibly Trotskyist        recently in Chile.disarmed the proletari-       many of the PCFs demands and did not                   'The division of the workers movement
organizations in France, spent over half       at politically and militarily and opened        seek to "differentiate itself on every                 broke any unitary dynamic and ex-
a million doHars to run a grotesque                                                                                                                   plains the defeat ...."
                                               the way for the defeats which followed.         point" from the Stalinists.
imitation of the Union of the Left             But in the last chapter there is an about-         Whereas the OCI held joint electoral            Krivine concludes by saying:
campaign. La's slogans made blatant            face. France today is not the same at all,      meetings with the PS, tne LCR partici-                 "But the hour is not for lamentations,
populist appeals to the "little man,"                                                                                                                 now we must lay the basis for a real
                                               you see. On the contrary, rather than           pated in joint meetings with the Left                  workers' unitv. one which will be built
assuring all and sundry that La "will          opening the door to defeat, the victory         Radicals and dissident Gaullists courted               on demands.'one which will be devel-
never hesitate in supporting small             of the popular front would, say the OCI         by the PCF. A leaflet announcing an                    oped in the battles which must be led
employers against big ones." But the           fortune tellers, necessarily touch off a        election meeting for the PCF candidate                 against austerity and the state which
two central appeals of the La campaign                                                         in one Paris district, presided over by a              applies it."
                                               revolutionary crisis that would be a
were: "Vote for a woman, vote Arlette"         mortal danger to the bourgeoisie:               Protestant minister, called "For Victory              For the LCR. as for the OCI. "unitv"
(Laguiller. La's "star" and its candidate          "The framework of the Fifth Republic        to the Candidates of the Union of the              is sacrosanct. The unity of the bu~ea~­
in the 1974 presidential elections) and            will not allow for a left parliamentary      Whole Left" (our emphasis). with                  cratic tops. the unity of the workers'
that La deputies in parliament would be            majority .... The Fifth Republic is not a   speakers from both the Left Radicals               illusions---but not the only "real work-
"real" left deputies. Thus one of La's             bourgeois parliamentary regime. Sim-
                                                   ply changing the relations within the       and the LCR (as well as other groups).             ers' unity" that can culminate in the
electoral statements says that an La               tributary parties of the Fifth Republic.     Rouge, the LCR paper, reported on a               seizure of state power by the working
deputy would be a "left deputy on the              which direct and occupy the state. will     meeting for a Union of the Left                    class led by the vanguard party--unity
side of the workers. in the event [!] that         open up a deadly crisis."                   candidate running against publisher                around the Marxist program. In effect,
the left government reneges on its                          Fronts pupulaires d'hier el        Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber (leader              the "unity" preached by the LCR and
commitments" (our emphasis).                                d'aujuurd'hui
                                                                                               of the pro-Giscard Radicals) in the                the OCI is the unity of the popular
                                                For all its disclaimers that revolution        following terms:                                   front--or at best a "fighting popular
   Can there be any question that the
                                              cannot be made by parliamentary                      "Thursday's meeting was a success ....         front." Nowhere do the LCR or the OCI
election promises. the "commitments"                                                               For the first time in Nancy. representa~
                                              means, the OCI has stated and .estated                                                              talk about fighting to build a revolution-
of a Marchais or Mitterrand aren't worth
                                                                                                                                                  ary party on the ruins of the popular
the paper they are written on? In fact,
the thrust of the La campaign, in
                                                                                                                                                     While the centrists dabble anew in the
addition to its rampant populism, was
                                                                                                                                                  "unity" of class betrayal, the Ligue
that it was simply a "more left" version
                                                                                                                                                  Trotskxste de France firmly defended
of the policies of the popular front. La
                                                                                                                                                  the Trotskyist program of revolutionary
deputies were to be "left deputies that
                                                                                                                                                  proletarian opposition to the popular
would not toe the line" for the PCF and
                                                                                                                                                  front. The LTF stated, "The minimum
the PS. A token La deputy would
                                                                                                                                                  condition that workers must set in order
supposedly keep the Union of the Left
                                                                                                                                                  to give electoral support to the PCF and
honest. Given its total electoral cretin-
                                                                                                                                                  PS is that they break with their
ism, it is not surprising that one La
                                                                                                                                                  bourgeois electoral partners and with
candidate publicly stated that La would
                                                                                                                                                  the Common Program which provides
even enter a popular front government
                                                                                                                                                  the framework for this c1ass-
the better to denounce its secret deals!
                                                                                                                                                  collaborationist alliance."
                                                                                                                                                     In a special pre-election leaflet, the
OCI: Errand Boys for Mitterrand                                                                                                                   LTF declared:
                                                                                                                                                      "Caught up in their worship of the
   The disarray exhibited by the rest of                                                                                                              accomplished fact, the 'far left' centrists
the "far left" in the wake of its electoral                                                                                                           cannot even imagine that revolutionary
                                                                                                                         Informations Ouvrieres       program can possibly split the reformist
setback reflects the popular-front illu-
sions shared in and spread by its              French premier Raymond Barre                                                                           parties. The pseudo-Trotskyists of the
                                                                                                                                                      LCR and OCI, hard on the heels of the
campaigns. In differing fashions all of                                                                                                               popular front since 1972, have attempt-
                                               for at least 4 years an unambiguous                  tives of the PC, the PS, the MRG, the
the major groups sought to place the                                                                LCR, the FA [Front Autogestion-                   ed to sanctify their sweeping right turn
                                               stagist position: bringing the popular                                                                 by putting on a spectacular and hysteri-
Union of the Left in power so that they                                                             naire-a formation dominated by the
                                               front to power represents the first step             PSU] and the left Gaullists were                  cal campaign for 'unity' before the
could expand their influence in its
                                               on the path to socialist revolution. This            together on the same stage."                      elections....
periphery. Thus the statement by the                                                                                                                  "Today it is the Ligue Trotskyste de
                                               position goes hand in hand with the                        -Rouge, 18 March
OCl's Stephane Just to its Central                                                                                                                    France which has taken up Trotsky's
                                               OCl's overtures to the United Secretariat          And in Nanterre, J-F Godchau, one
Committee meeting after the elections                                                                                                                 revolutionary imperatives; its program
                                               during the same period: theOCI now has          of the national leaders of the LCR,                    stands in contrast to all variants of
that "Today the working class no longer
                                               no substantial differences with the             signed a call (whose signatories included              centrist accommodation to the popular
ha~ any short-term perspectives. That
                                               Pabloist methodology of pressuring the          the Gaullists for Progress) ~titled: "For              front. and will provide the means by
fact is fundamental." (Informations                                                                                                                   which the working class can break with
                                               reformist apparatuses "to the left." For        the victory of the union of the left next
Ouvrieres, 30 March). In reality what                                                                                                                 its traitorous leaderships. The LTF is
                                               the OCI,- "if only" the treacherous             Sunday."                                               building the revolutionary party which
Just was expressing is the OCI's own
                                               reformist leaderships would unite, a               Both the LCR and the OCI face a                     will be the French section of a reforged
lack of any short-term perspective
                                               revolutionary process would be auto-            basic problem today: having hitched                    Fourth International!"
following the defeat of the popular                                                                                                                          -"No to New Popular Front in
                                               matically set off.                              their cart to the Union of the Left, they
front. on whose victory it had centered                                                                                                                         France!" reprinted in WV No.
                                                  Proving that it has hardened into its        now have nowhere to go. It can be
its program for the last four years at                                                                                                                          196. 10 March 1978
                                               popular-frontist line and can now learn         expected that the crises which wracked
least.                                                                                                                                            As the class struggle picks up in the
                                               nothing even from a total collapse of its       the centrist organizations even before
   Of all the French groups, the OCI           political perspective, the OCl's reaction                                                          factories, the pseudo-Trotskyists will
                                                                                               the elections will only deepen now. The
most openly played the role of support-        to the post-election demise of the Union                                                           adapt their perennial program of tailing
                                                                                               LCR is already in deep disarray. And
ers of the popular front and--as the           of the Left was the revealing front-page                                                           the reformist bureaucracies to the new
                                                                                               while the OCI claims to have recruited             conditions, offering themselves up in
PCF was quick to point out--as errand          headline in the 5-12 Aprillnformatiol1s         large numbers of people on the basis of
boys for Franl;ois Mitterrand. Thus the        Ou\'rieres: "Encore et toujours. front                                                             effect as the handmaidens of a "new"
                                                                                               the slogan "automatic withdrawal by                Union of the Left. The 1. TF. in contrast,
issue of the OCl's paper. Informations         unique ouvrier" (roughly, "Now and              the workers parties on the second round
Ouvrieres. which came out between the          forever. workers united frollt.") The                                                              will continue its intransigent opposition
                                                                                               of the elections," they will no doubt lose
election rounds was headlined: "12             "workers united front," in OCljargon is                                                            to popular front ism in every guise.•
                                                                                               most of these people at the first signs of
March: PS-PCF Majority. 19 March:              the famous PS-PCF government-                   difficulty or the first turn by the OCl
Victory!"-the "victory" of the popular         which in turn is a code for the Union of        leadership.
front. that is.                                the Left. But. unfortunately for the OCl,          While the OCI puts the blame on the
                                               the Union of the Left is no longer "now
                                                                                                                                                    SL/SYL PUBLIC OFFICES
   As the elections approached. the OCI        and forever," and so the OCI has "no                                                                 Marxist Literature
centered all its efforts on the slogan:        short-term perspectives."                                   LE BOLCHEVIK
"Enough Splits! Unity for a PCF-PS                                                                                                                  BAY AREA
                                                                                                  organe de la L.igue T rotskyste de France         Friday and Saturday.         300-600 pm
Majority!" (The mythical PCF-PS                The LCR Bloc
majority was simply a fig leaf for                                                                          12 F Ies 6 numeros                      1634 Teleg raph. 3rd floor
                                                                                                                                                    (near 17th Street)
support to the popular front. since the           As the election progressed, the                 pour toute commande:                              Oakland. California
M RG hardly counted for anything in            slogans of the Ligue Communiste                    Le 80lchevi~, B.P. 421 09                         Phone 835-1535
terms of votes.) To the PCFs slogan            Re\olutionnaire increasingly came to               75424 Paris CEDEX 09, France
"Life must be changed" ("11 faut changer       resemble those of the OCI-although                                                                   Tuesday                         .. 430-800
la vie") the OCI replied, via its youth        the LCR's rhetoric is more that of a                                                                 Saturday                      200-530 p m
press. "Life must be changed totally"          "fighting popular front"· so dear to
("Pour un changement total de la vie").        Marceau Pivert in the 1930's. while the                   SPARTACIST                                 523 South Plymouth Court. 3rd floor
                                                                                                                                                    Chicago IllinOIS
                                                                                                                                                    Phone 427 ·0003
                                               OCI simply wants to put the popular
OCI leader Charles Berg took up this
theme in a major public OCI meeting by         front in power "without preconditions."                     Canada                                   NEW YORK
                                               Thus the LC R stressed slogans such as                    Subscription: S2/year                      Monday-Friday.               630-900 pm
stating that "Change is a PCF-PS                                                                             (11 issues)                            Saturday                   100-400 pm.
majority in the National Assembly"             "workers' unity" (i.e.. the unity of the
                                                                                                                                                    260 West Broadway Room 522
(quoted in Rouge. 30 January). To top it       reformist   PCF-PS       bureaucracies),           Make payable/mali to: Spartacist Canada
                                                                                                                                                    New York. New York
                                                                                                  Publishing Association. Box 6867, Station A,
all off. the OCI proudly proclaimed the        "down with the divisions between the                        Toronto. Ontario. Canada                 Phone 925·5665
fact that it organized a joint election        PCF and PS." "defeat the right," "for a

 14 APRIL 1978                                                                                                                                                                               11
               WfJli/(EIiS VANfilJAli1J
                After Electoral Flop

                        rene  ODUlar ron



-...                    reaKS
-=                The recent French parliamentary               fewer additional seats in parliament (9)

               elections dealt a mortal blow to the
               popular-front Union of the Left and
               inflicted a severe defeat on its "far-left"
                                                                than did the PCF (12). Whereas the PS
                                                                had expected to come out of the elections
                                                                as the clearly dominant party of the left, it

E i;;::

               supporters. Although the right-wing
               parliamentary majority of the two major
               bourgeois parties President Valery
                                                                is now essentially in a stand-off with the
                                                                PCF. Mltterrand's presidential amhi-
                                                                tions, as well as the unity of the Socialist

I              Giscard d'Estaing's UDF (Union for
               French Democracy) and Jacques Chi-
               rac's neo-Gaullist RPR (Assembly for
                                                                Party, which was based on support of
                                                                those ambitions, have heen dealt a severe
                                                                blow, and deep fissures have already
I              the Republic)-won only a bare majori-
               ty of the popular votes on the second
                                                                appeared on the PS facade.

I              roun'd (and received over a million votes
               less than the Union of the Left and "far
                                                                Mitterrand: Bourgeois Politician
                                                                Turned "Socialist"
I!             left" candidates on the first round), the           For months prior to the elections

               majority came out with a comfortahle
               margin in parliament, winning 291 seats
               (a loss of 10) against 200 seats for the left
               (a gain of 17). The closeness of the
                                                                rumors ahounded concerning the fate of
                                                                the Union of the Left coalition. Was it
                                                                dead'J Would the PCF step down forthe

                                                                PS on the second round? These were the

               election was illustrated by the fact that        questions which dominated French

               57 deputies were elected by margins of           polit icallife. The bourgeois press and the
;;;;;          less than one percent of the votes on the        "far left" joined forces to pinpoint PCF


               second round.
                   Since polls taken prior to the first
               round of voting had widely predicted
               that the left would win up to 53 percent of
               the popular vote and possibly even a
               parliamentary majority (a prediction
               shared by the conservative British
                                                                "intransigence" as the source of the
                                                                Union of the Left's potential electoral
                                                                demise. But when the buzzing subsided,
                                                                the PCF faithfully delivered its elector-
                                                                ate to the popular front. while masses
                                                                of Socialist voters opted for the govern-
                                                                me.nt coalition on the second round
               !:"(:onom is t) , the results of the first and   rather than vote for the Communist
               second rounds sent massive shock waves           Party.                                                         '.~                                                                    Morel
               through the French left. The evening of             The immediate sources of the loss of            Union of the Left leaders make amends before second round voting.
               the elections, Robert Fabre, president of        Union of the Left votes between the two
               the Movement of Left Radicals (M RG),            rounds is readily apparent: in the pre-            German social democracy by protesting        19}2 the Union of the Left, based on the
               the small bourgeois component of the             election period the PS had swelled to              the West German anti-radical Berufsver-      Common Program, was formed.
               Union of the Left, announced that he             nearly 30 percent of the expected votes in         hot. which prevents radicals from hold-          Behind M itterrand stand groupings in
               considered himself "released from the            the public opinion polls. This new-found           ing government jobs (such as teachers).      the PS with widely divergent interests
               commitments made in 1972" when the               support came from middle-class voters              But the content of this statement (which     and appetites. The main "official"
                M RG joined the Union of the Left.              dissatisfied with the Giscard government           predates the beginning of the cold war),     minority, the CERES, is Stalinophilic
                   In the week following the elections, it      but nonetheless staunchly anti-                    issued at a time when the PCF was still      and has consistently attacked the PS
               became increasingly clear that the Union         Communist. To lead this electoral                  part of the French government, is but a      leadership for not making more conces-
               of the Left, as it was formed in 1972 based      apparatus no one was more suited than              call for a French version of the             sionsto the PCF. Other elements of the
               on the Common Program drawn up                   Franl;ois Mitterrand, eminently minis-             Beru(sverhot.                                PS want to break openly with the
               between the Socialists and the Commu-            trahle (eligible to be a minister) having                                                       popular front, even if the alternative is
               nists(and later signed bytheMRG)was              served in the cabinet eleven times in the             Later. in 1954 Mitterrand was Minis-
                                                                                                                                                                the unappetizing prospect of returning to
               in its death throes. The M RG polled             pre-1958 Fourth Republic. And while he             ter of the Interior when the Algerian war    the parliamentary combinationism char-
               slightly fewer votes than the "far left"         combined all the requisite talents of              began. It was M itterrand who authored       acteristic of the Fourth Republic.
               candidates (who totaled about 950,000             parliamentary cunning and treachery               the now infamous phrases "the only               The Socialist Party is currently in a
               votes), and as in the 1936 popular-front         appropriate for this calling, he also had          negotiation [with the Algerians] is war,"    bind. It was rebuilt from the isolPted
               elections, the only reason the M RG got          another: at the time Mitterrand led a              and "a single France, from Flanders to       remnants of the SFIO after 1968 (in the
               as many votes as it did was that it was          hourgeois party.                                   the Congo." As garde des sceaux              ·1969 presidential elections, the SFIO
               actively supported by the Communist                 Mitterrand's political career was               (attorney general) he signed death           received a mere 5 percent of the votes) to
                Party (PCF) and the Socialist Party              mark~d by fervid anti-communism and
                                                                                                                   warrants for members of the Algerian         a powerful electoral apparatus. The PS
               (PS), its popular-front bedfellows. The           pro-colonialism from its origins in the           Communist Party during the war.              has gained considerable influence in the
                M RG is deeply divided between those             post-war period. In 1946, the first time             Mitterrand's political career "on the     CFDT and rebuilt a working-class base
               who want to continue some kind of                 Mitterrand ran for election to parlia-            left" began when he refused to support       to the point of challenging the PCF in
                popular-front alliance, or possibly even         ment. his electoral platform stated that          de Gaulle in 1958. In 1965, as the head of   some areas. However, the PS as it exists
               enter the PS, and those (led by Fabre)            he intended:                                      a small bourgeoi~ party in alliance with     today owes its existence to the Union of
                who are hostile to such an alliance and                 " to wage a struggle against Commun-       the SFIO (the French section of the          the Left: its dilemma is that Mitterrand
                seek rather to return to the bourgeois               ism on all fronts, to unceasingly unmask      Second International), Mitterrand be-        can neither continue the alliance with
                                                                     its lies. to. usc existing laws against it.
                majority.                                            adding to them if necessary. and in
                                                                                                                   came the "candidate of the left" for the      the PCF on the same terms as previous-
                   But the biggest loser of the elections            particular to institute the incompatibili-    presidential elections that year. In 1971,    ly, nor break clearly with the PCF and
                was clearly Franl;ois Mitterrand's So-               ty between belonging to the Communist         a fusion between the old SFIO and             enter into a government coalition
                cialist Party. While gaining more votes              Party and exercising authoritative ad-        several smaller groupings, including          without losing much of the credit the PS
                than the PCF on the first round (23                  ministrati\c functions or those concern-      Mitterrand's. transformed it into the         has built up. Therefore, while it is likely
                                                                     ing security."
                percent as against the PCF's 21.25                             quoted in LUlie OUI.,ihe. 10        Socialist Party. with Mitterrand at its       that there will be some reshuffling in the
                percent), the PS fell far short of poll                         March 1978                         head. based on a clear mandate to seek a      PS and M RG, possibly including splits,
                predictions. More important, it gained          Mitterand recently caused a stir in the            popular-front alliance with the PCF. In                           comitilled on page 10

               12                                                                                                                                                                       14 APRIL 1978

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