Unit 6 7 quiz by 9IEpVK

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									Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the
questions. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and
D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

                                  The Art of Public Speaking

       If you were to tape-record one of David Letterman’s comedy routines, memorize it word for
word, and stand up before your friends to recite it, would you get the same response Letterman
does? Not very likely. And why not? Because you would not deliver the jokes as Letterman does.
Of course, the jokes are basically funny. But David Letterman bring something extra to the jokes
--- his manner of presentation, his vocal inflections, his perfectly timed pauses, his facial
expressions, his gestures. All these are part of an expert delivery.
       No one expects your speech class to transform you into a multimillion-dollar talk show host.
Still, this example demonstrates how important delivery can be to any public speaking situation.
Even a common speech will be more effective if it is presented well, whereas a wonderfully
written speech can be ruined by poor delivery.
       This does not mean dazzling delivery will turn a mindless string of nonsense into a
triumphant oration. You cannot make a good speech without having something to say. But having
something to say is not enough. You must also know how to say it.
What Is Good Delivery?
       Good delivery does not call attention to itself. It conveys the speaker’s ideas clearly,
interestingly, and without distracting the audience. If you mumble(含糊地说) your words, gaze
out the window, or talk in a dull tone, you will not get your message across. Nor will you be
effective if you show off, strike a dramatic pose, or shout in ringing tones. Most audiences prefer
delivery that combines a certain degree of formality with the best attributes of good conversation
--- directness, facial expressiveness, and a lively sense of communication.
       Speech delivery is an art, not a science. What works for one speaker may fail for another.
And what succeeds with today’s audience may not with tomorrow’s. you cannot become a skilled
speaker just by following a set of rules in a textbook. In the long run, there is no substitute for
experience. But take heart! A textbook can give you basic pointers to get you started in the right
direction.
Methods of Delivery
       There are four basic methods of delivering a speech:
       (1) reading from a manuscript
      Certain speeches must be delivered word for word, according to a well-prepared manuscript.
Examples include an engineer’s report to a professional meeting, or a president’s message to
Congress. Absolute accuracy is essential. Every word of the speech will be analyzed by the press,
by colleagues, perhaps by enemies. Timing may also be a factor in manuscript speeches. Much of
today’s political campaigning is done on radio and television. If the candidate buys a one-minute
spot and pays a great deal of money for it, that one minute of speech must be just right.
       (2) reciting a memorized text
      Among the feats of the legendary orators, none leaves us more in awe than their practice of
presenting even the longest and most complex speeches entirely from memory. Nowadays it is no
longer customary to memorize any but the shortest of speeches --- toasts, introductions, and the
like. If you are giving a speech of this kind and want to memorize it, by all means do so. However,
be sure to memorize it so thoroughly that you will be able to concentrate on communicating with
the audience, not on trying to remember the words. Speakers who gaze at the ceiling or stare out
the window trying to recall what they have memorized are no better off than those who read dully
from a manuscript.
       (3) speaking impromptu(即兴的)
      An impromptu speech is delivered with little or no immediate preparation. Few people
choose to speak impromptu, but sometimes it cannot be avoided. In fact, many of the speeches
you give in life will be impromptu. You might be called on suddenly to “say a few words” or, in
the course of a class discussion, business meeting, or committee report, want to respond to a
previous speaker.
       (4) speaking extemporaneously (即席的)
     In popular usage, “extemporaneous” means the same as “impromptu”. But technically the two
are different. Unlike an impromptu speech, which is totally unexpected, an extemporaneous
speech is carefully prepared and practiced in advance. In presenting the speech, the
extemporaneous speaker uses only a set of brief notes or speaking outline to jog the memory. The
exact wording is chosen at the moment of delivery.
     This is not as hard as it sounds. Once you have your outline and know what topics you are
going to cover and in what order, you can begin to practice the speech. Every time you run
through it, the wording will be slightly different. As you practice the speech over and over, the
best way to present each part will emerge and stick in your mind.
The Speaker’s Voice
       Whatever the characteristics of your voice, you can be sure it is unique. Because no two
people are exactly the same physically, no two people have identical voices. This is why
voiceprints are sometimes used in criminal trails as guides to personal identity. The human voice
is produced by a complex series of steps that starts with the exhalation(呼气) of air from the lungs.
As air is exhaled, it passes through the larynx(喉) to generate sound. This sound is then made
louder and modified as it resonates through the throat, mouth, and nose. Finally, the sound is
shaped into specific sounds by the movement of the tongue, lips, teeth, and roof of the mouth. The
resulting sounds are combined to form words and sentences.
Nonverbal Communication
       Posture, facial expression, gestures, eye contact --- all affect the way listeners respond to a
speaker. How we use these and other body motions to communication is the subject of a
fascinating area of study called kinesics(举止神态学). Studies have shown that in some situations
these signals account for much of the meaning communicate by speakers.
Answering Audience Questions
       The question-and-answer session is a common part of public speaking, whether the occasion
is a press conference, business presentation, public hearing, or classroom assignment. Depending
on the situation, questioning may take place throughout the presentation, or it may be reserved
until after the speaker has completed his or her remarks. In either case, an answer to a question is
often the final word and audience hears and is likely to leave a lasting impression. Effective
speakers recognize that the question period can be as important as the speech itself.
31. From the passage, we learn that David Letterman __________.
     A. is a comedian                                        B. is basically funny
     C. is of bad manner                                D. is an expert
32. Making a good speech requires the speaker to have something to say and to _________.
     A. turn nonsense into triumph                      B. make sure it is enough
     C. know how to say it                              D. bear the success in mind
33. Though textbooks are important in improving speech delivery, in the long run, it cannot take
the place of __________.
     A. rules                        B. experience      C. basics            D. pointers
34. Reading from a manuscript is necessary when __________.
     A. the speech must be delivered word by word
     B. the speech is very well-prepared
     C. the speech is analytical
     D. the speech is on radio and television
35. What does the author say about reciting a memorized text?
     A. It is only customary to memorize the shortest speeches.
     B. It should be encouraged to do so though it is not customary today.
     C. Speakers should try to remember all the words all the time.
     D. It is always better than reading through the manuscript.
36. The difference between eh impromptu speech and the extemporaneous speech is _________.
     A. the impromptu speech cannot be avoided
     B. people choose to speak extemporaneously
     C. impromptu speech is delivered with some preparation
     D. extemporaneous speech is prepared in advance
37. What should people do when they have got the outline?
     A. To know what topics they are going to cover.
     B. To cover the topics in order.
     C. To begin to practice the speech.
     D. To stick the outline in their mind.
38. Voiceprints can be used in criminal trials as guides to personal identity because everybody’s
voice is _____________________________________.
39. In addition to words, the way listeners respond to a speaker can also be affected by
_____________________________________.
40. The session the audience most probably hears at last and gives the lasting impression is
____________________.

Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
Section A
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word
for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage
through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. You
may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
      Think twice next time when someone asks you for “five minutes of your time” --- it could
cost you more than you think. A British professor has (41) __________ a mathematical formula to
help people find out (42) __________ how much an hour of their time is worth. Professor Ian
Walker of Warwick University (43) _________ the value of time after research showed that over
80 percent of (44) __________ would buy more time if they could afford it. “Traditionally,
salaries have (45) __________ an indication of how we are valued at work,” Walker, an (46)
___________ professor, said in a statement. “However, by looking at salaries against taxation, the
cost of living and (47) __________ variations, we can see how much an hour of our time is worth
whether at work or home.” The formula could help in making (48) _________, such as whether to
cook a meal or to get a takeaway, or whether or take (49)________ transport or a taxi. Visitors to
www.barclaycard.co.uk/timeismoney can find out the value of an hour of their time by entering
their salary, the region where they work and what kind of work they do. For example, for a
professional working in London and earning 25,000 pounds a year, an hour would be worth 6.44
pounds. Cooking dinner would cost 5.37 pounds --- (50) __________ to get a takeaway, once you
add the cost of the raw materials needed to make it yourself. Brushing your teeth comes at 32
pence --- perhaps hard to find someone to do it for you for less.

A. given                 B. investigated               C. regional               D. developed
E. decisions             F. economics                  G. students               H. exactly
I. psychology       J. public                          K. cheaper                L. happily
M. respondents           N. earned                     O. easy

Section B.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or
unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). you
should decide on the best choice.
Passage One
      Research on friendship has established a number of facts, some interesting, some even useful.
Did you know that the average student has 5-6 friends, or that a friend who has previously an
enemy is liked more than one who has always been on the right side? Would you believe that
physically attractive individuals are preferred as friends to those less comely, and is it fair that
physically attractive defendants are less likely to be found guilty in court? Unfortunately, such
facts don’t tell us much more about the nature or the purpose of friendship.
      In fact, studies of friendship seem to implicate more complex factors. For example, one
function friendship seems to fulfill is that it supports the image we have of ourselves, and
confirms the value of the attitudes we hold. Certainly we appear to project ourselves onto our
friends; several studies have shown that we judge them to be more like us than they objectively
are. This suggests that we ought to choose friends who are similar to us rather than those who
would be complementary. In our experiment, some developing friendships were monitored
amongst first-year students living in the same hostel. It was found that similarity of attitudes
towards politics, religion and ethics, pastimes and aesthetics was a good prediction of what
friendships would be established by the end of four months.
      There have also been studies of pairings, both voluntary (married couples) or forced (student
roommates), to see which remained together and which split up. Again, the evidence seems to
favor similarity as a sign of a successful relationship, though there is an exception: where marriage
is concerned, once the field has been narrowed down to potential mates who come from similar
backgrounds and share a broad range of attitudes and values, a degree of complementarity (互补)
seems to become desirable. Similarity can breed contempt; it ahs also been found that when we
find others offensive, we dislike them more if they are like us than when they are dissimilar.
        The difficulty of linking friendship with similarity of personality probably reflects the
complexity of our personalities; we have many sides and therefore require a different group of
friends to support us. This is of course can explain why we may have two close friends who have
little in common, and indeed dislike each other. By and large, though, it looks as though we would
do well to choose friends (and spouses) who resemble us. If this were not so, computer dating
agencies would have gone out of business years ago.

51. What can you infer from the research on friendship?
     A. Averagely, each student has at least 5 friends in school.
     B. People tend to develop friendship with their enemies.
     C. It is easy for gook-looking people to make friends.
     D. Judges are able to judge people by the way they look.
52. Studies of friendship suggest that __________.
     A. we want our friends to be totally supportive
     B. we should judge our friends more subjectively
     C. we think our friends resemble us more than they do.
     D. we need friends who can make up for our shortcomings.
53. What do studies of marriage relationship indicate?
     A. A happy marriage must be based on the completely same likes and dislikes.
     B. It can only be successful when the couple share the same attitudes and values.
     C. The only difference between marriage and friendship is that the former is voluntary.
     D. The most successful are between people who are alike but not exactly the same.
54. When we are too similar to other people, _________.
     A. we despise them for having the same faults as we have.
     B. we will be bored since we always agree with each other.
     C. a mutual understanding will soon occur between us
     D. we can understand the importance of having complimentary friends.
55. According to the passage, why do we have close friends who have nothing in common?
     A. Because we will benefit from the varieties they bring into our life.
     B. Because our friends reflect the different aspects of our personalities.
     C. Because sometimes we choose friends through computer dating agencies.
     D. Because it’s better we have friends who are complementary to each other.

Passage Two
      The newspaper must provide for the reader the facts, pure, objective facts. But in these days
of complex news it must provide more: it must supply interpretation, the meaning of the facts.
This is the most important assignment confronting American journalism --- to make clear to the
reader the problems of the day, to make international news as understandable as community news,
to recognize that there is no longer any such thing as “local” news, because any event in the
international area has a local reaction in manpower floating, in economic pressure, in terms,
indeed of our very way of life.
      There is in journalism a widespread view that when you embark on interpretation, you are
entering dangerous waters, the swirling tides of opinion. This is nonsense.
      The opponents of interpretation insist that the writer and the editor shall confine himself to
the “facts”. This insistence raises two questions: What are the Facts? And are the bare facts
enough?
      As to the first question, consider how a so-called “factual” story comes about. The reporter
collects, say, fifty facts; out of these fifty, his space being necessarily restricted, he selects the ten
which he considers most important. This is Judgment Number One. Then he or his editor decides
which of these ten facts shall constitute the lead of the piece. (This is important because many
readers do not proceed beyond the first paragraph.) This is Judgment Number Two. Then the
editor determines whether the article shall be presented on page one, where it has larger impact, or
on page twenty-four, where it has little. Judgment Number Three.
      Thus, in the presentation of a so-called “factual” or “objective” story, at least three
judgments are involved. And they are judgments not at all unlike those involved interpretation, in
which reporters and editors, calling upon their research resources, their general background, and
their “news neutralism”, arrive at a conclusion as to the significance of the news.
      The two areas of judgment, presentation of the news and its interpretation, are both objective
rather than subjective processes --- as objective, that is, as any human being can be. (Even though
complete objectivity can never be achieved, nevertheless the ideal must always be ultimate goal.)
If an editor is intent on slanting the news, he can do it in other ways and more effectively than by
interpretation. He can do it in other ways and more effectively than by interpretation. He can do it
by the selection of those facts that prop up his particular plea. Or he can do it by the play he gives
a story-promoting it to page one or dragging it to page thirty.

56. Why does the author say the interpretation is the most important assignment confronting
American journalism?
     A. Because the interpretation tells the reader that they are reading international news.
     B. Because with the help of the interpretation, readers can have better understanding of the
news.
     C. Because good interpretations can arouse more reaction from the reader.
     D. Because without interpretation, local news won’t exist any more.
57. Why do some people oppose the interpretation of news?
     A. Because they believe the interpretation will be too subjective.
     B. Because they are afraid that the interpretation will bring danger.
     C. because they are confined to the facts and can’t see anything else.
     D. Because they say interpretation is total nonsense.
58. Basically, why does the reporter discard some of the facts?
     A. His editor asks him to do so.
     B. Those facts are not worth writing.
     C. The space in the newspaper is limited.
     D. H wants to make the story simple.
59. What can you learn about the leading sentence of a story?
     A. It’s the only thing many readers read in a story.
     B. It should mention all the facts covered in the story.
     C. It is written by the editor rather than the reporter.
     D. IT will lure the readers into reading further.
60. What is the author’s attitude toward the interpretation of news?
     A. He thinks the interpretation of news is absolutely nonsense.
     B. He doubts whether the reporters are capable of making it objective.
     C. He holds the opinion that total objective interpretation can not be achieved.
     D. He believed interpretation is as objective as the human beings can be.

Cloze

     More than three-quarters of the children we interviewed said they’re sometime afraid to be
home alone. If you decide your child is (61) _________ enough to be home alone before or (62)
__________ school, you should make sure your house is (63) __________ and teach your child to
(64) __________ various situations.
     Make a game of your instructions. Have your child answer questions beginning with “What
would you do if” and ending with phrases like “you lost your key” (65)__________ “someone you
don’t know comes (66)__________ the door.”
     The best home security is (67)__________. Every home should have smoke detectors, but
consider also installing a burglar-alarm system. Leaving a radio (68)__________ during the day
makes a home sound (69)__________. Besides, as one child said, “It’s horrifying walking into a
quiet house.” Don’t leave an extra key in obvious hiding places, such as under the doormat.
(70)_________ it with a neighbor instead.
     (71)________ your child is home alone, the phone is a vital (72)_________. A parent or
designated (指定的) adult should always be available by (73)_________. Children should know
where to find (74)___________ numbers, and how to (75)__________ the phone and take a
message without letting an unknown caller (76)_________ no one else is home. You might
(77)__________ a telephone-answering machine. Your child (78)__________ then be able to pick
up the receiver only when he heard a (79)________ voice. If you help your child understand the
precautions you’ve taken, he will feel more (80)_________ about staying home.

61. A. mature                 B. brave                       C. old                     D. strong
62. A. ahead                  B. by                          C. after                   D. near
63. A. empty                  B. comfortable                 C. quiet                   D. safe
64. A. handle                 B. avoid                       C. defeat                  D. escape
65. A. but                    B. or                          C. as                      D. so
66. A. at                     B. around                      C. for                     D. to
67. A. alarms                 B. safeguards                  C. prevention              D. education
68. A. off                    B. loud                        C. close                   D. on
69. A. interrupted            B. occupied                    C. chaotic                 D. weird
70. A. preserve               B. supply                      C. charge                  D. leave
71. A. When                   B. Where                       C. However                 D. Which
72. A. necessity              B. link                        C. protection              D. line
73. A. police                 B. time                        C. 911                     D. phone
74. A. available                 B. additional                 C. emergency             D. substantial
75. A. dispose                   B. supply                     C. answer                D. interact
76. A. find out                  B. make out                   C. bring out             D. put out
77. A. display                   B. occupy                     C. purchase              D. pursue
78. A. would                     B. must                       C. need                  D. should
79. A. beautiful                 B. familiar                   C. rhythmic              D.
threatening
80. A. boastful                  B. confident                  C. doubtful              D cautious
Vocabulary
81. It is said that this device can __________ lies.
      A. tell                    B. discover                        C. detect                D. find
82. The doctor is ______ the patient ______ any signs of SARS.
      A. take…care of                                               B. watch … for
      C. watch out…for                                         D. pay…attention to
83. My parents, teachers and other adults praised me for such a __________ choice.
      A. sensitive               B. sensual                         C. sensible                   D.
senseless
84. We must be able to _________ public criticism.
      A. withstand               B. oppose                          C. object                D. resist
85. While countries such as India have made ______ efforts to reduce birth rates, Brazil has had
     better result without really trying, says George Martine at Harvard.
      A. assembled          B. assembling                C. join                        D. joint
86. Seconds later, the car was __________ in flames, but to everyone’s amazement, Anderson was
     able to pull the baby to safety.
     A. enclosed                 B. A. enveloped                    C. surrounded            D.
     fenced
87. Once I quoted the saying, "With the skin gone, to what can the hair ________ itself?" If the
     intellectuals do not attach themselves to the proletariat, they will be in danger of "dangling in
     mid-air". (我讲过,“皮之不存,毛将焉附”,知识分子如果不附在无产阶级身上,就有作“梁上
     君子”的危险。)
     A. add                      B. combine                         C. attach                D.
     fasten
88. We should not base our conclusions on __________ evidence.
     A. casual              B. incidental                      C. surprising                 D.
     accidental
89. What measures were adopted in 1935 __________ the speeding restrictions?
     A. apart from          B. except for                      C. in addition           D.      what’s
     more
90. In the phrase, borrowed from Sappho, that the social scientists use to sum up the common
     __________, what is beautiful is good.
     A. deception                B. conception                 C. perception            D. reception
91. His anger was beyond __________.
     A. restraint                B. restrict                   C. constrain                  D.
     confine
92. This country is being __________ of its best talents.
     A. leaked             B. dripped                       C. dropped                     D.
     drained
93. Her memory __________ everything she reads.
     A. keeps              B. retains                  C. reserves                    D. preserves
94. Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way ________ attitudes
     towards night dreaming have changed.
     A. which              B. what                          C. that                        D. how
95. He will put off the picnic until May 1st, __________ he will be free.
     A. which              B. when                          C. that                        D.
     where
96. I like the music for the very reason __________ he dislikes it.
     A. which              B. what                          C. that                        D. why
97. Such beliefs __________ the tendency of people to allow the third event to define
     A. stem from          B. stem off                      C. stem of                     D. stem
     in
98. In most situations where music is performed in our culture it is not difficult to ________ the
     audience from the performers.
     A. segregate               B. discriminate                   C. discriminate               D.
     distinguish
99. _________ what you know of word stems and word formations, you can make a guess at the
     meaning of a new word.
     A. Used                    B. Using                    C. Being used             D.      Being
     using
100. _________ by mistakes and setbacks, we have become wiser and handled our affairs better.
     A. Taught                                              B. Teaching
     C. Having taught                                             Having been teaching

								
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