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					 Assessment of Educational Ability: Survey Battery,
  Diagnostic, Readiness, & Cognitive Ability Tests
                                 Uses:
1. To determine how well a student is learning
2. To assess how well a class, grade, school, school system, or state is
   learning content knowledge
3. As a method of detecting learning problems
4. As a method of identifying giftedness
5. To help determine if a child is ready to move to the next grade level
6. To assess teacher effectiveness
7. To help determine readiness or placement in college, graduate
   school, or professional schools
8. To determine if an individual has mastered content knowledge for
   professional advancement (e.g., credentialing exams)
Survey Battery Achievement Testing
“No Child Left Behind” (NCLB): States must show that
  adequate yearly progress is being made. Survey
  Batteries are used to document this goal.
            Survey Battery Achievement Tests
 Through profile reports, these tests help students,
  parents, and teachers identify strengths & weaknesses &
  develop strategies for working on weak academic areas
 Profile reports at the classroom, school, or school
  system level can show how students are doing and point
  out to teachers and others where and how to provide
  needed resources in areas where students are struggling
Survey Battery Achievement Testing
 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP):
     Uses achievement testing to assess how each state is doing
      compared to other states
       • Stanford Achievement Tests
       • Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)
       • Metropolitan Achievement Test
 NAEP samples students from all states & compares
  them on a variety of subjects
     Results are not provided for specific students, classes, or
      schools
     States cannot use NAEP to show that adequate progress has
      been made toward No Child Left Behind
      Survey Battery Achievement Testing
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP):
    All states are required to participate in NAEP assessment in
     math & reading (occurs every 2 years)
    Most states also participate in periodic testing in writing &
     science
    Testing for NAEP occurs at the 4th- and 8th-grade levels
      • Each state selects a representative sample of 3000 students from 100
        public schools
      • For national data, a sample of between 10,000 and 20,000 public and
        nonpublic school students are ware 9, 13, & 17 years old are assessed
        in math and reading
          – Results are given as a percentage of students who scored “above basic,”
            “proficient,” or “advanced”
          – Results can also be sorted by subject area, gender, ethnicity, & eligibility
            for national school lunch programs
       Survey Battery Achievement Testing
                      Stanford Achievement Test:
 One of the oldest survey battery achievement tests
    Introduced in 1923
 The Stanford Achievement Test (SAT10) is given to students in grades K-12
    Has been normed against hundreds of thousands of students
    Offers full-length and abbreviated versions as well as content modules
     (tests for specific subjects, i.e., reading, language, spelling, math, science,
     social studies, & writing)
    Has sections that can be completed in open-ended format (requires
     students to fill in the blank, respond with short answers, or write an essay
     that is scored by the classroom teacher according to a criterion)
    Offers interpretive reports (Individual Profile Sheets, Class Grouping
     Sheets, Grade Grouping Sheets, & School System Grouping Sheets)
          Survey Battery Achievement Testing
                  Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)
   Oldest & best known achievement test
     • Developed in 1935, it has gone through many changes
     • Emphasizes the basic skills necessary to make satisfactory progress through
       school
     • Purpose is:
         – to obtain information that can support instructional decisions made by
           teachers in the classroom,
         – to provide information to students & their parents for monitoring the
           student’s growth from grade to grade,
         – to examine yearly progress of grade groups as the pass through the
           school’s curriculum
     • Versions include Form A, Form B, & Form C
         – For K through 8
         – Include numerous subtests (language, reading comprehension,
           vocabulary, listening, word analysis, math, social studies, science)
         – Time ranges from 30 minutes for a single test to 6 hours (+) for total
           battery
        Survey Battery Achievement Testing
          Metropolitan Achievement Test:
 Popular paper-and-pencil test designed to test students in
  grades K-12 for knowledge in a broad range of subjects
  (reading, language arts, math, science, & social studies
    Has 13 test levels (K-12)

    Can be given in short form (90 minutes) or complete form

     (5 hours)
    Multiple choice questions (graded correct or incorrect)

    Open-ended items (scored as 0-3)

    Some have suggested that samples may be too heavily

     weighted for rural classrooms and under represent urban
     classrooms
                     Diagnostic Testing
 Public Law 94-142 (1975) and the Individuals with Disabilities
  Education Improvement Act require that anyone between 3 and
  21 years of age who were found to have a learning disability be
  assured the right to an education within the least restrictive
  environment possible
      Further, these laws require that anyone who is suspected of having a
       disability that interferes with learning has a right to be tested at the
       school’s expense
      Any student who has a learning disability must be given an
       Individualized Education Plan (IEP) describing services that should be
       offered to assist with his/her learning problem
 Diagnostic tests commonly used to identify learning problems
  include:
      Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4)
      Key Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Test
      Peabody Individual Achievement Test
                Diagnostic Testing
         Wide Range Achievement Test 4:
 Assesses basic learning problems in reading,
  spelling, math, & sentence comprehension.
     Intended for use by professionals who need a quick,
      simple, psychometrically sound assessment of
      important fundamental academic skills
     Called, “wide range,” because it can be used for
      populations from ages 5 to 94
     Administered individually because some sections are
      read aloud by the examinee
     Two equivalent forms called, “Blue” and “Green”
                Diagnostic Testing

Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4):
   Attempts to ensure that the test is assessing the fundamentals
    of reading, spelling, & arithmetic
   Simple to administer: Examinee is asked to “read”
    (pronounce) words, to spell words, to figure out a number of
    math problems, & to provide a missing word or words to
    simple sentences to show that he/she understands the
    meaning of the sentence
   Includes original 3 subsets (Word Reading, Spelling, & Math
    computation) as well as the new, 4th subset called, “Sentence
    Comprehension”
                      Diagnostic Testing
        Key Math-3 Diagnostic Arithmetic Test:
 Comprehensive test to assess learning disabilities in math
      Has been described as “one of the very best test batteries for assessing a
       student’s knowledge and understanding of basic mathematics and
       providing useful diagnostic information to teachers.”
      Often used as a follow-up when there is a suspected learning disability in
       math
      Has 10 subtests grouped under 3 broad math content areas:
         • Basic Concepts (conceptual knowledge)
         • Operations (computational knowledge)
         • Applications (problem solving)
      Appropriate for children in kindergarten through ninth grade or for those
       between the ages of 4½ and 21
      The test is not timed but generally takes between 30 to 90 minutes
               Diagnostic Testing

     Peabody Individual Achievement Test:
 Academic screening for children in grades K-12
     Covers 6 content areas (General Information,
      Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension,
      Math, Spelling, & Written Expression)
     Test is multiple choice except for General
      Information and Written Expression
     Individually administered
     Takes approximately 1 hour to complete
             Other Diagnostic Tests
 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-2nd Ed.
     Individually administered
     Ages 4 to 85 years
     Provides composite scores in 4 domains: reading,
      math, written language, & oral language
     Aids in identifying disparities between ability and
      achievement
     Takes between 45 minutes and 2 hours to complete,
      depending on age level
       • Abbreviated version can be given in 15-30 minutes
             Other Diagnostic Tests
 Woodcock-Johnson® III
     Designed to assess cognitive abilities, skills, and
      academic knowledge most recognized as
      comprising human intelligence and routinely
      encountered in school and other settings
     Generally used for student around the age of 10
      years
     Consists of two batteries:
       • Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement
          – Examines academic strengths
       • Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities
          – Looks at specific and general cognitive abilities
                       Readiness Testing
  The Educate America Act: “All children in America will start
     school ready to learn.” (Goals 2000, 1996, paragraph 1)
                        Readiness Tests:
 Assesses readiness for kindergarten or first grade.
      Classified as either measurements of ability (reading or math
       achievement) or those that assess developmental level (psychomotor
       ability, language ability, & social maturity)
      Readiness testing has always been a questionable practice due to the fact
       that children change so rapidly at these ages and because predictive
       ability of these tests tend to be weak
      Due to cultural and language biases, children from low-income families,
       minority groups, & homes where English is not the first language will
       often obtain lower scores than their true ability
      Tests need to be administered with care, if at all
 Two categories of readiness testing:
      Ability level
      Developmental level
                    Readiness Testing
 Kindergarten Readiness Test:
     Assesses broad range of cognitive & sensory motor skills
     Purpose is to determine if a child is ready to begin
      kindergarten
     Individually administered
     Takes 15-20 minutes to complete
     Assesses reasoning, language, auditory & visual attention,
      numbers, fine motor skills, and several other cognitive &
      sensory-perception areas
     For ages 4-6
     May be useful in determining whether a student is ready to
      begin kindergarten if the user believes that the content of the
      test matches the curriculum of the school the child will attend
                 Readiness Testing
 Metropolitan Readiness Test:
     • Assesses literacy development, reading, & math
     • Designed to assess beginning educational skills in
       preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders
     • Level 1 of the test is administered individually
        – Assesses literacy development of preschoolers & beginning
          kindergartners
     • Level 2 of the test is usually given in group setting
        – Assesses reading & math development of kindergartners through
          beginning of first graders
     • Test takes 80 to 100 minutes to administer
     • Results are often used as a aid in determining whether a
       student should be placed in first or second grade
                  Readiness Testing
 Gesell School Readiness Test, Fifth Ed.:
     Designed to assess personal & social skills, neurological &
      motor growth, language development, & overall adaptive
      behavior, or the ability of the child to adapt to new situations
     Administered in non-threatening & comfortable environment
      by highly trained examiner who observes the child’s
      developmental maturity to assess the child’s readiness to
      excel in different settings
     Overall, the test is weak in providing adequate informaiton
      about its validity and reliability
     Sometimes used because it offers a view of readiness that is
      different from those that are based strictly on achievement in
      a content area
              Cognitive Ability Tests
 Cognitive ability tests are aptitude tests that measure
  what one is capable of doing and are often used to
  assess a student’s potential to succeed in grades K-12,
  college, or graduate school
 Cognitive ability tests include:
      Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
      Cognitive Ability Test
      American College Testing Assessment (ACT)
      SAT Reasoning Test (SAT)
      Graduate Record Exam (GRE)
      Law School Admission Test (LSAT)
      Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)
                       Cognitive Ability Tests
 Otis-Lennon School Ability Test-8th Ed.:
      Assesses students’ abstract thinking and reasoning skills via verbal and nonverbal
       sections
      Provides educators with information about what to expect of students and why they
       may have challenges in certain subject areas
      Given in large group format
      For students K-12
      Assesses different clusters in the verbal & non-verbal realms
         • Two clusters of verbal ability include verbal comprehension and verbal
            reasoning
         • Three clusters for nonverbal ability include pictorial reasoning, figural
            reasoning, and quantitative reasoning
         • Different grade levels are given different clusters
              – Each cluster has different subtests
         • Completed in 60-75 minutes
      An Achievement/Ability Comparison (AAC) score can be obtained to give teachers
       insights into how students are actually doing in school compared to their potential
        • Significantly higher scores on a cognitive ability test compared to an achievement test
          could be an indication of a learning disability
            Cognitive Ability Tests
 The Cognitive Ability Test (CogAT):
     Designed to assess cognitive skills of children
      from kindergarten through 12th grade
     Purpose is threefold:
       • Help a teacher understand the ability of each child so
         he/she can optimize instruction for each child
       • Provide a different means of measuring cognitive ability
         than traditional achievement tests
       • To identify students who might have large discrepancies
         between their cognitive ability testing and their
         achievement testing (can be an indication of learning
         problems, lack of motivation, problems at home,
         problems at school, or self-esteem issues)
             Cognitive Ability Tests
 The Cognitive Ability Test (CogAT):
     Measures 3 broad areas of ability: verbal, quantitative, and
      nonverbal
     Cognitive ability tests should never be viewed as substitutes
      for individual intelligence tests because the manner in which
      they are created & administered is vastly different from that
      of intelligence tests
     Tend to focus primarily on traditional knowledge as obtained
      in school, particularly verbal & math ability
     2-3 hours to completed
     Can be given in multiple administrations, depending on the
      age range
     Cognitive ability tests, in general, have a difficult time
      establishing content validity
            Cognitive Ability Tests

 College & Graduate School Admission Exams:
 Used to predict achievement in college and
  graduate school
     Research supports their use and indicates that such
      tests predict performance in undergraduate &
      graduate school about as well as - or better than -
      other indicators and are especially useful when
      combined with grade predictors
            Cognitive Ability Tests
 American College Testing Assessment (ACT):
     Assesses educational development and ability to
      complete college work
     Most widely used admission exam at the
      undergraduate level
     Covers 4 skill areas: English, Math, Reading, and
      Science
     Contains 215 multiple-choice questions
     3½ hours to complete
     Combining ACT scores with high school GPA
      increased the predictive validity of the predictive
      validity of the test
             Cognitive Ability Tests

 SAT Reasoning Test (SAT):
     Assesses reading, math, and writing - predicts mildly
      well for college grades
     Measures critical thinking & problem-solving skills
      in 3 areas: reading, math, and a writing section that
      has multiple-choice questions as well as a writing
      sample
     Student earn a score that ranges between 200 and 800
      in each of the 3 sections
              Cognitive Ability Tests
 Graduate Record Exam (GRE) - General Test:
     A Cognitive ability test frequently required by U.S.
      graduate schools
     Contains 3 sections: verbal reasoning, quantitative
      reasoning, and analytical writing
 Graduate Record Exam (GRE) - Subject Tests:
     There are a number of subject tests that are provided
      for those graduate programs that wish to assess more
      specific ability
       • Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, biology,
         chemistry, computer science, literature in English,
         mathematics, physics, and psychology
             Cognitive Ability Tests
 Miller Analogies Test (MAT):
     Used for admission to graduate school
     Measures ability to recognize relationships between
      ideas, fluency in the English language, and general
      knowledge of the humanities, natural sciences, math,
      and social sciences
     Includes 120 analogies
     Can be taken on computer or paper and pencil
     Takes one hour to complete
             Cognitive Ability Tests
 Law School Admissions Test (LSAT):
     Assesses acquired reading and verbal reasoning
      skills; predicts grades in law school
     Test requires a half a day to complete
     Consists of 4 sections:
       • Three multiple-choice sections (reading comprehension,
         analytical reasoning, & logical reasoning)
       • The 4th section asks for a writing sample that is not
         scored but is sent directly to the law schools to which the
         student is applying
       • A 5th section is not scored and is used to pretest new
         questions
            Cognitive Ability Tests

 Medical College Admission Test (MCAT):
     Assesses knowledge of physical biological science,
      verbal reasoning, and writing skills; predicts grades
      in medical school
     Consists of 4 sections: physical sciences, biological
      sciences, verbal reasoning, and a writing sample
            Helpers and Their Role
 Those who play a vital role in assessing
  educational ability:
     School counselors, school psychologists, learning
      disabilities specialists, & school social workers
       • Often work together as a team to assess eligibility for
         assessment of learning disabilities and to help determine a
         child’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
     Licensed professionals in private practice need to
      know about the assessment of educational ability
      when working with children who are having
      problems at school
Intellectual & Cognitive Functioning:
        Intelligence Testing &
   Neuropsychological Assessment
             Defining Intelligence Testing
 Intelligence testing is a subset of intellectual and
  cognitive functioning. Intelligence testing assesses a
  broad range of cognitive capabilities that generally
  result in an “IQ” score
      Intelligence testing measures aptitude, or what one is capable
       of doing
      Intelligence tests are used for a variety of purposes:
        • To assist in determining giftedness
        • To assess for mental retardation
        • To identify certain types of learning disabilities
        • To assess intellectual ability following an accident, the onset of
          dementia, substance abuse, disease processes, and trauma to the brain
        • As part of the admissions process to certain private schools
        • As part of a personality assessment battery to aid in understanding the
          whole person
             Models of Intelligence

 Theoretical models that have influenced
  intelligence tests:
     Spearman’s Two-Factor Approach
     Thurstone’s Multifactor Approach
     Vernon’s Hierarchical Model of Intelligence
     Guilford’s Multifactor/Multi-Dimensional Model
     Cattell’s Fluid and Crystal Intelligence
     Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
     Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence
               Models of Intelligence
 Spearman’s Two-Factor Approach:
     Spearman is known for his g and s factors of intelligence
     Spearman felt that Binet had lumped a number of different
      factors together in a spurious fashion
     Believed in two-factor approach to intelligence that
      included a general factor (g) and a specific factor (s)
     Believed the importance of “weight’ of g varied as a
      function of what was being measured
     Many still adhere to the concept that there is a g factor that
      mediates general intelligence and s factors that speak to a
      variety of specific talents
               Models of Intelligence
 Thurstone’s Multifactor Approach:
     Developed a model that included seven primary
      factors or mental abilities
     Thurstone did not rule out Spearman’s g factor
     The seven primary mental abilities he recognized
      were the following:
       •   Verbal meaning
       •   Number ability
       •   Word fluency
       •   Perception speed
       •   Spatial ability
       •   Reasoning and memory
               Models of Intelligence
 Vernon’s Hierarchical Model of Intelligence
     Vernon believed that subcomponents of intelligence could
      be added in a hierarchical manner to obtain a cumulative (g)
      factor score
     Vernon’s model comprised 4 levels with factors from each
      lower level contributing to the next level on the hierarchy
       • Top level was similar to Spearman’s general factor (g) and was
         considered to have the most variance of any of the factors
       • Level 2 had two major factors: v:ed, which stands for verbal and
         educational abilities
       • Level 3 is composed of what was called minor group factors
       • Level 4 is made of what was identified as specific factors
     Still used in most tests today
               Models of Intelligence
 Guilford’s Multifactor/Multi-Dimensional
  Model
     Guilford developed 180 factors in model of
      intelligence
     Three dimensional model is represented as a cube
       • Includes 3 kinds of cognitive ability: operations (general
         intellectual processes we use in understanding); content
         (what we use to perform our thinking process); and
         products (how we apply our operations to our content)
       • Different mental abilities will require different
         combinations of processes, contents, and products
                    Models of Intelligence
 Cattell’s Fluid and Crystal Intelligence
     After attempting to remove cultural bias from intelligence
      tests, Cattell observed marked changes from the original test
      scores and suggested that there were two “general factors”
      made up intelligence:
       • Fluid: Culture-free portion of intelligence that is inborn and unaffected
         by new learning
           – Estimated that heritability variance within families for fluid intelligence
             was about.92, which means if your parents have it, you are likely to have
             it
           – Memory and spatial capability are aspects of fluid intelligence
           – Tends to decline slightly as we age
           – Many theorists believe that overall intelligence (g) maintains evenly
             across lifespan
       • Crystallized: Acquired intelligence as we learn. Is affected by our
         experiences, schooling, culture, and motivation
           – Will generally increase with age
                         Models of Intelligence
 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
     Approached intelligence from a developmental perspective rather than
      factors approach
     Developed the four stages of cognitive development
         •   Sensorimotor
         •   Preoperational
         •   Concrete Operational
         •   Formal Operational
       Believed that cognitive development is adaptive: as new information is
        presented, we are innately programmed to take it in and make sense of it
        in some manner in order to maintain a sense of order and equilibrium in
        our lives
       Believed that we adapt our mental structures to maintain equilibrium
        through two methods:
         • Assimilation: Incorporating new stimuli or information into existing
           cognitive structures
         • Accommodation: Creating new cognitive structures and/or behaviors based
           on new stimuli
               Models of Intelligence

 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences:
     Gardner believes that intelligence is too vast and
      complex to be measured accurately by our current
      methods
     Based on his research of brain-damaged individuals,
      as well as literature in the areas of the brain,
      evolution, genetics, psychology, and anthropology,
      Gardner developed his Theory of Multiple
      Intelligences:
              Models of Intelligence
 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences:
     Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence
     Mathematical-Logical Intelligence
     Musical Intelligence
     Visual-Spatial Intelligence
     Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
     Interpersonal Intelligence
     Intrapersonal Intelligence
     Naturalist Intelligence
     Existential Intelligence
            Intelligence Testing
 Theories of intelligence are the basis for
  intelligence tests
 Many tests have been developed to measure
  general intelligence (g), specific intelligence (s),
  fluid and crystal intelligence, and other factors
  traditionally seen to be related to intellectual
  ability
 The Stanford-Binet and the three Wechsler
  Scales of Intelligence are the most widely used
  intelligence tests today
                  Intelligence Testing
 Stanford-Binet 5th Ed.:
     Uses routing test, basal and ceiling levels to determine start
      and stop points; measures verbal and nonverbal intelligence
      across 5 factors
     Takes 45 to 60 minutes to complete
     For ages 2 through 90 years of age
     Uses a vocabulary routing test (almost a pretest) to determine
      where an individual should begin
     A basal level is determined (highest point where the
      examinee is able to get all the questions right on two
      consecutive age levels)
     Ceiling level is reached when examinee misses 75% of the
      questions on two consecutive age levels
                     Intelligence Testing
 Stanford-Binet 5th Ed.:
     Measures verbal and nonverbal intelligence across 5
      factors:
       •   Fluid Reasoning
       •   Knowledge
       •   Quantitative Reasoning
       •   Visual-spatial Processing
       •   Working Memory
            – There are 10 subtests
            – Discrepancies among scores on the subtests as well as between
              scores on the verbal and nonverbal factors can be an indication of
              a learning disability
                    Intelligence Testing
 Wechsler Scales:
     The 3 Wechsler scales are the most widely used intelligence
      tests today
     Each Wechsler test measures a select age group
       • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-3rd Ed. assesses
         children between the ages of 2 years, 6 months, and 7 years, 3 months
       • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Ed. assesses children
         between 6 and 16 years of age
       • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Ed. assesses adults aged 16
         through 90
     All three versions are useful in assessing general cognitive
      functioning, in helping to determine mental retardation and
      giftedness, and in assessing probable learning problems
                Intelligence Testing
 Wechsler Scales
     WISC-IV provides a Full-Scale IQ as well as four additional
      composite score indexes in areas called, “Verbal
      Comprehension Index (VCI); Perceptual Reasoning Index
      (PRI); Working Memory Index (WMI); and Processing
      Speed Index (PSI)
     The four composite score indexes provide important
      information concerning the child being tested, including
      identifying strengths and weaknesses, as well as helping to
      identify a possible learning disability
     Wechsler Scales offer a comprehensive picture of the
      cognitive functioning of the individual
                    Intelligence Testing

 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Ed.
     An individually administered test of cognitive ability for
      children between the ages of 3 and 18
     Test times vary from 25 to 70 minutes, according to the age
      of the child
     Subtests and scoring allow for a choice between two
      theoretical models (one is Cattell’s model of fluid and
      crystallized intelligence)
       • Both methods examine visual processing, fluid reasoning, and short-
         term and long-term memory
     Scores are age-based
                 Intelligence Testing

 Nonverbal Intelligence Tests:
     These tests rely on little to no verbal expression
     For children who may be disadvantaged by
      traditional verbal and language-based measures
     Assess intelligence for children with autism,
      specific language-based learning disabilities, poor
      expressive abilities, hearing impairments,
      differences in cultural background, and certain
      psychiatric disorders
                     Intelligence Testing
 Nonverbal Intelligence Tests:
      Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI)
        • Designed to measure intellectual functioning from ages 6 years, 0
          months, to 18 years, 11 months
        • Composed of 6 subtests that measure different nonverbal abilities:
          pictorial analogies, geometric analogies, pictorial categories,
          geometric categories, pictorial sequences, geometric sequences
      Universal Intelligence Test (UNIT)
        • Designed to measure intelligence of children ages 5 to 17 years
        • Composed of 6 subtests: symbolic memory, cube design, spatial
          memory, analogic reasoning, object memory, and reasoning
        • Unique in that it relies entirely on nonverbal test administration and
          response style
     Neuropsychological Assessment

 Neuropsychological assessment is a new field
  compared to intelligence testing and offers a
  broad array of ways to examine the cognitive
  functioning of individuals
          Neuropsychological Assessment
 Brief History:
     Neuropsychological assessment is a domain of psychology that examines
      brain behavior
     Interest in brain injury was piqued during WWI because significant
      numbers of soldiers suffered brain trauma
        • Screening and diagnostic measures were created at this time
        • Early research on war-damaged veterans is said to be the catalyst for
          the birth of clinical neuropsychology
     In the 1950s, brain injury was found to be unique among people with
      traumatic injuries in the sense that it could lead to a wide variety of
      behavioral patterns
     The invention of diagnostic scanning techniques (MRI & PET) makes
      many of the former neuropsychological assessments unnecessary
     The most sensitive measure of brain capacity is behavior, which is not
      measured by these scanning devices
          Neuropsychological Assessment
 Defining Neuropsychological Assessment
     A domain of psychology that examines brain-behavior relationships
        • A subdiscipline is clinical neuropsychology, which includes both the
          assessment of the central nervous system and interventions that may
          result from an assessment
     Assessments generally follow a traumatic brain injury, an illness that
      affects brain function, or because of suspected changes in brain function
      from the aging process
     Assessments can measure a number of domains related to brain-behavior:
      memory, intelligence, language, visuo-perception, visual-spatial thinking,
      psychosensory and motor abilities, academic achievement, personality,
      and psychological functioning
        • Results can be used to identify the root of a condition and the extent of
          the brain damage, to measure a change in an individuals functioning,
          to compare changes in cognitive or functional status to others within
          the normative sample, to provide specific rehabilitation treatment and
          planning guidelines for individuals and families, to provide specific
          guidelines for educational planning
          Neuropsychological Assessments:
                     Methods
 Current assessment practices utilize a continuum of
  approaches, from a fixed battery approach to a flexible
  battery approach
 Fixed Battery Approach and the Halsted-Reitan:
      Fixed batter involves the rigid and standardized administration of a
       uniform group of instruments
        • All individuals receive the same set of tests
        • Fixed batteries have cutoff scores that reflect the degree of severity of
           the impairment and also differentiate between impaired and
           unimpaired individuals
      Two common fixed batteries are the Halsted-Reitan and the Luria-
       Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery
                  Neuropsychological Assessments
 Halsted-Reitan:
      Developed by Ward Halstead in the 1950s
         • Modified by Halstead’s graduate student, Ralph Reitan
      Two children’s versions: the Reitan Indiana Neuropsychological Test Battery (ages 5 to 8)
       and the Halstead Neuropsychological Test Battery for Older Children (ages 9-14)
      Provides a cutoff score (index of impairment), which discriminates brain-damaged from
       normal functioning individuals
      Information about specific areas of the brain that are damaged and information about the
       severity of the damage can be obtained
      Takes approximately 5-6 hours to complete
      Consists of 8 core tests:
         • Category Test
         • Tactual Performance Test
         • Trail Marking Test
         • Finger Tapping Test
         • Rhythm Test
         • Speech Sounds Perception Test
         • Reitan-Indiana Aphasia Screening Test
         • Reitan-Klove Sensory-Perceptual Examination
        Neuropsychological Assessments
 Flexible Battery Approach:
     Uses a combination of tests, dictated by the referral
      questions and the unique needs and behaviors of the
      client
     Series of tests is chosen that may evaluated different
      areas of neuropsychological functioning
       • Boston Process Approach is an example of the flexible
         battery approach
          – Requires careful observation of the test-taker during test
            administration
              » Srong emphasis on garnering qualitative data
          – Requires a great deal of training specific to neuropsychology

				
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