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Chapter 04 05 AP by aVr7Osb


									Chapter 4: Greece & Iran, 1000-30 BC
Chapter 5: Rome & Han China 753-600 AD
AP Framework: Key Concept 2.2 The development of States & Empires
• Students should know the location and names of key states and empires
     SE Asia – Persian Empires (Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid)
     E Asia – Qin & Han empire
     S Asia – Maurya & Gupta empires
     Med – Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek city-states and colonies, and Hellenists and
     Roman empires
     Mesoamerican – Teotihuacan, Maya city-states
     Andean S America – Moche
AP Framework: Key Concept 2.2 The development of States & Empires continued
• To organize their subjects, rulers created administrative institutions
      Centralized governments
      Elaborate legal systems & bureaucracies
• Imperial governments projected military power over large areas using:
      Supply lines
      Fortifications and roads
      Drawing military officers/soldiers from local populations
• Success of empires rested on trade and economic integration
• Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political
      Persepolis, Chang’an, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, etc.
• Social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves,
artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.
• Imperial societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and
provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites.
      Slavery, rents & tribute, peasant communities, family/household production
• Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this
Ancient Iran, 1000-486 BC
• Geography & Resources
• Rise of the Persian Empire
     Iranians, Medes, and Persians (Achaemenid)
     Early Rulers and conquests – Cyrus, Darius I
• Imperial Organization
     Darius’s reorganization of the Empire – 20 satraps
     The royal court – marriage & the entourage
     Administration – Susa vs. Persepolis
• Ideology & religion
     Persepolis & the vision of the empire – huge PR
     Religious Ideology – Zoroastrian – rewarded/punished in afterlife based on present life
     AP Framework – religious beliefs that continue to have strong influences in later period
Rise of the Greeks, 1000-500 BC
• Geography & Resources – EMed identical
• Emergence of the Polis
     The Dark Age – depopulation & poverty
     New ideas from the East – Phoenician visitors, "archaic” period, alphabet
     Nature of the Polis – “city-state”
     Hoplite Warfare – farmer warriors
     Colonization – a way to get rid of extra Hellenes
     Political Evolution – from nobles to tyrants to democracy
     Religion – anthropomorphic gods
• New intellectual currents
     Lyric Poetry – individualism with feelings
     AP Framework: Greek plays
     AP Framework: Greek architectural style
     Science & History – Herodotus the historian
     AP Framework: Greco-Roman philosophy and science emphasized logic, empirical
     observation, and the nature of political power and hierarchy.
• Athens & Sparta
     Spartan military state - Helots, militarianism & isolationism
     Athens & democracy – Pericles guides to democracy
Struggle of Persia and Greece, 546-323 BC
• Early encounters
     Xerxes great invasion – Thermopylae & Plataea
• Height of Athenian power
     Athens’ Naval Empire - trireme
     Benefits of Empire – buildings
     Philosophy – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
• Inequality in classical Greece
     Slavery – 1/3 population
• Failure of the city-state and triumph of the Macedonians
     Peloponnesian War – Athens (navy) vs. Sparta (army)
     Philip and the rise of Macedonia – technology to go against Persia
     Alexander’s conquest of (Achaemenid) Persia – marries Iranian women
Hellenistic Synthesis, 323-30 BC
• The Three Kingdoms – Seleucid, Ptolemaic, and Antigonid
• Alexandria – light house, library, and Alexander’s mausoleum
Rome’s Creation of a Mediterranean Empire, 753 BC – 600 AD
• A Republic of farmers
     Origins – 7 Kings (Romulus)
     Republic – Senate (life)
     Class, conflicts and social relations
            Elite Patricians vs. Plebeians
            Tribunes (veto)
            Patron/Client
            Ancestor worship
     Religion – resembled the Greeks
• Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean
     Causes and instruments of expansion – (reelection + insecurity = expansion)
     O’seas Provinces
            Citizenship
            Wars against – Carthage (x2), Gaul
• The failure of the Republic
     Economic and social changes in Italy
            Latifundia growing high-profit crops – import needed food
            Little farmers unemployed in the cities – on welfare
     Civil Wars – if you command the army, you command Rome
Rome’s Creation of a Mediterranean Empire, 753 BC – 600 AD continued
• The Roman Principate, 31 BC – 330 AD “first amongst equals”
     Augustus (Octavian) – 45 years, long enough to forget about a republic
     Emperors trained up their successors
     Roman Law – principate the source of laws
• The Urban Empire
     Life in the cities – focus, strained economy and infrastructure
     AP Framework: Roman architectural style
     Life in the countryside – autonomous and on remotely controlled
     Commerce – enhanced by “pax romana”
     Romanization (strongest in the west) and citizenship (extended to all free males)
• Technology and transformation
     Engineering – roads & aqueducts,
     Defense – forts & garrisons
     3rd century crisis – High: turnover, taxes, unemployment, attacks. Low: trade
     Diocletian and Constantine – freeze & fracture
•The rise of Christianity
     Jesus & Paul
     AP Framework: Christianity drew on Judaism, rejected Roman/Hellenistic influences
     AP Framework: Persecution and growth of the church
Origins of Imperial China, 221 BC – 220 AD
• Qin unification of China, 221 - 206 BC
     Shi Huangdi – founded short-lived Qin, controlling, legalist
     Clash with the Nomads – walls & attacks ended up unifying Xiongnu
     Fall of the Qin (15 years) – terracotta soldiers and tomb with map
• Long reign of Han, 202 BC – 220 AD
     Gaozu – rebel leader that brought down the Qin
     Wu – long rule documented by Sima Qian & government exams
• Chinese society
     The family – loyalty, obedience, respect for elders/ancestor, honor/conduct
     Women – 3 submissions: parent, husband, son
     Chang’an – capital, imitated around China
     Scholars (gentry), merchants (viewed w/suspicion), and soldiers (2 yrs)
• New forms of thought and belief
     History – employed & limited by the government
     Technology – astrology, horse collar, watermill, roads, canals
     Religion – Daoism, Buddhism (initially clashed with Chinese family values)
• Decline of the Han
     Wang Mang – ambitious official – quickly overthrown
     Fall of the Han (Civil War)
           Expensive frontier issues
           Paying for mercenaries
           Large landowners – loss of tax base

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