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Plans
Area of Science: Materials (Rocks and Solids) Cycle B – Lower Key Stage 2 (Revised 2009)

 Learning Intentions   Key Questions                    Tasks                                Resources          Outcomes       Notes

                                       Preparation
                                           1. Ensure you have a wide                 1kg bags of different
                                                selection of rocks and many           rocks (available from
                                                samples of each one (these            science suppliers)
                                                will probably include: basalt,       Bags of different soils
                                                granite, marble, slate,               (available from science
                                                sandstone, limestone and              suppliers)
                                                chalk.
                                           2. Ensure you have lots of                Samples of minerals
                                                different types of soil               (available from science
                                           3. In one of the lessons you can           suppliers)
                                                find out what effect vegetation
                                                has on erosion of soil. Thus,
                                                you will need to grow seeds in
                                                trays so that they are
                                                seedlings when you want to do
                                                the experiment. The children
                                                could set this up and do their
                                                predictions in the first week.
                                       Preparation for an experiment
                                       Each group of children need to sow            Fast growing seeds
                                       some seeds in a tray (as in the photo         Trays
                                       on the website).
                                       This will probably need to be done at         Soil
                                       least 2 weeks before your experiment.
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Learning Intentions           Key Questions                             Tasks                               Resources                   Outcomes         Notes

                                                      Elicitation tasks
                            Which statements do      You could choose from a range of                Sorting cards for rocks
                             you: agree with,         methods to find out children’s prior             and soils PowerPoint
                             disagree with, and are   knowledge of rocks and soils. On the
                             unsure about?            website you will find ‘sort card’
                                                      statements’. Children can sort these
                                                      into ‘strongly agree’, ‘strongly disagree’
                                                      and ‘unsure’.
                                                      Ongoing research                                                                 AF4 - Can
       To be able to                                 Over time children can produce fact             Access to good books
                                                                                                                                        select
        select                                        files for different rocks. They could            and websites about rocks
                                                                                                                                        information
        information                                   present these in a range of different            and soils.
                                                                                                                                        sources from
        from books
        and from the
                                                      ways.                                           http://alex.edfac.usyd.edu       those provided
                                                                                                       .au/BLP/websites/Hibba/i         to address a
        internet to
                                                                                                       gneous_rocks.html                question under
        answer
                                                                                                                                        investigation.
        scientific                                                                                    http://www.windows.ucar.         (level 3)
        questions.                                                                                     edu/tour/link=/earth/geolo      AF4 – Can
                                                                                                       gy/rocks_intro.html&edu=         select
                                                                                                       elem                             appropriate
                                                                                                                                       information
                                                                                                                                        sources to
                                                                                                                                        address a
                                                                                                                                        specific
                                                                                                                                        question under
                                                                                                                                        investigation.
                                                                                                                                        (level 4)
   To be able to                                     Identifying and comparing – The                                                  AF2 – Can give
                            Which of your items      treasure hunt                                   PowerPoint – Does
    communicate                                                                                                                         properties of
                             are rocks? How do you Hook – Video clip from                              Kryptonite exist?
    about materials in                                                                                                                  materials that
                             know?
    terms of their                                    www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/ -             Trays                            can be
    properties.             How could you identify ‘Rocks clip compilation’                                                            detected using
   To be able to sort       what it is that has been                                                 Sand                             their senses.
    rocks (using             found?                   Hook – Use the PowerPoint ‘Does                 Variety of rocks                 (level 1)
    knowledge about                                   Kryptonite Exist?’ to introduce the term                                         AF2 – Can
    their properties)       How many different       ‘mineral’ to the children.                      Bits of bricks and               make
                             ways could the items                                                      concrete                         comparisons
                             be sorted?               Hook – Sit the children in a circle and
                                                                                                                                           Advisory Service Kent


Learning Intentions           Key Questions                            Tasks                              Resources                      Outcomes          Notes

                                                     carry out a dig using tray of sand with                                             between
                                                     some objects in and a paintbrush.              Minerals (from TTS) - A             objects. (level
                                                                                                     set of 9 small boxes each           2)
                                                     Prepare trays of sand. Into the sand            containing a different
                                                     bury: different rocks, minerals, fossils,       mineral. Includes geode,
                                                     bits of brick and bits of concrete. The         green calcite, agate,
                                                     children carry out a ‘treasure hunt’.           quartz, amethyst, rose
                                                                                                     quartz, citrine, iron pyrites
                                                     When they have unearthed their finds,           (fools' gold) and a
                                                     the children must decide which are              collection of gem stones.
                                                     rocks and which are not. Can they              http://gwydir.demon.co.uk
                                                     develop a definition for a ‘rock’?              /jo/minerals/index.htm

                                                     Hook – A plenary could look at the             http://www.timeforkids.co
                                                     PowerPoint ‘The Cursed Diamond?’                m/TFK/class/ns/article/0,
                                                                                                     17585,92986,00.html
                                                                                                 
   To be able to                                    Observation – Comparing rocks                                                      AF2 – Can give
                            Where around the                                                       ‘Where do we find rocks’
    communicate                                                                                                                          properties of
                             school might rocks be   Hook – Visit                                    PowerPoint
    about materials in                                                                                                                   materials that
                             found?
    terms of their                                   http://www.iwaswondering.org/adriana           ‘Comparing rocks’                   can be
    properties.             Why do you think that   _homepage.html to introduce the                 PowerPoint                          detected using
   To be able to sort       rocks were used to      children to a scientist who is looking at                                           their senses.
    rocks (using             make these items?       rocks from other planets.                      Range of rocks                      (level 1)
    knowledge about                                                                                 Hand lenses                        AF2 – Can
    their properties)       How many ways are       Hook – Video clip from                                                              make
                             the rocks the           www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/              Digital microscopes                 comparisons
                            same/different?         ‘Limestone and its usage’ and ‘What is                                              between
                                                     granite?’                                                                           objects. (level
                                                                                                                                         2)
                                                     Begin by going on a rock hunt around
                                                     the school or using the PowerPoint
                                                     ‘Where do we find rocks?’

                                                     Hook – Show on the interactive whit
                                                     board a rock under the digital
                                                     microscope, but don’t let the children
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Learning Intentions              Key Questions                             Tasks                                  Resources                  Outcomes               Notes

                                                         know what it is. Can they identify it with
                                                         only 10 ‘yes/no’ questions?

                                                         Give each group a sample of granite
                                                         (speckled rock) and a sample of
                                                         sandstone (red/brown rock).

                                                         Using a hand lens the children can
                                                         identify ways in which the rocks are
                                                         different.

                                                         Along with the PowerPoint, give
                                                         children samples of a range of rocks.
                                                         How many different ways can they sort
                                                         them?




         To know how                                   Modelling – How rocks are made               Robust plastic bottle with well-       AF2 – Can       Hazard and risk –
          some people           rocks or shells be                                                    fitting lid                             identify        The teacher should
          use science to        knocked around like      Modelling weathering and erosion                                                     people who      be the only one
          help others.          this naturally?          by the children (with care)                  5 pieces) or variety of shells          use science     who heats the
         To be able to        Which rocks or shells                                                 (about 5) and about 5 small             to help us.     crayon wax as the
          describe some         were the toughest?       Hook – Video clip from                       pebbles                                 (level 2)       temperature can
          of the ways in        Can you put them in      www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/                                                   AF2 – Can       become quite hot.
                                                         ‘Weather effects on rocks’                    
          which                 order of ‘toughness’?                                                                                         identify
                                                                                                           tipping out the contents of
          materials are        What might happen to                                                       the container, after
                                                                                                                                              aspects of
          changed.              the dust?                 Hook – This is a great chance to                                                    our what
                                                          highlight the work of some geologists.           shaking
                                                                                                                                              people do
       To be able             What will happen if the For example, David Johnston who was               Foil                               which are
        recognise the           activity is repeated with killed in the lateral blast of Mount St                                             based on
        changes can be          all the recognisable      Helen                                           Coloured wax crayons               scientific
        reversed and            fragments of              (http://geology.about.com/od/volcanolo
        those that cannot       rock/shell?                                                               Metal knitting needle              ideas. (level
                                                          gy/a/aa051897MSH.htm)                                                               3)
        and can classify                                                                                  Wooden peg                        Can
        changes in this                                    Hook – Show a grain of sand under
                                                                                                                                              describe
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Learning Intentions   Key Questions                     Tasks                               Resources                    Outcomes        Notes

   way.                                 the microscope. Can the children ask                                              some of the
                                        questions to work out what it is?            Metal tray                          ways in
                                        Discuss this evidence – i.e. it has          Sand                                which
                                                                                                                          materials
                                        rounded edges because it has been            PVA glue                            are
                                        moved around.
                                                                                      Newspaper                          changed.
                                         Children could explore how many                                                  (level 2)
                                         different ways they can move a grain  Red food dye                             Can
                                         of sand: tilt the table, pick it up, blow                                        recognise
                                                                                      Baking powder
                                         it with a straw, and wash it along with                                          that some
                                         a cup of water.                              Vinegar                            changes can
                                      Discuss how this could done in nature:                                              be reversed
                                      moved by ice (glacier), wind,                                                       and some
                                      rivers/stream, falling down through          http://www.ngfl-                       cannot and
                                      gravity.                                     cymru.org.uk/vtc/rocks/eng/Intr        can classify
                                                                                   oduction/default.htm                   changes in
                                      Show the pupils the 4 or 5 pieces of                                                this way.
                                      rock (rivers) or 4 or 5 shells with 4 or 5                                          (level 3)
                                      small pebbles (coasts)                       http://www.yesmag.ca/projects
                                      and the plastic bottle and lid. Shake        /volcanoBW.html
                                      the container with the rocks/shells
                                      inside vigorously 20 times. Wait for the
                                      dust to settle, and then open the top        http://www.footprints-
                                      (do not inhale the dust) and carefully       science.co.uk/flash/rockcycle.s
                                      tip out the contents on to a tray or a       wf
                                      piece of paper.

                                      Model of the rock cycle by the
                                      teacher

                                      1. Cut 2 pieces of aluminium foil about
                                      10cm by 20cm. Lay one inside the
                                      other to make double thickness.
                                      2. Make crayon shavings by
                                      sharpening crayons with a sharpener.
                                      Use different coloured crayons. These
                                      shavings will represent sediments.
                                      Make a pile about 6cm by 6cm and
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Learning Intentions         Key Questions                           Tasks                              Resources             Outcomes          Notes

                                                   about 1 to 2 cm thick.
                                                   3. Place the crayon sediment inside
                                                   the foil and fold over.
                                                   4. Place this foil between 2 boards and
                                                   hammer on the top to flatten. Open up
                                                   and discuss what this represents
                                                   (sedimentary).
                                                   5. Re-wrap and attach to a wooden
                                                   peg that is attached to a metal knitting
                                                   needle. Placed over a nightlight that is
                                                   standing on sand in a metal tray. Heat
                                                   for several minutes and then let cool.
                                                   When teacher has checked that the foil
                                                   is cool enough, unwrap. What type of
                                                   rock does this represent?
                                                   (Metamorphic)

                                                   Modelling extrusion – by children
                                                   Children can model how pressure
                                                   within a volcano forces the magma to
                                                   pour out onto the Earth’s surface by
                                                   making their own volcano; place
                                                   baking powder and food dye in a
                                                   container within it and then add
                                                   vinegar.
   To be able to                                  Which rock is the hardest?                                               AF5 - Can say
                          Do all rocks have the                                                 Metal spoons
    compare what                                                                                                             whether what
                           same hardness? How      Hook – Use the PowerPoint ‘Which
    happened with
                           could we find out?                                                    Variety of rocks           happened is
    what you thought                               rock is the hardest?’                                                     what they
    would happen.         What happened? Why                                                    ‘Which rock is the         expected to
   To be able             do you think this       Begin by comparing the hardness of             hardest’ Powerpoint.       happen. (level
    communicate in a       happened?               interlocking grains (granite) and                                         2)
    scientific way                                 cemented grains (sandstone).                                             AF5 – Can
    what was found                                 Ask the pupils to compare the two                                         describe what
    out.                                           rocks by scraping them with a metal                                       they have
                                                   spoon on to a piece of paper.                                             found out in an
   To use                                         (The difference is usually very clear –                                   investigation,
    knowledge and                                  rocks crumble if the cement between                                       linking cause
                                                                                                                                           Advisory Service Kent


Learning Intentions             Key Questions                              Tasks                             Resources                   Outcomes            Notes

    understanding of                                      the grains is not very                                                         and effect.
    materials when                                        strong (e.g. the pupil’s sample of                                             (level 3)
    describing a                                          sandstone), whilst having interlocking                                        Can use their
    variety of ways of                                    crystals makes rocks                                                           knowledge and
    sorting rocks into                                    strong (e.g. granite).)                                                        understanding
    groups according                                                                                                                     of materials
    to their properties.                                  The children can then test a range of                                          when they
                                                          different rocks and sort them according                                        describe a
                                                          to their hardness.                                                             variety of ways
                                                                                                                                         of sorting them
                                                                                                                                         into groups
                                                                                                                                         according to
                                                                                                                                         their properties.
                                                                                                                                         (level 3)
                                                                                                       Variety of rocks
   To be able to use         When looking at the          Illustrative activity - What happens
                                                                                                       Beakers or plastic cups to      AF1 – Can
    observations to            rocks are there any          to rocks in water?
                                                                                                        place rocks in.                  draw on some
    answer a                   clues that let us know
    question.                  what might happen
                                                          Children can weigh both the granite          Weighing scales                  evidence in the
                               when they are placed
                                                          and the sandstone. Then place each           Floor protection                 form of
   To be able to              in water?
                                                          one into water and note down                 Large tub of water               observations
    represent some                                        observations.                                ‘Gold pan’ or wok                and ideas they
    science using a           Can you think how this     The children can then weigh the rocks        Washed sand                      have to answer
    model.                     test has proved that                                                    Crushed pyrite (Pyrite           a question.
                                                          again and explain what has happened.
                               some of the rocks have                                                   can be purchased                 (level 2)
   To be able to              properties that make                                                                                     AF1 – Can
    explain simply                                                                                      reasonably cheaply from:
                               them suited for specific   Ask the pupils to model the grains in         Offa Rocks -                     represent
    why some                   purposes?                  the sandstone and granite using an                                             things in the
    materials are                                                                                       http://www.offarocks.co.u
                                                          interlocking wooden model (or a Lego_         k                                real world by
    particularly suited                                   model) for the granite and marbles in a                                        using simple
    for specific                                                                                        Supplies -
                                                          clear plastic container for the               http://www.norgeo.co.uk/         physical
    purposes                                              sandstone.                                                                     models. (level
                                                                                                    
                                                          (Rocks with high porosity are usually                                          3)
                                                          very permeable, allowing fluids to flow                                       AF2- Can link
                                                          through (except when pore spaces are                                           applications to
                                                          very small and water can’t flow                                                specific
                                                          through, as in clay).                                                          characteristics
                                                          The marbles in the container are like                                          or properties.
                                                          the sandstone – with lots of gaps
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Learning Intentions           Key Questions                               Tasks                              Resources                  Outcomes           Notes

                                                        between the spherical grains. The                                               (level 3)
                                                        interlocking model is like the granite,
                                                        made of interlocking grains with no
                                                        spaces.)

                                                        Independently, the children can find
                                                        out what happens to other rocks when
                                                        placed in water.

                                                        Exploration – Panning for gold
                                                        Place a handful of sand containing
                                                        crushed pyrite (‘fools gold’) in a ‘gold
                                                        pan’ from a large tub of water.
                                                        (Ensure there is plenty of pyrite in the
                                                        sand, to make panning more
                                                        productive). Swirl the ‘pan’ to
                                                        concentrate the pyrite.

                                                        Results expected
                                                        The pyrite particles are more dense
                                                        than the sand grains and so
                                                        accumulate at the side of the ‘pan’
                                                        where the swirling water has slowed.
   To be able to                                                                                                                      AF3 – Can use
                            What is a fossil?            Making Fossils                               Shells
    communicate                                                                                                                         scientific forms
    changes using           How could we make            Children could do some research on           Plasticine                      of language
    scientific               our own fossil?              the internet to find out how fossils                                          when
    language.                                             are formed.                                  Talcom powder                   communicating
                           Do you think that the                                                                                      simple
    To be able to
                             change that will take        They can then make their own mould           Plaster of paris
    recognise the                                                                                                                       scientific
                             place between the            by pushing shells into plastcine. After      http://www.fossils-facts-
    changes can be                                                                                                                      processes.
                             water and the plaster of     lightly dusting the mould with talcum         and-
    reversed and                                                                                                                        (level 3)
                             Paris can be changed         powder, the children can fill these
    those that cannot,                                                                                  finds.com/what_is_a_foss       AF3 – Can use
                             back?                        with plaster of Paris (consistency like       il.html
    and classify                                                                                                                        appropriate
                                                          ketchup).
    changes in this                                                                                                                    scientific forms
    way.                                                                                                                                of language to
                                                                                                                                        communicate
                                                                                                                                        scientific
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Learning Intentions           Key Questions                               Tasks                          Resources                 Outcomes          Notes

                                                                                                                                   processes.
   To be able to use                                                                                                              (level 4)
    knowledge about
                                                                                                                                  Can recognise
    reversible and
                                                                                                                                   that some
    irreversible
                                                                                                                                   changes can
    changes to make
                                                                                                                                   be reversed
    simple predictions
                                                                                                                                   and some
    about whether
                                                                                                                                   cannot, and
    any change are
                                                                                                                                   classify
    reversible or not.
                                                                                                                                   changes in this
                                                                                                                                   way. (level 3)

                                                                                                                                  Can use
                                                                                                                                   knowledge
                                                                                                                                   about
                                                                                                                                   reversible and
                                                                                                                                   irreversible
                                                                                                                                   changes to
                                                                                                                                   make simple
                                                                                                                                   predictions
                                                                                                                                   about whether
                                                                                                                                   any change are
                                                                                                                                   reversible or
                                                                                                                                   not. (level 4)
       To be able to       Are all soils the same?    Identification and classification of       o   A range of soils (can
        report what         What could we do to        soils – How many types of soil are             be purchased from       AF5 – Can report
        happened in          find out how soils might   there?                                         science suppliers)      what happened in
        an                   be different?                                                         o   Soil identification     their experiment.
        experiment.         Can you work out           Hook – Video clip from                         branching data base     (level 2)
       To be able to        which type of soil you     www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/ -            charts from OPAL
        sort materials       have and describe why      ‘What is soil?’                            o   Digital microscope      AF5 – Can
        into groups          you have placed it in                                                                             describe what they
        and describe         that category?             www.soil-net.com/cms_test                                              have found out in
        the basis for                                   This website will give the children lots                               their experiment,
        this grouping.                                  of information about soil.                                             linking cause and
                                                                                                                               effect. (level 3)
   To be able to use                                   http://www.opalexplorenature.org/sites/
    knowledge and                                       default/files/7/file/Field-guide-OPAL-                                 Can sort materials
                                                                                                                                          Advisory Service Kent


Learning Intentions            Key Questions                            Tasks                                 Resources                 Outcomes            Notes

   understanding of                                   online.pdf                                                                    into groups and
   materials when                                     This contains some great information                                          describe the basis
   they describe a                                    to help children work out which type of                                       for their grouping in
   variety of ways of                                 soil they might have.                                                         everyday terms.
   sorting soils into                                                                                                               (level 2)
   groups according                                   The children could look at different
   to their properties.                               soils using hand lenses and                                                   Can use
                                                      microscopes.                                                                  knowledge and
                                                      They can also add small amounts of                                            understanding of
                                                      water to the soil and see whether they                                        materials when
                                                      can be rolled into ball and sausages.                                         they describe a
                                                                                                                                    variety of ways of
                                                        The children can go on to explore                                           sorting them into
                                                        separating the contents of soil.                                            groups according
                                                        Shake soil samples in a jar of water                                        to their properties.
                                                        and allow the different sized pieces                                        (level 3)
                                                        of rock to settle.
                                                        Put about 5 cm of soil into a jam jar.
                                                        Fill the jar until ¾ full with water,
                                                        replace the lid and shake vigorously.
                                                        The larger fragments of rock material
                                                        will settle quickly whilst finer particles
                                                        will remain in suspension for some
                                                        time. The different sized rock
                                                        particles will form well-defined layers.
                                                        Much of the organic matter will float.


      To be able to         Are all soils able to                                                         Jam jars with lids     AF4 – Can identify
                                                        Fair test investigation – Which
       explain when           hold the same amount
                                                        soils holds the most amount of                      Empty 2L plastic       one or more control
       a fair test is         of water? How could                                                            bottles                variables in
                                                        water
       needed.                we find out?                                                                  Trays (propped up),    investigations from
      To be able            Why do you think a        Ask the children to pretend they are                 some containing soil   those provided.
       (with help) to         farmer might need to                                                           with seedlings in.     (level 3)
                                                        farmers looking for the best soils in
       recognise all          know about which type     which to grow their crops. Discuss
       the variables          of soil he/she has?                                                    http://www.ngfl-               AF4 – Can decide
                                                        which soils would be best (i.e. those
       that need to                                                                                  cymru.org.uk/vtc/phase4_2003   when it is
                                                        that can hold moisture) and those
       stay the same                                                                                 0801/Wales/Science/Keystage    appropriate to carry
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Learning Intentions              Key Questions                           Tasks                                Resources                   Outcomes          Notes

       for a fair test.                                  with a certain pH.                         2/Lifeprocessesan/Anonlinesoil    out fair test
                                                         Cut the top third of the 2l plastic        exp/Introduction/default.htm      investigations.
                                                         bottle and turn upside down into the                                         (level 4)
   To be able to                                        remainder of the bottle. Place some
    select suitable                                      filter paper in the neck of the bottle.                                      AF4 – Can select
    equipment for the                                    Pour in one of the soil samples. Add                                         equipment from
    investigation.                                       water to the sample and measure                                              those provided to
                                                         how much goes through into the                                               answer a question.
                                                         base.                                                                        (level 3)

                                                         Experiment – Do plants stop soils                                            AF4 – Can select
                                                         from being eroded?                                                           appropriate
                                                         Children compare what happens                                                equipment to
                                                         when they pour water into a tray half                                        answer a question.
                                                         full with only soil to a tray that has                                       (level 4)
                                                         seedlings growing in the soil (see
                                                         picture on website). The children
                                                         could even try different types of
                                                         plants.

                          Why is it important for      Fair test investigation – Which soil               pH strips (available       AF4 – Can make
   To be able to         farmers to know how acidic   has the highest pH and/or moisture?                                            accurate whole
                                                                                                           from most garden
    measure               their soil is?               Find out the soil’s pH. Place 1cm of                                           number
                                                                                                           centres - ensure strips
    accurately.                                        soil into a container. Add enough water                                        measurements.
                                                                                                           have a pH scale that
   To be able to                                      to cover the soil and stir the mixture for          ranges from 4.0 to 9.0     (level 3)
    select and use a      Is our test reliable?        about a minute. Holding the pH test                 with 0.5 increments)
    way of showing                                     strip by the arrow, completely immerse             beakers                    AF3 – Can select
    scientific data.                                   the strip in the soil solution for roughly         different types of soils   simple scientific
                                                       three seconds. Remove and quickly                  moisture/pH gauge –        data in more than
                                                       rinse with fresh water from the same                available from garden      one way, including
                                                       bottle. Hold the strip up to the light and          centres.                   tables and bar
                                                       compare the indicator zone (unprinted                                          charts. (level 3)
                                                       area) to the colour scale. Read off the
                                                       printed pH value and record it.                                                AF3- Can select
                                                       Alternatively use a moisture and pH                                            appropriate ways of
                                                       gauge.                                                                         presenting
                                                       The children could show their results in                                       scientific data.
                                                       a range of ways, including bar graphs.                                         (level 4)
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Learning Intentions   Key Questions   Tasks   Resources   Outcomes       Notes

								
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