I. The Rise of the Greeks, 1000�500 b.c.e

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I. The Rise of the Greeks, 1000�500 b.c.e Powered By Docstoc
					I. Athens & Sparta
humanism: philosophical approach
focusing on reason, freedom of
thought, and nature over religion
  A.     Athens & Sparta

1. Sparta located in Peloponnesus
   in s. Greece

  -Spartan enslaves Messenians
  -severely strict & militarized
  -all Spartan males trained for
  army (age 7)

2. Athens located in Attica

  -period of tyrants
  -developed democracy
3. Rise of Athenian Democracy:

a. Solon:

   - lets Aristocrats keep land
   - bans debt slavery
   - easier to participate in gov’t
   - instituted paid civil service

b. “Golden Age” of Pericles:

  - massive public works
  - Delian treasury moved to Athens
  - reconstruction of Acropolis
                  Athenian Government
I. Assembly:
       -made up of all adult male citizens
       -passed all laws
       -debates were held in public
       -all laws were posted in public places

II.   Council of 500:
         -each district sent 50 representatives
         -minimum age of 30; two term limit

III. Court System:
        -jury pool of 6,000 citizens
        -501 were chosen at random to serve as jurors
        -ostracism (exiled for 10 years)
Greek Colonization
         B. The Persian Wars (526–323 BCE)
A. Roots of War:

   1. 499 b.c.e. the Greek cities in Ionia stage 5-year revolt against
   Persians (Greeks back Ionians…Persians attack both)

   2. 1st Persian War: Darius I captures Ionia and burns Athens

       -attack foiled by Athenian forces at Marathon

   3. 2nd Persian War: Xerxes lead large army and fleet

       -Battle of Thermopylae (Persians defeat 300 Spartans)
       -Battle of Salamis (Athenian naval victory)
       -Sparta organized Hellenic League against Persians
       -Athens organized Delian League (477 b.c.e.), push out Persians
First Persian War: In 490 B.C. Darius sent 600 ships and thousands of soldiers to
  invade Greece. He wanted to punish the Athenians for helping Ionian rebels.




     Second Persian War: Battle of Salamis

The large Persian
 ships could not
 maneuver in the
 close quarters.     Thermopylae

The smaller Greek
                             Salamis   Athens
 ships destroyed
  them. Xerxes
could not avenge
his father’s loss…
A Citizen of Athens:                            A Citizen of Naxos:
    Naxos has nothing to fear from the Delian       The Delian League is a clever disguise
League. It is a defensive alliance formed to    for an Athenian empire. Athens is the
protect us from a Persian invasion. We
                                                strongest member of the League, and it
proved during the last invasion that we could
                                                forces every other city to accept its will.
defeat the mighty Persians if we fought
together.                                           Can we defend Delos from a Persian
    We admit we removed the treasury of the     attack? Why was the League's treasury
Delian League to Athens from the island of      not safe there? I'll tell you why. Athens
Delos. Our rea-son for doing so was only to     wanted the money. Athens is rich, but it
protect the treasury in case of an invasion.    wants to be the strongest power in
We will need to build ships and to buy          Greece.
supplies. And since Athens is the strongest         The Persians will not invade us. They
member of the League, is it not the most
                                                learned their lesson at Salamis. Even if
logical place to keep the League's treasury?
                                                they do, there is plenty of time to form
    True, we have forced other cities to
remain in the League, but that is not           an alliance to defeat them. Athens uses
Athenian tyranny. We must stay united, or       the fear of Persia to build an empire of
the Persians will see their opportunity and     its own.
conquer us one by one. No one can be                Naxos is not afraid of Athens. We will
permitted to weaken the League by leaving       not become its slaves. There is more
it.                                             danger from Athens than from all the
                                                armies of Persia.
        C. Height of Athenian Power (480–323 BCE)
1. Classical Period of Greeks
   dominated by Athens (due to
   Delian League control)

  - became imperial naval power
  - lower-class men as rowers

  -trireme: fast, maneuverable
  170-oar boat

  -profitable trade and tribute
  from subject states

  -constructed impressive public
  works, festivals, & development
  of arts & sciences
2. Athenian philosophers:

a. Socrates turned philosophy to study of ethics:

   - created Socratic method
   - “know thyself”
   - executed for “corrupting the youth”

b. Plato (Socrates’ student) wrote in “dialogues”
   (The Republic)

   - the world we see is a reflection of an ideal
   reality (Allegory of the Cave)
   -founded school, Academy

c. Aristotle (Plato’s student): focus on scientific

    - school: Lyceum
    C.       Inequality in Classical Greece
1. Athenian democracy very limited

   - free adult males citizens (10-15%)
   - women, children, slaves, and foreigners

2. slaves: mostly foreign (1/3 of pop.)

   - allowed male citizens time for political activity

3. Women’s Rights:

   -Sparta: relatively free & outspoken
   -Athens: more confined to home & oppressed
   (arranged 14 yr old girls-30 yr old men)

4. NO meaningful man-woman relations…

   -men sought companionship with…other men
Greek Male Homosexuality
     pederasty: an older male with a younger
                male lover

       -older male was to “teach” younger
       male about politics, military, & love…

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