A Situational Analysis of Child
Sex Tourism in Sri Lanka
Ruwanthi Herat Gunaratne
South Asia Partnership International
South Asia Partnership International
What is Child Sex Tourism?
Using the definition derived from existing legislation, we
concluded on the following:
The operational definition for the Study is that a child is
considered to be any human being of the age of 18 years or
Child Sex Tourism is the use of children of the age of 18
years of less (whether be male or female) in sexual activities
by tourists (either foreign tourists or local tourists who are
alien to the specific community) in return for either a
pecuniary advantage or gifts of kind to the child, a parent or
guardian or relevant third person.
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 2
Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean
65,610 sq km
19, 742,439 (2003 est.)
Population growth rate
Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Malay, Burgher, Vedda
Population below the poverty line
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 3
The Purpose of our Research
Explore the manifestations of CST in seven tourist
locations in Sri Lanka
b. Mount Lavinia
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 4
The Research Team
1. Dr. W. James Arputharaj (Overall Planning, Research
Design and field co-ordination)
2. Ms. Ruwanthi Herat Gunaratne (Research Analysis,
Reporting and Liaison with ECPAT)
3. Mr. J.M.T.P.B. Jayasundera (Research Assistant)
4. Ms. Mercin Suguna (Research Assistant)
5. Ms. Chitra Vithanage (Research NGO Liaison)
6. Ms. Sureshi Jayawardene (Research Assistant)
7. Mr. U.L.M. Ashker (Research Supporter)
8. Ms. Anusha Ponnampalam (Research Supporter)
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 5
Child Participatory Research
a. Group Discussions
b. Focus Group Discussions
c. Key Stakeholder Interviews
d. Community Interviews
at each of the seven locations of research
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 6
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 7
Where does CST take place?
Negombo, Mount Lavinia, Colombo, Hikkaduwa
The Cultural Hub
The Newest addition
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 8
How was this ascertained?
Colombo City South of Colombo
South of Colombo
Hikkaduwa M ount Lavinia
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 9
Colombo, Negombo, Hikkaduwa,
Mount Lavinia and Galle
All popular beachfront areas situated on the South Western and
Southern Coast, The ideal tourist spot.
Areas in which an average tourist spend two to three weeks
Areas geared specifically to tackle tourism – entertainment
establishments, hotels, recreational activities, shopping
Areas in which the locals are ready and available at any time to
satisfy the tourists’ needs.
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 10
Trincomalee – the difference
An area opened out to civilians only in 2001 with the
signing of the MOU between the Government and
Still suffering from the after effects of a 17 year armed
Child Labour in every aspect of life being a problem.
The people and the facilities not specifically geared for
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 11
Anuradhapura – the difference
Even though the Government has taken many measures to
introduce the concept of cultural and eco tourism in the
area Anuradhapura still,
Attracts a different kind of tourist.
The time spent being minimal – hoteliers were able to point
out that the tourists spent hardly any time in the cultural
triangle preferring instead to visit the beachfront areas.
Lack of tourism friendly facilities.
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 12
The Three Sisters
17, 14, 12
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 13
Type of Establishment
Organized vs. Independent Prostitution.
(Varies with the location of research)
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 14
The Hikkaduwa Example
5 Marketing Henchmen 35 Youngsters (All Male)
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 15
The Galle Example
The Colonial Dutch Fort, a must see sight for
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 16
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 17
How does CST take place?
1. Initial Contact
On a personal basis
On an organized basis
Duration (two – three weeks)
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 18
What triggers it?
Drugs, Alcohol and Consumerism
The Benefits afforded
a. The Best Friend System
b. The Success Stories
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 19
Offence of Procuration of Children
1999 2000 2001 2002
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 20
1999 2000 2001 2002
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 21
Mostly male – in the case of foreign tourists and female
in the case of local tourists. Exact numbers cannot be
“According to published data the number of child sex
workers range from 2,000 (Tim Bond, 1980), 10,000
(PEACE, 1990), 30,000 (Ministry of Health and Women’s
Affairs) 36,000 boy prostitutes according to Media
Unemployed rate – increase to 9.2%
Victims of sexual abuse
Between the ages of 8 and 16
Religion and Ethnicity
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 22
Population by Religion
Colombo Gampaha Galle Anuradhapura
Buddhist Hindu Islam Roman Catholic Other
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 23
Population by Ethnicity
1,200,000 SL Tamil
1,000,000 Indian Tamil
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 24
Child Sexual Exploiter
Foreign Tourists .
Visiting Sri Lanka for the first/second or third
Spends more than 2/3 of the holiday at the
Has established local contacts
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 25
Foreigners apprehended in Sri Lanka
Australian Belgian British Canadian Dutch
French German Norwegian Swedish Swiss
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 26
What has gone wrong?
What is working out as a probable solution?
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 27
Amendments made to the Penal Code in the Penal Code Amendment ct No: 22 of 1995 and No: 29 of
Offence of Procuration
(The Offence of engaging children in prostitution)
Section 360 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Acts No: 22 of 1995 and No. 29 of 1998 deems that
procures, or attempts to procure, any person, whether male or female of whatever age (whether with or
without the consent of such person) to become, within or outside Sri Lanka, a prostitute;
commits the offence of procuration.
Section 360 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Act No. 22 of 1995
Whoever commits the offence shall on conviction be punished with imprisonment of either description for
a term of not less than 2 years and not exceeding 10 years and may also be punished with a fine.
Offence of Hiring or Employing Children to Act as Procurers for Sexual Intercourse
Section 288 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Act 1998
Whoever knowingly, hires, employs, persuades, uses, induces or coerces a child to procure any person for
illicit sexual intercourse shall on conviction be punished with imprisonment of either description for
a term not less than two years and not exceeding five years and may also be liable to a fine.
In this section a “child” means a person under 18 years of age.
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 28
Lack of communication
Lack of time
The hidden nature of the situation
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 29
The Negombo Exercise
The National Child Protection Authority
Establishment of the Tourist Police
A consensus amongst hoteliers
A consensus amongst Trishaw Drivers
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 30
Lack of resources.
Inability to teach the children a trade in
which they may live comfortably.
The growing number of children.
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 31
Probation Home, Originally from Badulla
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 32
1. Provide the people of the area with an
alternative form of work, that would be able to
afford them of the identical luxuries.
2. Make the laws pertaining to CST known
amongst both in-house staff and guests.
3. Reach a national consensus about combating
CST in Sri Lanka
11/5/2012 www.sapint.org 33