Examples of Kinds of Targets

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					                                     Examples of Kinds of Targets
                         Knowledge                     Reasoning              Skills/Performance                     Products
                                             Use statistical methods to
                 Recognize and describe      describe, analyze,             Measures length in metric
Mathematics                                                                                                 Constructs bar graphs
                 patterns                    evaluate, and make             and US units
 Language                                    Formulates questions,
     Arts        Recognizes similes,         makes predictions, verifies    Reads aloud with fluency
  (reading/      metaphors, and analogies and revises understanding         and expression
 literature)                                 while reading
                                             Analyze fitness
                 Understands long-term                                      Dribbles to keep the ball
                                             assessments to set
  Physical       physiological benefits of                                  away from an opponent;          Develops a personal
                                             personal fitness goals;
 Education       regular participation in                                   passes and receives on          health-related fitness plan
                                             strategize ways to reach
                 physical activity                                          the move
                                             goals; evaluate activities
                 Explains the important      Distinguishes between
                 characteristics of          historical fact and opinion;   Participates in civic           Creates a product that
                 citizenship, including the  compares and contrasts         discussions with the aim of     uses social studies
   Studies       right and responsibility of points of view from an         solving current problems        content to support a thesis
                 voting                      historical event
                 Knows that energy can be Examines data/results and
                                                                            Uses simple equipment           Constructs physical
  Science        transformed between         proposes meaningful
                                                                            and tools to gather data        models of familiar objects
                 various forms               interpretation
                                             Compares and contrasts
                                             theater performances from      Demonstrates a range of
                 Identify elements of design                                                                Create a scripted scene
   Theater                                   various cultures and times     movements to create
                 in a given play                                                                            based on improvised work
                                             using appropriate arts         character
                                             Compare and contrast
                                                                            Pronounces correctly:
                                             cultural features from the                                     Writes simple descriptions
  Spanish        Comprehends vocabulary                                     vowel/consonant sounds;
                                             North America and the                                          and narratives
                                             Spanish-speaking world
Table 3.1 Examples of Kinds of Targets comes from CASL, page 63

                   www.tie.net                                                   Technology and Innovation in Education
                                                  Learning Targets
Target Type            Explanation                     Content Standard/Outcome Key Words                                         Examples
Knowledge/       Some knowledge/facts/          Explain, understand, describe, identify, tell, name, list identify,   Vocabulary
Understanding    concepts to be learned         define, label, match, choose, recall, recognize, select               Measurement concepts
                 outright; some to be                                                                                 U.S. government structure
                 retrieved using reference                                                                            Patterns of growth and
                 materials                                                                                            development

Reasoning        Thinking proficiencies—        Analyze: components, parts, ingredients, logical sequence,            Think critically
                 using knowledge to solve a         steps, main idea, supporting details, determine, dissect,         Analyze authors’ use of
                 problem, make a decision,          examine, order                                                    language
                 plan, etc.                     Compare/contrast: discriminate between; alike and different,          Solve problems
                                                    distinguish between, similarities and differences, juxtapose      Compare forms of
                                                Synthesize: combine into, blend, formulate, organize, adapt,          government
                                                    modify                                                            Self-evaluation
                                                Classify: categorize, sort, group, give examples                      Analyze health information
                                                Infer/deduce: interpret, implications, draw conclusions, predict
                                                Evaluate: justify, support opinion, think critically, appraise,
                                                    critique, debate, defend, dispute, evaluate, judge, prove
Skills           Behavioral demonstrations;     Observe, focus attention, listen, perform, do, question, conduct,     Read fluently
                 where the doing is what is     work, read, speak, assemble, operate, use, demonstrate,               Oral presentations
                 important; using knowledge     measure, investigate, model, collect, dramatize, explore              Play an instrument
                 and reasoning to perform                                                                             Use laboratory equipment
                 skillfully                                                                                           Conduct investigations

Products         Where the characteristics of   Design, produce, create, develop, make, write, draw, represent,       Writing
                 the final product are          display, model, construct                                             Artistic products
                 important; using knowledge,                                                                          Research reports
                 reasoning, and skills to                                                                             Make a map
                 produce a final product                                                                              Personal fitness plan
                                                                                                                      Make a model that
                                                                                                                      represents a scientific
Table 3.2 Content Standards—Key Words comes from CASL, page 64; adapted by Nicole Vagle, Lighthouse Learning Community

                  www.tie.net                                                            Technology and Innovation in Education

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