AP bio hints 6 7 11 45 by 5W6wBuA

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									AP Bio Hints 2011 Ch. 6,7,11,&45
KNOW these organelles inside & out (structure) as well as relationships with other organelles & importance or use (functions). You
might also give a specific example of function in the human body or in plants. For 1—16.

1. Nuclear envelope

2. ribosomes

3. mitochondria

4. The Golgi apparatus

5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum

6. cell membranes (extra special hint: to answer this, you need to know that an angiosperm is a flowering plant!)

7. chromosomes

8. central vacuole

9. nucleus

10. lysosome

11. cytoskeleton

12. chloroplasts

13. nucleolus

14. centrosomes

15. microtubules

16. plasmodesmata

17. Since digestive enzymes ARE proteins, and pancreatic cells produce such enzymes, what organelle is in greatest concentration in
this type of cell?
18. What characteristic of mitochondria & chloroplasts supports the endosymbiotic theory?

19. Osmosis defined:

20-22. Three questions similar to the osmosis diffusion lab questions referring to the dialysis tubing and the potato slices.
Write what you expect to be asked…


23-26 will be labeling the ECM on page 127 sketch here
23. glycolipid    24. microfilament of cytoskeleton 25. fiber of ECM                       26. cholesterol




27. If a U tube is separated with a membrane permeable to water & glucose, but not to starch, and side A is 2Msalt and 1Mglucose while side Bis
1Msat and 2Mglucose with water level equal initially, then what changes will be observed for the system to be in equilibrium?

28. What will happen to a person’s red blood cells if they are given an IV of distilled water?
29. Sketch out and describe a U tube experiment having 2 different concentrations, say of salt and sugar solutions and the membrane is permeable
to salt, but NOT to sugar, in which side A is hypotonic to side B, but where the water levels are the same on side A and side B:




30. For #29, in what direction will water move?         So, which side will eventually have a decrease in the water level?      Also, what will
happen to the salt concentrations?

31. Describe normal tonicity for plants & animals: hint, they will not be the same.

32-34. You will need to interpret graphing questions from our osmosis/diffusion labs (32-34)

Ch. 11 35-45

35.In yeast signal transduction pathways, when & how does cell fusion occur?

36. What might keep target cells from being able to multiply in response to growth factors from nearby cells?

37. How does paracrine signaling work?

38. What plant chemical signal makes this old saying true: “One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel.”?

39. From the receiving side, what are the 3 stages of cell signaling?

40. What type of signaling results in many cells responding to a signal molecule released by one cell?

41. What substance activates the breakdown of glycogen in liver & skeletal muscle cells?

42. Define a ligand:

43. Where do nitric oxide & testosterone originate & where are their receptor molecules?

44. Where are chemical signal pathways involving protein likely to bind?

45. T or F: Most signal receptors are bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.

Ch. 45 for 46-55

46. Which local regulator activates an enzyme that relaxes smooth muscle cells?

47. What action do asprin & ibuprofen inhibit?

48. Define target cell:

49. Why do some body cells respond differently to the same peptide hormones?

50. Explain how an enzyme cascade works:

51. Why would liver cells & lung cells respond differently to the same peptide hormones?

52. Where are receptor molecules usually found?

53. What 2 body systems are linked by a neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus?

54. What 2 hormones in combo help a mother make milk & nurse her baby?

55. What chemical does the thyroid require to function properly

								
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