Chapter 11

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					      Chapter 11
Development in Middle
 and Late Childhood
                 Socioemotional Development
                in Middle and Late Childhood

Emotional and    Families                 Peers     Schools

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                   Emotional and

The Self    Emotional              Moral       Gender
           Development          Development

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             The Self
• The Development of Self-
• Self-Esteem and Self-Concept
• Industry Versus Inferiority

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    The Development of Self-
• Self-understanding shifts from defining oneself
  through external characteristics to defining oneself
  through internal characteristics.
• Elementary school children are more likely to
  define themselves in terms of social
• Self-understanding now includes increasing
  reference to social comparison—what they can do
  in comparison with others.
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Self-Esteem and Self-Concept
• What Are Self-Esteem and Self-
• Research on Self-Esteem
• Increasing Children’s Self-Esteem

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   What Are Self-Esteem and
• Self-esteem - global evaluations of the self
• Also referred to as self-worth or self-image
• Self-concept - domain-specific evaluations
  of the self
• Children can make evaluations about
  themselves academically, athletically, based
  on their appearance, etc.
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     Research on Self-Esteem
• Self-esteem found to be stable at least across
  a month or so of time.
• Self-esteem can change, especially in response
  to transitions in life.
• Elementary school children engage in social
  comparison, which can lower their self-esteem.
• Low-self esteem is related to depression.
• Much research is correlational not experimental.

                 Black Hawk College Chapter 11   8
   Increasing Children’s Self-
• Identification of the causes of low self-
  esteem and the domains of competence
  important to the self
• Emotional support and social approval
• Achievement
• Coping

                Black Hawk College Chapter 11   9
    Industry Versus Inferiority
• In Erikson’s fourth stage, industry refers to the
  fact that children become interested in how things
  are made and how they work.
• When encouraged in their efforts to make, build,
  and work, children’s sense of industry increases.
• Parents who see their children’s efforts as
  “making mischief” or “making a mess” encourage
  children’s development of a sense of inferiority.
• School plays a very important role in this stage.

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   Emotional Development
• Developmental Changes
• Emotional Intelligence

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      Developmental Changes
• Increased ability to understand such complex
  emotions as pride and shame
• Increased understanding that more than one
  emotion can be experienced in a particular situation
• Increased tendency to take into fuller account the
  events leading to emotional reactions
• Marked improvements in the ability to suppress or
  conceal negative emotional reactions
• Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting

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         Emotional Intelligence
• The concept of emotional intelligence initially
  was proposed as a form of social intelligence that
  involves the ability to monitor one’s own and
  others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate
  among them, and to use this information to guide
  one’s thinking and action.
• Goleman’s view of emotional intelligence involves:
   –   Developing Emotional Self-Awareness
   –   Managing Emotions
   –   Reading Emotions
   –   Handling Relationships

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      Moral Development
• Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral
• Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral
• Kohlberg’s Critics
• Prosocial Behavior and Altruism

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 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral
• Lawrence Kohlberg stressed that moral
  development is based primarily on moral
  reasoning and unfolds in stages.
• He arrived at his view after 20 years of
  using a unique interview with children in
  which they are presented with a series of
  stories in which characters face moral
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• A key concept in understanding is
• It is the developmental change from
  behavior that is externally controlled to
  behavior that is controlled by internal
  standards and principles.
• As children and adolescents develop, their
  moral thoughts become more internalized.

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   Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral
• Level 1: Preconventional Level
   – Stage 1: Heteronomous Morality
   – Stage 2: Individualism, Purpose, and Exchange
• Level 2: Conventional Level
   – Stage 3: Mutual Interpersonal Expectations,
      Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity
   – Stage 4: Social System Morality
• Level 3: Postconventional Level
   – Stage 5: Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights
   – Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles

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       Kohlberg’s Critics
• Moral Thought and Moral
• Culture and Moral Development
• Family Processes and Moral
• Gender and the Care Perspective

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   Moral Thought and Moral
• Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for
  placing too much emphasis on moral
  thought and not enough emphasis on moral
• Moral reasons can sometimes be a shelter
  for immoral behavior.
• Cheaters and thieves may know what is
  right yet still do what is wrong.

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 Culture and Moral Development
• Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for being
  culturally biased.
• Moral reasoning is more culture-specific than
  Kohlberg envisioned.
• His scoring system does not recognize higher-
  level moral reasoning in certain cultural groups.
• His system would not score values related to:
   – Communal equity and collective happiness in Israel.
   – The unity and sacredness of all life forms in India.
   – The relation of the individual to the community in New
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  Family Processes and Moral
• Kohlberg claimed family processes are essentially
  unimportant in children’s moral development, and
  that peers are more likely to be an influence.
• Many developmentalists believe that Kohlberg
  underestimated the contribution of family
  relationships to moral development.
• They emphasize that inductive discipline
  positively influences moral development.
• Parents’ moral values are also believed to
  influence children’s developing moral thoughts.

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         Gender and the Care
• Kohlberg’s theory is a justice perspective that
  focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals
  stand alone and independently make moral
• The care perspective is a moral perspective that
  views people in terms of their connectedness with
  others and emphasizes interpersonal
  communication, relationships with others, and
  concern for others.

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        Gender and the Care
        Perspective (con’t)
• Carol Gilligan believed Kohlberg greatly under-
  played the care perspective in moral development,
  due to being male, using primarily males for his
  research, and basing his theory on male responses.
• Gilligan’s research found that girls consistently
  interpret moral dilemmas in terms of human
• Other research has found that the gender differences
  in moral reasoning are not absolute.
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 Prosocial Behavior and Altruism
• Altruism - an unselfish interest in helping
  someone else; has its beginnings in sharing.
• Equality - everyone is treated the same; one of the
  first principles of morality used by elementary
  school children.
• Merit - giving extra rewards for hard work, a
  talented performance, or other laudatory acts.
• Benevolence - giving special consideration to
  individuals in a disadvantaged condition.
• Mid to late elementary children apply merit and
  benevolence have an understanding of equity.

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•   Gender Stereotypes
•   Gender Similarities and Differences
•   Gender-Role Classification
•   Gender in Context

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         Gender Stereotypes
• Broad categories that reflect our impressions and
  beliefs about females and males.
• Refer to an image of what the typical member of a
  particular social category is like.
• Males are widely believed to be dominant,
  independent, aggressive, achievement-oriented,
  and enduring.
• Females are widely believed to be nurturant,
  affiliative, less esteemed, and more helpful.

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    Gender Similarities and
• Physical Similarities and Differences
• Cognitive Similarities and Differences
• Socioemotional Similarities and
• Gender Controversy

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     Physical Similarities and
• Females have a longer life expectancy.
• Females are less likely to develop physical or
  mental disorders.
• Males have twice the risk of coronary disease.
• Females produce more “good” cholesterol.
• Women have about twice the body fat of men.
• Fat is concentrated around breasts and hips in
  women, the abdomen in men.
• On average, males grow to be 10% taller.

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    Cognitive Similarities and
• Controversy exists as to true cognitive differences
  between males and females.
• Some studies have shown that males perform
  better on math and visuospatial tasks, while
  females have better language skills.
• Overall, girls are found to be far superior students,
  while boys do slightly better at math and science.
• Girls are taking similar math and science courses
  in high school and use computers in a variety of
  ways, however, they are still far less likely to go
  into careers in science and technology.

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  Socioemotional Similarities
       and Differences
• One of the most consistent gender differences is
  that boys are more aggressive than girls.
• Boys are more active than girls.
• Males usually show less self-regulation than
• Low self-regulation has been found to be linked
  with greater aggression, the teasing of others,
  overreaction to frustration, low cooperation, and
  inability to delay gratification.

                  Black Hawk College Chapter 11       30
         Gender Controversy
• Much controversy exists about similarities and
  differences between males and females.
• Alice Eagly argues that the belief that gender
  differences are small or nonexistent is rooted in a
  feminist commitment to gender similarity and is
  seen as a route to political equality.
• Many feminists fear that gender differences will
  be interpreted as deficiencies on the part of
  females, and will be seen as biologically based.
• The subsequent consequence would be the revival
  of traditional stereotypes that females are innately
  inferior to males.
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 Gender-Role Classification
• What Is Gender-Role
• Androgyny and Education
• Gender-Role Transcendence

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        What Is Gender-Role
• In the past, a well-adjusted boy was supposed to be
  independent, aggressive, and powerful.
• A well-adjusted girl was supposed to be dependent,
  nurturant, and uninterested in power.
• Society considered masculine characteristics healthy
  and good, feminine characteristics undesirable.
• The concept of androgyny was developed in the
  1970s in response to dissatisfaction by both males
  and females with the burdens imposed by their roles.

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• Refers to the presence of desirable masculine and
  feminine characteristics in the same person.
• The Bem Sex-Role Inventory is used to assess
• Sandra Bem argues that androgynous individuals
  are more flexible, competent, and mentally healthy
  than their masculine or feminine counterparts.
• To some degree, which gender-role classification
  is best depends on the context involved.

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   Androgyny and Education
• In general, it is easier to teach androgyny to girls
  than to boys, and easier before middle school.
• Advocates of androgyny programs believe that
  traditional sex-typing is harmful for all students
  and especially has prevented many girls from
  experiencing equal opportunity.
• Detractors argue that androgynous educational
  programs are too value-laden and ignore the
  diversity of gender roles in our society.
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   Gender-Role Transcendence
• Gender-role transcendence is the view that when an
  individual’s competence is at issue, it should be
  conceptualized on a personal basis, rather than on
  the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny.
• We should think of ourselves as people; not as
  masculine, feminine, or androgynous.
• Parents should rear their children to be competent
• This attitude helps to avoid stereotyping.

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         Gender in Context
• Gender-role classification involves a
  personality-traitlike categorization.
• It may be helpful to think of personality in
  terms of person-situation interaction, rather
  than personality traits alone.
• Different gender roles might be more
  appropriate, depending on the context or
  setting involved.

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Parent-Child                Societal Changes
   Issues                     in Families

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        Parent-Child Issues
• The introduction of chores and payment
• Helping children learn to entertain themselves
• Monitoring children’s lives outside the family
  in school and peer settings
• Discipline is easier than during early
  childhood and often easier than in adolescence
• Coregulation of control
• Life changes for parents
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 Societal Changes in Families
• Stepfamilies
• Latchkey Children

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• These children have more adjustment problems.
• Problems mimic those of children of divorce:
   –   academic problems
   –   externalizing and internalizing problems
   –   lower self-esteem
   –   early sexual activity
   –   delinquency
• There is an increase in adjustment problems of
  children in newly remarried families.
• Restabilization may take up to 5 years longer than
  in divorced families.
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        Boundary Ambiguity
• The uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in or
  out of the family and who is performing or
  responsible for certain tasks in the family system.
• In early remarriage, stepfathers tend to behave like
  polite strangers to win over stepchildren.
• In longer established stepfamilies, a distant,
  disengaged parenting style predominates for
  stepfathers, although conflict can remain high.
• Stepmothers have a more difficult time integrating
  themselves into stepfamilies.

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          Latchkey Children
• These children typically do not see their parents
  from the time they leave for school in the morning
  until about 6 or 7 P.M.
• Latchkey children are largely unsupervised for 2
  to 4 hours a day during the week.
• During the summer they may be unsupervised for
  entire days, 5 days a week.
• The experiences of latchkey children vary

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        Findings on Latchkey
• Some grow up too fast, due to responsibilities.
• Without limits and parental supervision, many
  more easily find their way into trouble, possibly
  stealing, vandalizing, or abusing a sibling.
• In a 1987 national poll, teachers rated the
  latchkey children phenomenon the number
  one reason that children have problems in schools.
• Parental monitoring and authoritative parenting
  help the child cope more effectively with latchkey
  experiences, especially in resisting peer pressure.

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  Peer     Bullying             Social       Friends
Statuses                       Cognition

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               Peer Statuses
• Popular children - frequently nominated as a best
  friend, rarely disliked by peers.
• Neglected children - infrequently nominated as a
  best friend, not disliked by peers.
• Rejected children - infrequently nominated as a
  best friend, actively disliked by peers.
• Controversial children - frequently nominated
  both as someone’s best friend and as being

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           Rejected Children
• Often have more serious adjustment problems
  later in life than do neglected children.
• The key factor in predicting whether rejected
  children would engage in delinquent behavior or
  drop out of school during adolescence was
  aggression toward peers in elementary school.
• Not all are aggressive; 10-20% are shy.
• The goal of training programs for rejected children
  is to help them listen to peers, instead of trying to
  dominate peer interactions.

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• Characteristics of Victims
• Effects of Bullying

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     Characteristics of Victims
• Victims have parents who are intrusive and demanding
  but low in responsiveness with their children.
• Boys who have intensely close relationships with their
  parents are victimized more.
• This has been speculated to indicate that overly close
  and emotionally intense relationships between parents
  and sons might foster self-doubts and worries that are
  perceived as weaknesses.
• Children who experience internalizing problems,
  physical weakness, and peer rejection tend to be
  victimized over time.

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         Effects of Bullying
• Victims of bullies can suffer both short-
  term and long-term effects.
• Short-term they can become depressed, lose
  interest in schoolwork, or avoid going to school.
• The effects of bullying can persist into adulthood.
• Male victims bullied in childhood reported more
  depression and lower self-esteem in their twenties.
• Boys who were bullies in middle school were
  much more likely to to have a criminal conviction
  in their twenties.

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            Social Cognition
• Involves thoughts about social matters.
• Social knowledge is involved in children’s ability
  to get along with peers.
• An important part of children’s social life involves
  knowing what goals to pursue in poorly defined or
  ambiguous situations.
• Social relationship goals, such as how to initiate
  and maintain a social bond are also important.
• Children need to know what scripts to follow to
  get other children to be their friends.
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• Friends are companions.
• Friends are stimulating.
• Friends provide physical support.
• Friends provide ego support.
• Friends are a source of social comparison.
• Friends are a source of intimacy and affection.
• Intimacy in friendships is self-disclosure and the
  sharing of private thoughts.
• Similarity is very common among friends.
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The Transition    Socioeconomic                  Cross-Cultural
to Elementary       Status and                     Comparison
    School         Ethnicity in                  of Achievement

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 The Transition to Elementary
• Children entering 1st grade take up a new role,
  interact and develop relationships with new
  significant others, adopt new reference groups, and
  develop new standards for judging themselves.
• School provides children with a rich source of new
  ideas to shape their sense of self.
• There is emerging concern about new evidence
  showing that early schooling proceeds mainly on the
  basis of negative feedback.
• In school, children’s learning is still integrated.

                 Black Hawk College Chapter 11    54
  Socioeconomic Status and
    Ethnicity in Schools
• The Education of Students from
  Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds
• Ethnicity in Schools

           Black Hawk College Chapter 11   55
    The Education of Students
    from Low Socioeconomic
• Many children in poverty face problems at home
  and at school that present barriers to their learning.
• Many schools of children from impoverished
  backgrounds attend have fewer resources than do
  the schools in higher-income neighborhoods.
• Schools in low-income areas are more likely to
  encourage rote learning rather than thinking skills.
• Many of these schools provide students with sub-
  standard learning environments.

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         Ethnicity in Schools
• The school experiences of students from different
  ethnic groups vary considerably.
• School segregation is still a factor in the education
  of children of color in the U.S.
• John Ogbu proposed the view that ethnic minority
  students are placed in a position of subordination and
  exploitation in the American educational system.
• He believes students of color have inferior
  educational opportunities, are exposed to educators
  who have low academic expectations of them, and
  encounter negative stereotypes.

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  Strategies for Improving Relations
 Between Ethnically Diverse Students
• Turn the classroom into a jigsaw classroom.
• Encourage students to have positive personal contact
  with diverse other students.
• Encourage students to engage in perspective taking.
• Help students think critically and be emotionally
  intelligent when cultural issues are involved.
• Reduce bias.
• View the school and community as a team to help
  support teaching efforts.
• Be a competent cultural mediator.
                   Black Hawk College Chapter 11   58
  Cross-Cultural Comparisons
        of Achievement
• In a cross-national comparison of 9- to 13-year-old
  students, the U.S. finished 13th out of 15 in
  science, and 15th out of 16 in math achievement.
• In this study, Korean and Taiwanese students
  finished first and second, respectively.
• Studies have shown Asian students consistently
  outperform American students.
• Critics say many studies compare U.S. children to a
  “select” group of international children.

                  Black Hawk College Chapter 11    59
   Reasons for Cross-Cultural
• Research found Asian teachers spent more of their
  time teaching math than did American teachers.
• Asian students were in school an average of 240
  days a year, compared with 178 days in the U.S.
• American parents had much lower expectations
  for their children’s education than Asian parents.
• American parents were more likely to believe that
  their children’s achievement was due to innate
  ability, and they were less likely to help them with
  their homework.

                  Black Hawk College Chapter 11      60

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