Inequality by seNlo20V



The Persisting American Dilemma
     Placing Inequality in the
      Context of the Course
• Reparations: One Possible Solution to
  – Atone for slavery and its lingering effects
  – A national issue as opposed to personal guilt
• Affirmative Action
  – Taking race into account to deal with
    discrimination of the past
  – Taking race into account to prevent current
• The Market
  – Discrimination is inefficient
 The Dimensions of Inequality
• Tons of evidence showing that Blacks,
  Latinos, and American Indians are less
  well off than Whites and Asians, and
  that women earn less than men
• Why these simple comparisons may be
  – Educational differences
  – Experience and continuity
     Dimensions, continued
• Test score gap
  – Test scores are related to many outcomes
  – Test scores are affected by environment during
    childhood (parental education, parental income,
    parenting practices, schools)
  – The test score gap appears to be narrowing over
  – Test scores are related to schooling and labor
    market outcomes
     Educational Attainment
• Long-term increase in educational
• Narrowing of racial and ethnic
  differences over time
• Factors associated with racial and
  ethnic differences
  – Education of parents, family income, family
    size, family structure
    Labor Market Outcomes
• Employment, Jobs and Unemployment
  – Schooling and test scores
  – Location
  – Competition (split labor market theory,
  – Discrimination: why employers are
    reluctant to hire African Americans and
    Latinos from the inner city (Neckerman and
      Economic Well-Being
• 1999: average after-tax income of the
  lowest 1/5 was $8,880 compared to the
  average after-tax income of the highest
  1/5: $102,300
  – African Americans, American Indians, and
    Latinos are more likely to be in the bottom
    1/5 than are whites and most Asian groups
  – Is there anything wrong with this?
      Economic Well-being,
• Oliver and Shapiro: $43,143 difference in
  home equity and financial assets between
  blacks and whites, after controlling for other
• Home Ownership, 1990: 69% for Whites,
  Blacks: 44%, American Indians: 54%, Asians:
  52%, Hispanics: 42%
• Home value: Asians: $178,000; Whites:
  $80,000; Blacks: 51,000
  Asians: A Model Minority?
• Definition: a group successful despite
  discrimination and prejudice and without
  resorting to political or violent
• Common Examples:
     1. Japanese Americans
     2. Vietnamese students in
     American High Schools
      Japanese Americans
• Hostility and anti-Japanese legislation in
  California (Alien Land Act, 1913;
  exclusion from unions; whites only
• Niche became small service
  businesses: middleman minorities
• Executive Order 9066 (1942): 1/8
  Japanese or more; 2/3 were citizens
      Japanese Americans,
• Current situation:
• Educational attainment higher than
  white Americans

• Family earnings higher than white

• “Japan Bashing”
      Vietnamese Students
• Hostility and Disadvantage
  – “Gook” syndrome
  – American opposition to sanctuary after war
    in Southeast Asia
  – downward occupational mobility upon
    arrival for parents
  – stereotypical thinking
     Vietnamese Students,
• Successes
  – overall high level of achievement in
    American schools
  – parents place emphasis on education, but
    this is true of many groups
  – education is seen as a family activity
       Supporting Evidence
• Prejudice, Discrimination, and Disadvantage
  – Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans as well
• Education
  – 41% of Asians 25+ have bachelors degrees
    compared to 22% of all
• Economic Situation
  – high proportions in managerial and professional
         Evidence Against
• Diversity within the Asian population
  – bipolar occupational structure

  – high poverty rates among some Asian

  – Inappropriate comparisons: Immigrant
    groups and Internal Colonies
      Possible Explanations
• Genetic
  – Herrnstein and Murray
  – higher performance on tests
• Cultural Explanations
  – Confucian values
  – Family values and behavior
• Structural Explanations
  – Selective Immigration
  – Modes of Incorporation
    Policy Solutions: William
          Julius Wilson
• Create national performance standards for
  schools and provide support to inner city
  schools to help them meet these standards
• Improve family support programs
  – France: family leave, medical care, child care
• Move toward economic integration of cities
  and suburbs
    Wilson: Solving the Jobs
• Expand the Earned Income Tax Credit

• Improve Accessibility to Suburban Jobs

• Increase Public Sector Employment
1. Clear evidence of continuing racial
   and ethnic disparities in education and
   economic well-being.
2. These disparities are cumulative in
   both a historical sense and over the
   lifetimes of individuals.
3. Academic preparation, reflected in test
   scores, and education are keys.
         Conclusions, cont.
4. Evidence suggests that discrimination
   continues in the labor market.
5. Evidence suggests that country has tired of
   solutions based on taking race into account.
6. Question: Will the market eventually solve
   these problems, or do we need more
   targeting of programs at racial and ethnic
   minorities, or do we need policies similar to
   those suggested by Wilson?

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