England and Its Colonies
The Scots and Scotch-Irish
• Great Britain was formed in
1707: England, Wales,
– This meant some Scots
became colonial officials and
• 3 Streams of Immigration
– Ulster, Northern Ireland with
– 250,000 arrived in the 1700’s
– 100,000 immigrants
– Came from the Rhine Valley
in SW Germany and
• They came to escape war,
taxes, and religious
• 1682, William Penn recruited
Germans to help settle an area
– An immigrant in PA could
obtain a farm 6 times larger
than a typical peasant in
Africans Transported To America
• Growing colonies= growing crops= need
• Early 1600’s, Africans were mostly
treated as indentured servants.
– Freed blacks could own land, vote, even
buy enslaved Africans on their own.
• Mid 1600’s, most colonies began to pass
laws that supported the permanent
– “All servants imported…who were not
Christians in their native Country…shall
be accounted and be slaves.”
– Children of slaves were also considered
– Change in legal status promoted a racist
idea that people of African origin were
inferior to whites.
Transatlantic Slave Trade
– Once established, slavery expanded
– During the 1700’s, the British
colonies imported approximately
1.5 million slaves from Africa.
– The majority went to the West
Indies, but at least 250,000 came to
– Africans were kidnapped or taken
in wars and sold
• 3 part voyage= Triangular Trade
– Traders sailed from Europe to Africa
where they traded manufactured
goods for Africans.
– Then, in the Middle Passage, shippers
carried the Africans across the
Atlantic to the colonies.
– After selling the slaves for colonial
goods, the traders returned to their
Slavery in the North and South
• In New England most
slaves were farmhands,
• In the Southern
colonies most worked
in fields on plantations
growing tobacco, rice,
• Most adopted
Christianity from their
masters, blending it
with some of their own
Rebels and Runaways
• Stono Rebellion in South Carolina
– 100 slaves tried to escape and
killed 20 white peoples before
being caught and executed.
• Some fled to Indian villages,
mostly in Florida where the
Spanish welcomed them with food,
land, and freedom.
– They did this because they thought
it would weaken the British
colonies and strengthen their own
• Other forms of rebellion:
– Working slowly
– Faking illness
– Pretending ignorance
– Breaking tools
• Document English nobles
forced King John to accept in
– It protected the nobles by
limiting the king’s ability to
tax them and by
guaranteeing due process, or
the right to a trial.
– Before instating a tax, the
king needed permission from
– These nobles gained power
and evolved into Parliament.
• House of Lords (inherited
mostly through rank and
• House of Commons (elected
• Economic wealth
– Exporting of raw materials and importing
British made goods
– The colonies were being used to provide the
materials England lacked
• Mercantilism- nations seek to increase wealth
and power by acquiring gold and silver through
a balanced trade.
Change in Policy
• Colonists were shipping goods
to other countries including
– Spain, France, Holland
– They were making money
• England viewed this as a
• Parliament, or England’s
legislative body, passed the
• The Acts restricted colonial
All trade between Colonies could only
the Colonies and Europe export certain products to
must go through an England.
Crew members Trade permitted on
And Captains had English or
to be ¾ English. Colonial ships.
• More jobs for English dock workers
• Import taxes on goods = more money
for English Treasury
• Ship-building industry in the colonies
• Colonial merchants did not like trade
• They smuggled goods
• England punished colonists for
• Massachusetts gets its charter
• Northern colonies are combined to
make one colony
– The Dominion of New England
– King James II
• King James chose Sir Edmund
Andros to be governor
– He was highly disliked
– Questioned the lawfulness of Puritan
– Strictly enforced Navigation Acts
– Outlawed local assemblies and levied
taxes without consent from local leaders
• King James was a Catholic
• Most of England and the
colonies were Protestant
• James had a son who would
eventually become heir to
the throne and rule as a
• England did not want
another Catholic monarch
• Parliament decided to do
James II something about the
• William and Mary
– Mary was James’
daughter and she
was married to
– Mary was
• Parliament voted out
James II and put
William and Mary onto
the throne William and
– This ensured the
continuation of a
• When the colonies found out about the Glorious
Revolution they arrested Andros
• Parliament did away with the Dominion of New
England and restored the colonies to what they
• Salutary Neglect- England relaxed its enforcement
of most regulations in return for the continued
economic loyalty of the colonies.
• The King appointed a governor for each colony.
– Colonists paid his salary.
– Governor appointed an advisory council a local
• Colonists were developing a taste for self-
• Philosophers in Europe began
using reason and the scientific
method to gain more knowledge of
the world around them.
• Scientists looked beyond religious
doctrines to investigate how the
• Who did this influence?
– Sir Isaac Newton
– Galileo Galilei
– Nicolaus Copernicus
– They soon determined the Earth
revolved around the sun and not vice
– They also concluded the world is
governed not by chance or miracles,
but by fixed mathematical laws.
• These ideas traveled across Europe and
eventually to the colonies.
– People read about this in books and pamphlets.
– Literacy was high in New England. Puritans
supported education so that people could read
• Benjamin Franklin was the colonist who
embraced this movement the most.
– He thought he could obtain truth through
experimentation and reasoning.
– Franklin believed human beings could use their
intellect to improve their lives.
– How did Franklin’s intellect better his life and
• Lightening Rod
• Franklin Stove- heating system
• Had profound effect on
• Colonial leaders such as
Thomas Jefferson used
reason to conclude that
individuals have natural
rights, which governments
• These principles led to
authority of the British
• The Puritan church had lost its grip on
society, and church membership was in
• People were more focused on their current
world and not as worried about the next stage
• Jonathan Edwards was from Northampton,
Massachusetts and a member of the clergy.
– He wanted to revive the intensity and commitment
of the original Puritan visions and beliefs.
– He preached that church attendance was not
enough for salvation
– People needed to acknowledge their sinfulness and
feel God’s love for them
– Gave the famous sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of
an Angry God”
• Described God’s mercy
– Other preachers traveled to multiple villages
stirring people to rededicate themselves to God.
• More colonists, Native Americans,
African Americans were now into
more organized religions.
• Some colonists abandoned their
old Puritan or Anglican
congregations and sought
– Baptists, Methodists
• Led to an increase in higher
– Different colleges: Princeton, Brown,
Columbia, Dartmouth to train ministers.
• Both caused colonists to question traditional authority.
• Stressed the importance of the individual
• Colonists questioned Britain’s authority over their lives.