The Complete football workbook by KalemaLeonard


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									Standard Grade


 Name ___________________________________

Teacher ___________________________________

             Class ____________

     P.E. Department
    Crieff High School
                                  Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011

Course Content                                         Page 3

Practical Requirements                                 Page 4

Rules – Written & Unwritten (Formal & Informal)        Page 5

Worksheet – Rules & Codes of Conduct                   Page 6

Strategies – Formations & Tactics                      Page 7

Scoring Systems and Competitions                       Page 8

Worksheet – Scoring Systems                            Page 9

Principles of Play                                     Page 10

Tactics & Communication                                Page 11

                               Homework Sheets

Homework Sheet 1                                       Page 13

Homework Sheet 2                                       Page 14

Homework Sheet 3                                       Page 15

Homework Sheet 3                                       Page 16

                                                  Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                              Course Content
In Hockey you will cover PRACTICAL and THEORY work related to performance, skill
development and fitness:

Listed below are the main areas of study that will be covered within the course.

Practical Performance

Individual Skills   – dribbling, passing, controlling, dodging, tackling and shooting.
Team Skills         – defending, attacking, set plays, positional awareness and tactics.
Affective Skills    – cooperation, fair play and motivation.


Fitness      – Aspects of Fitness, football training and development of fitness.
Skills       – learning and developing new skills, practicing skills.
Rules        – written and unwritten rules of the team game.
Strategies   – team tactics and roles of individual players, principles of play.
Scoring      – scoring systems.

During this course you will be expected to concentrate (both in classroom
sessions and practical work), put in the required effort in reading notes and
using these to complete homework and revise for end of component tests.


Throughout this course you will be assessed on your ability to display individual skills
through practice and under pressure in the game situations.
      Practical Performance (i)       – Individual Skills
      Practical Performance (ii)      – Skills displayed in the game

Each part is graded on the Credit-Foundation (1-6) Scale.
Any pupil failing to cover a sufficient amount (+50%) of the course will be awarded a
final grade 8.

In addition at the end of the Football component you will be assessed on your
Knowledge & Understanding through a written paper.

                                                        Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                        Practical Requirements

Before deciding which Aspects of Fitness are involved in Football think of what type
of physical movement is involved in the game.

             Type of Running                               Aspect of Fitness

             Short fast sprints                  Strength, Speed & Power – needed for
                                                  short fast runs with/without the ball
                                                   Strength, Speed & Local Muscular
              Medium pace runs                  Endurance – needed when the runs are of
                                                medium distance e.g. running to defend or
                                                              support play
                                                 Aerobic & Local Muscular Endurance –
             Continuous Running                  needed throughout the game as players
                                                  are constantly on the move and should
                                                never stop running, jogging or walking for
                                                           the full 45min half.

Passing, Controlling, Dribbling, Dodging, Shooting & Tackling.

Each of these skills will involve a combination of different aspects of fitness.

Flexibility – of the hip & lower back to get into the correct ready/stable position

Strength – to have the muscle strength to kick the ball hard. Also required to
withstand or make tackles.

Local Muscular Endurance – different muscle or groups of muscles will be required to
work for long periods of time throughout the game.

Training Programme
As Football requires a combination of ALL Aspects of Fitness along with the essential
individual and team skills then organising short & long term training can be difficult
for the coach. Care must be taken to ensure the right amount of time is spent on
each aspect of fitness along with skills work to ensure development of all vital areas
takes place.

                                                          Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
Rules – Written & Unwritten (Formal & Informal)

All games require some form of structured rules. These rules allow the game to be
played fairly by both teams. Without rules the game would have no structure, order
or control.

Certain rules within a game can make certain skills essential or may force players or
teams into particular situations.

In addition to the Written (formal) rules of the game there are also unwritten
(informal) rules that help the game to be played in a more ‘sporting‛ manner or give
the game its particular style.

It is important that you now start to understand the importance both the formal and
informal rules have any game or activity.

Formal Rules
These are the written rules issued by the sports governing body and controlled by
the referee.
e.g. No hand contact with ball, except goalkeepers.
     Corner awarded if ball goes off back line
     by defender.
     No dangerous play etc

Informal Rules
These are applied by players to make the game a ‘sporting‛ event. Although not
written down they allow cooperation, team spirit and competitiveness to develop.
Most importantly they develop a sense of ‘fair play‛.
                       e.g. Giving the ball to the opposition when it is their throw in
                                                      Accepting the referees decision
                                              Supporting and encouraging team mates
                                            Shaking hands at the end of the game etc

Formal Rules can also give the game its purpose or Shape
e.g. The manner in which the game is started and restarted
     Penalty kick always taken from same spot.

                                                       Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
         Worksheet - Rules & Codes of Conduct

Rules are designed to shape activities & ensure that everyone can participate on an
equal basis. Codes of conduct (unwritten rules) explain the way in which participation
should take place in different activities.

Give a safety rule, a rule the shapes/gives structure to the game & an example of an
unwritten rule each from a different activity. Here is an example

Activity : Football                         Safety Rule: No tackling with 2 feet or
                                            studs showing.
Activity : Hockey                           Structure Rule: Teams can only score
                                            from within the ‘D‛.
Activity : Badminton                        Unwritten Rule: You should shake hands
                                            with your opponent after the game.

Activity :                                  Safety Rule :

Activity :                                  Structure Rule :

Activity :                                  Unwritten Rule :

                                                       Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
             Strategies – Formations & Tactics
In order for teams to play collectively and effectively they require to play in an
order during the game and at set situations (corners, free kicks etc).

Formations – these are the positions each of the players must follow during the game.
Generally speaking they are broken down into goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders and

       How do you organise your team?          What positions do you use?

There are several different team formations. The one you choose, depends on the
qualities of the players. You may also have to consider your opponents‛ strengths and
formation. Your formation must also be flexible and adaptable.

When describing a formation, it is numbered from your own goal, going up-field. The
goalkeeper is never mentioned in the formation (system) and therefore each
formation adds up to 10 players.

Some examples of set Formation or Systems of Play

                         Strength - "Attack is the best defence" became the main
                         philosophy of this formation. The formation ‘packs‛ the
                         midfield to prevent opposition counter attack, and allows
                         you the ability to maintain possession in midfield and attack.

                         Weakness – the 3-5-2 formation is vulnerable in defence as
                         you have a lack of defenders.


                         Strength - this formation has equal capabilities in defence
                         and attack. Using 4-4-2 formation, we will be able to cover
                         almost the whole field. In short, 4-4-2 is the most balance
                         formation among others.
                         Weakness - By splitting our players equally in every sector
                         of the field, also mean players run more often. The biggest
                         disadvantage of 4-4-2 is on player‛s energy level, as it will
                         decrease faster compare to other formations.

Tactics are set moves teams may use at certain times in the game (corners, free
    kicks etc) or whenever then ball is played in a certain area of the pitch.
                                                        Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                 Scoring Systems & Competition

In all competitive activities the aim is to win but the manner in which activities can be
scored may differ i.e. height, time taken, distance, points scored or goals. The two main
categories of scoring are Subjective and Objective.

Subjective Scoring
In this method a Judge or Judges score a performance. The performance is compared to
a perfect (model) performance, any mistake is penalised by the deduction of marks.
Subjective scoring is based on opinion. Examples of subjectively scored activities are –
Gymnastics, Ice Dance, Diving & Freestyle Skiing.

Objective Scoring
In this method a value is either counted or measured e.g. goals, points, distance, time.
Examples of objectively scored activities are Hockey, Basketball, Badminton, Golf,
Curling, Running, Swimming, Long Jump etc.
In some activities the higher the score the better e.g. Hockey, Long Jump. In others the
lower the better e.g. Golf, 100m sprint. Some might be a combination of faster time and
points e.g. Orienteering or points and goals e.g. Rugby.

Activities can be further divided into Directly Competitive or Indirectly Competitive
and Individual or Team activities.

Directly Competitive – Activities could be described as a ‘head to head‛ e.g. Badminton,

Indirectly Competitive – Entry to an event, starting off at different times e.g. Long
Jump, Golf.

Individual – You yourself against another or several others e.g. 20m Front Crawl,
Badminton Singles, Golf, Shot Putt.

Team Activities – Small or Large sided games versus a team of similar make up e.g.
Hockey, Netball, Rugby.

                               Competitions may be organised in Leagues, Tournaments,
                                   Ladders, Knock-outs etc. Some competitions may be
                                  seeded, according to recent performance/ranking e.g.
                                   Tennis. In others handicaps may be applied e.g. Golf.

                                                         Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                  Worksheet – Scoring Systems

Complete the following grid

  Activity     Objective/Subjective                  How results are decided

Gymnastics           Subjective


Cricket              Objective

Football                               Number of goals scored

Ice Dancing                            Marks for technical merit & artistic impression


Choose and activity; _______________________________

Describe what happens if at the end of a cup game the score is level (a tie/draw). How is
the result decided?





                                                         Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                          Principles of Play

The fundamental principles of play in many team games involve WIDTH and DEPTH in
attack and defence, and DELAY in defence. Applying the fundamental principles of
play in team games allows you to create attacking opportunities.

For example, in football to apply width in attack the strikers and midfielders would
use the entire width of the pitch, spreading themselves across the playing area.
This forces the defending team to be drawn out to the sides to mark, thus creating
space in the middle of the pitch.
For width in defence the defending team would also spread themselves across the
playing area, this would limit the chance of their opponents using the wings to run

Another principle of play which is often used is depth. This can be used in both
attack and defence. In defence it is most often the case that a second defender
would move behind the first defender in order to cover them if they are beaten.
A typical formation which uses depth to defend is when a sweeper is used. This
involves having a player behind the back line creating depth, rather than a flat
Depth in attack involves players supporting each other from slightly deeper positions.
This gives options if there is no route towards goal, the ball can be played back in
order to look for spaces.

Delay in defence is also a principle of play which is often adopted. When using this
principle the defending team attempt to slow down an opponent to allow defenders to
get back and re-organise themselves. This will put pressure on your opponent and may
force them to play the ball backwards in order to begin a new attack.

                                                      Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                     Tactics & Communication

A tactic is a specific way of carrying out a particular strategy and of applying
principles of play. The choice of tactics will often depend on the time left and the
score within a game.

The overall aims of a tactic are to play to your individual
and team strengths and to exploit you opponents‛
weaknesses. Tactics can be adapted when necessary
within a game

Some examples of tactics often used in activities are:

Activity    Principle of   Tactic                         Reason
Football    Width in       Driving down the sideline  The space was out wide. This
            Attack         and playing the long high  drew defenders wide which
                           ball (cross) to central    created space in the middle by
                           attackers                  crossing the ball it allowed our
                                                      attackers more opportunity to
Badminton Width in         To return the shuttle from The opposition then had to play a
          Defence          serve to the rear          backhand shot from the back of
                           backhand corner of the     the court (they would struggle),
                           opponents court.           this allowed me to return the
                                                      shot with an easy Smash.

Effective Communication in Tactics

For tactics to be successful it is imperative that you and your team-mates have
effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills. For example in volleyball you
need to respond to spoken instructions from your team-mates or coach as you change
from attack to defence. This allows players to clearly know where they must move
and what formation they must adopt.

At times non-verbal signals may be more effective than verbal communication. For
example the setter may signal to the server using his hands behind his back. This lets
the server know which serve to use. Opponents will be unaware of which type of serve
the attacking team are about to use and may be caught off guard.

                                                         Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011

         Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
                 Homework 1 – Skill Classification

We have looked at skill learning/performance and how we learn a skill and how we can
improve/refine our performance of that skill.

Team Skills

What are team skills? _________________________________________________



Can you think of any?







What makes these team skills different from individual skills? ___________________




                                                      Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
             Homework 2 – Competition & Qualities

   There are many different types of activities
     · Individual, Team and Group
     · Competitive and Non-competitive
     · Indirectly Competitive and Directly Competitive

   There are also many reasons for taking part in activities
     · Social
     · Physical
     · Health
     · Personal

   Activities can be competitive, non-competitive or both

   What does competitive mean? _________________________________________



   What does non-competitive mean? ______________________________________



   There are many reasons why people participate in activities. Match each of the
   following descriptions to a different reason for participation.

         PHYSICAL            SOCIAL                HEALTH                 PERSONAL

“I enjoy getting out and meeting other people. We all take
part together then go out afterwards”
“I like the challenge. I need the thrill of competing against
myself when I am rock climbing”
“Regular exercise is good for me. It‛s not too difficult, but
demanding enough to help me live a long and healthy life”
“Swimming is my favourite sport. The longer events are great
for my endurance & the sprints are great for power”

                                                            Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
             Homework 3 – Skills & Techniques
A SKILL is the purpose of a movement
A TECHNIQUE is a way of performing a skill
Many different factors make skills range from easy to complex

Complete the following sentences using the words below.

DIFFICULT          EASY        COMPLEX             TIRING                     MOVEMENTS

When learning to perform a new skill/technique, you try to make it as ___________

as possible. You can do this by making the _________________ flow together in a

simple order. As you become better, you can make the skill or technique more

_____________. You can make the skill/technique practice more ______________

in many ways, e.g. by practicing for longer. This may make it more ______________

for you.

Give 3 reasons why when playing attackers versus defenders
in any team game, learning skills for attacking can often be
made easier by having more attackers than defenders.







                                                      Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011
   Homework 4 – Formations & Principles of Play

What formation would you use?

Draw out a football formation for an 11 aside game and explain in the space below
what the advantages and disadvantages of your choice are.









                                                      Miss L. Steele – Crieff High School – June 2011

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