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					Molecular Dopants and High Mass Dopants for HALO and Extension Implantation

  Akira Mineji1, John Borland2, Seiichi Shishiguchi1 , Masami Hane1, Masayasu Tanjyo3 and Tsutomu
                                              Nagayama3
                  1
                    NEC Electronics Corp., 1120, Shimokuzawa, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-1198, Japan
                                2
                                  J.O.B. Technologies, 98-1204 Kuawa St. Aiea, Hawaii 96701
                  3
                    Nissin Ion Equipment, 575, Kuze-Tonoshiro-Cho, Minami-Ku, Kyoto, 601-8205, Japan
                                              E-mail : JohnOBorland@aol.com

1.Introduction                                                  retained dose and note that the retained dose and Rs for the
          Enhanced dopant activation with molecular dopant      1050oC Spike and 1300oC Flash annealing are the same for
species when using diffusion-less activation by msec Flash      both B10H14 and B18H22.
or laser annealing and low temperature 650oC SPE annealing               Activation Rs results for the pHALO implants are
was reported in our earlier paper [1]. Those results            shown in Fig. 7 comparing BF2, B10H14 and In. No
suggested the potential of lowering Flash and spike             significant difference was seen between BF2 and B10H14
temperatures as well as increasing SPE temperatures. Also       HALO boron activation Rs values for all 4 annealing
these advanced annealing techniques must not only activate      conditions. With the 1050oC spike, 900oC spike and 1300oC
USJ but must also activate the HALO/pocket implants             Flash anneals the 3E13/cm2 HALO implant dose resulted in
simultateously to achieve high quality junctions in the         about 300ohms/sq. Rs value. With the 650oC SPE anneal
device channel region. Therefore this paper will describe       the Rs increased up to 1000 ohms/sq. for all 3 dopant species
our results to achieve high quality engineered junctions in     (BF2, B10Hx and In). Most surprising was that the In
the device channel region by optimizing both HALO and           HALO Rs value remained at about 1000 ohms/sq all the 4
SDE implantation with various diffusion-less anneals            anneals including the Flash anneal which is opposite to what
comparing standard dopants to both molecular dopants and        Ito of Toshiba [2] observed in their 2002 IWJT paper where
high mass dopants.                                              Flash annealing resulted in a 3x increase in In dopant
                                                                activation. The pHALO junction leakage results are shown
2.Experimentation                                               in Fig. 8. Only In dopant showed evidence of leakage
         Table 1 shows the various nSDE, pSDE, nHALO            degradation and the Flash anneal was 100x worse, 900oC
and pHALO implants used in this study. All the SDE and          spike was 300x worse and the SPE anneal was 2,000x worse
HALO implants were performed at Nissin on either the            than BF2 or B10H14 HALOs.
Exceed-3000AH medium current implanter or Exceed-                        Results for the nSDE implants are shown in Fig. 9
Cluster implanter. Also, the 650oC 30 sec SPE, 900oC Spike      for As, As2, P2 and Sb. With the Flash anneal only the P
and 1050oC Spike anneals were performed at Nissin using         implant showed lower Rs by about 25% while As, As2 and
the Mattson 3000 annealer while the 1300oC Flash annealing      Sb were about the same in Rs value. With SPE annealing Sb
was performed at Mattson Technology using the Arc-lamp          had the lowest Rs value. Results for nHALO are shown in
Flash annealer.                                                 Fig. 10 and similar to the boron HALO results in Fig. 7 no
                                                                significant change in Rs values are seen for all the annealing
3.Results                                                       conditions except for the SPE were a 2x increase in Rs were
          The effects of each annealing condition on B10H14     observed. However, doubling the As2 dose reduced the SPE
dopant diffusion is shown in Fig.1. The 1050oC Spike            Rs by 2x.
anneal resulted in 23nm of boron diffusion, the 1300oC
Flash anneal resulted in 2nm of diffusion while both the        4.Summary
900oC Spike and 650oC SPE anneals resulted in zero                       Diffusion-less activation were realized for the
diffusion. All the boron SIMS results are shown in Fig. 2       650oC SPE, >1300oC Flash and 900oC Spike anneals. For
and similar to what we reported before with the 1050oC          pSDE all boron dopant species (BF2, B10H14 and B18H22)
Spike anneal BF2 diffusion was +13nm, B10H14 was +23nm          achieved high quality junctions with Flash annealing. With
and B18H22 was +28nm. With Flash anneal B18H22 diffusion        900oC Spike either B10H14 or B18H22 can be used while with
was +4nm. The pSDE boron dopant activation levels were          650oC SPE annealing only B18H22 can be used. For pHALO
determined by sheet resistance (Rs) measurements as shown       using In no difference in activation level could be seen but
in Fig. 3. Ploting Rs versus SIMS Xj is shown in Fig. 4.        significant differences in junction leakage was observed. No
Similar to before, enhanced boron dopant activation is          difference between BF2 and B10H14 HALO activation could
observed with B10H14 and B18H22 compared to BF2 for SPE         be seen for each annealing condition and SPE annealing
and 900oC annealing. With Flash annealing B18H22 had a          resulted in the worse activation level. For nSDE with Flash
lower Rs value but the juction was 2nm deepers so the net       annealing As, As2 and Sb activation levels were similar
Bss activation level was still 1.5E20/cm3. Fig. 5 also shows    while P2 was 25% better. With SPE and 900oC Spike Sb
results for comparing retained dose after annealing condition   gave the best activation. For nHALO As, As2 and Sb
for each pSDE dopant species. BF2 always had the lowest         activation levels were similar for all annealing conditions
retained dose after annealing. Fig. 6 is a plot of Rs versus
with SPE resulting in 2x lower activation. Doubling the As2
                                                                                                                       1.E+22
dose improved SPE activation by 2x.
                                                                                                                                                            BF2(3k)_1050
                                                                                                                                                            B10(7.5k)_1050
Acknowledgements                                                                                                       1.E+21
                                                                                                                                                            B18(15k)_1050




                                                                                       10B+11B Concentration (/cm2)
         The authors are grateful to Mattson for the Flash
anneal processing.                                                                                                     1.E+20

References
                                                                                                                       1.E+19
[1] J. Borland, S. Shishiguchi, A. Mineji, W. Krull, D.
Jacobson, M. Tanjo, W. Lerch, S. Paul, J. Gelpey, S. McCoy,
J. Venturini, M. Current, V. Faifer, R. Hillard, M. Benjamin,                                                          1.E+18
T. Walker, A. Buczkowski, Z. Li and J. Chen, “45nm Node
p+ USJ Formation with High Dopant Activation and Low                                                                   1.E+17
Damage”, IWJT 2006, p. 4.
[2] T. Ito, K. Suguro, M. Tomura, T. Taniguchi, Y. Ushiku,
T. Iinuma, T. Itani, M. Yoshioka, T. Owada, Y. Imaoka, H.                                                              1.E+16
Murayama and T. Kusuda, “Flash Lamp Annealing                                                                                   0          20        40             60         80
Technology for Ultra-shallow Junction Formation”, IWJT                                                                                           Depth, nm
2002, p. 23.
                                                                                                                       a)   1050oC Spike
Table 1 : Summary of SDE and HALO implant matrix.                                                                      1.E+22

                                                                                                                                                             BF2(3k)_900
                                                                                       10B+11B Concentration (/cm2)    1.E+21                                B10(7.5k)_900


                                                                                                                       1.E+20


                                                                                                                       1.E+19


                                                                                                                       1.E+18



                                1.E+22                                                                                 1.E+17

                                                                B10(7.5k)_1050
                                1.E+21                          B10(7.5k)_SPE                                          1.E+16
 10B+11B Concentration (/cm2)




                                                                B10(7.5k)_fRTP                                                  0     20        40          60           80    100
                                                                B10(7.5k)_900
                                1.E+20                                                                                                           Depth, nm

                                                                                                                       b) 900oC Spike
                                1.E+19
                                                                                                                       1.E+22

                                1.E+18
                                                                                                                       1.E+21                                B10(7.5k)_fRTP
                                                                                        10B+11B Concentration (/cm2)




                                                                                                                                                             B18(15k)_fRTP
                                1.E+17
                                                                                                                       1.E+20

                                1.E+16
                                         0   20   40       60          80        100                                   1.E+19
                                                   Depth, nm

Fig. 1 : SIMS boron dopant profiles for B10H14 after the                                                               1.E+18
various 4 different anneals.
                                                                                                                       1.E+17


                                                                                                                       1.E+16
                                                                                                                                0          20        40           60          80
                                                                                                                                                Depth, nm

                                                                                                                       c)   1300oC Flash
                                  1.E+22                                                                                                                                                                         1.2E+15
                                                                                                                                  BF2(3k)_SPE                                                                                                   B10H14          B18H22           BF2
                                                                                                                                  B10(7.5k)_SPE                                                                  1.0E+15
                                  1.E+21
 10B+11B Concentration (/cm2)




                                                                                                                                  B18(15k)_SPE




                                                                                                                                                                                          Retained Dose (/cm2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 8.0E+14
                                  1.E+20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 6.0E+14
                                  1.E+19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4.0E+14
                                  1.E+18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2.0E+14
                                  1.E+17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0.0E+00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SPE 650          Spike 900        Spike1050 fRTP >1300
                                  1.E+16
                                                         0                            20                             40                      60                            80
                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 5: Retained dose comparison for the various pSDE
                                                                                                           Depth, nm
                                                                                                                                                                                  implants.
     d) 650oC SPE
Fig. 2 : SIMS boron diffusion comparison for each anneal.

                                 3000
                                                     B10H14 7.5 keV 1.00E+15                      B18H22 15 keV 1.00E+15                  BF2 3 keV 1.00E+15
                                 2500
    Sheet Resistance (ohm/sq.)




                                 2000

                                 1500

                                 1000

                                 500

                                      0
                                                                                           fRTP




                                                                                                                                  fRTP
                                            Spike 1050



                                                               Spike 900




                                                                                                        Spike1050




                                                                                                                                              Spike 1050



                                                                                                                                                           Spike 900
                                                                           SPE 650-




                                                                                                                      SPE 650-




                                                                                                                                                                       SPE 650-
                                                                             30s




                                                                                                                        30s




                                                                                                                                                                         30s




Fig. 3: Boron Rs for pSDE implants and anneals.

                                                                                                                                 s-RTA ref.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 6: Retained dose versus Rs for various anneals.
                                                                                           10000

                                                                                                                                                                                                          12000
                                                                                                                                             opened: B18H22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           In 45 keV 3.00E+13     B10H14 50 keV 3.00E+13   BF2 20 keV 3.00E+13
                                                                                                                                             closed: B10H14
                                                                                                                                                                                                          10000
                                                                                              1000                                       SPER
 Rs (ohms/sq.)




                                          B Cluster-I/I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 8000
                                                             Spike1050
                                                                                                                                                                                    Rs (ohm/sq.) by RsL




                                                             Spike 900
                                                             fRTP
                                                             SPE 650-30s                                                                                                                                         6000
                                                             Laser(Ge+B)                                            fRTP
                                                                                                  100
                                                             B:8e19/cm3
                                  1                          B:2e20/cm3                                    10                                                             100
                                                             B:5e20/cm3                                                                  Non-melt laser                                                          4000
                                                             Spike-RTA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2000
                                                                                                   10
                                                                                      Xj (nm) @5E18 B/cm3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Spike Spike SPE fRTP Spike Spike SPE fRTP Spike Spike SPE fRTP
Fig. 4 : Rs versus Xj plot.                                                                                                                                                                                             1050 900 650-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1050 900 650-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         30s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1050 900 650-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              30s


                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 7: pHALO implant Rs results.
                                        1000
                                                                       In 45 keV 3.00E+13                                                          B10H14 50 keV 3.00E+13                                                                                     BF2 20 keV 3.00E+13



                                            100
      Leakage current (uA/cm2) by RsL




                                             10




                                                1




                                            0.1




                                         0.01
                                                            Spike Spike SPE fRTP Spike Spike SPE fRTP Spike Spike SPE                                                                                                                                                                                                           fRTP
                                                            1050 900 650-        1050 900 650-        1050 900 650-
                                                                        30s                  30s                  30s


Fig. 8: Junction leakage results for the different pHALO
implants.

                                800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                As 3 keV 1E15
                                700                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             As 2 6keV 1E15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                As 2 6keV 2E15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                P2 3keV 2 E15
                                600                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sb 5keV 1 E15
 Rs (ohm/sq.) by RsL




                                500


                                400


                                300


                                200


                                100


                                        0
                                                                                             fRTP




                                                                                                                                            fRTP




                                                                                                                                                                                                          fRTP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fRTP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fRTP
                                             SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                    SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                                                                                 SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SPE 650-30s
                                                            Spike900


                                                                       Spike1050




                                                                                                                  Spike 900


                                                                                                                                Spike1050




                                                                                                                                                                               Spike 900


                                                                                                                                                                                           Spike1050




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Spike 900


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Spike1050




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spike 900


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Spike1050




Fig. 9: Rs results for the various nSDE implants and anneals.

                                        4000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           As 40keV 3E13
                                        3500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               As2 80keV 6E13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           As2 80keV 3E13
                                        3000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sb 65keV 3E13
       Rs (ohm/sq.) by 4PP




                                        2500

                                        2000

                                        1500


                                        1000

                                        500


                                            0
                                                                                                           fRTP




                                                                                                                                                                                   fRTP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 fRTP



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Spike1050.
                                                           Spike1050




                                                                                                                              Spike1050




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Spike1050



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spike900
                                                                                   SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                                                                   SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SPE 650-30s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SPE 650-30s




Fig. 10: Rs results for the various nHALO implants and
anneals.

				
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