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					BROADCAST CAPTIONING
  TRAINING MANUAL




         Compiled & Created By:
     Jennifer M. Bonfilio, RMR-CBC-CCP




                                                        Revised 11/5/12
                    NJCaptions
                    418 Rowan Avenue
         Hamilton Township, New Jersey 08610
                      (609) 392-7329
     www.njcaptions.com        captions@optonline.net
                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

History of Captioning                    3   Style                                50
FCC Regulations                          6      Literal/Mixed Case                50
Hardware & Software                     11      Acronyms                          51
Service                                 14      Measurements & Heights            51
                                                Numbers                           52
Realtime for Captioning                 15      Fractions                         52
  Conflicts                             16      Stock Market                      53
  Limits Briefs & Phrases               17      Money                             53
  Know Your Dictionary                  18      Times                             53
  Delete Space & Space                  18      Ages                              54
  Word Boundary Sentences               19      Punctuation                       54
  Prefixes, Root Words & Suffixes       24      Plurals & Possessives             54
  Non-Traditional Prefixes & Suffixes   32      Speaker IDs                       54
  Root Words & Inflected Endings        34      Quotations                        55
                                                Slashes                           56
Practice Techniques                     35      Phone Numbers                     56
Correction Sheet                        37      Percentages                       56
                                                Web Addresses                     56
Editing, Paraphrasing &
Fingerspelling                          39   Captioning Sports                    57
       Speed                            39     Sports Dictionaries                57
       Accuracy                         40     Prepping                           57
                                               Sports Websites                    59
Alphabets                               41     Caption Positioning                60
Dictionary Building                     42     Speaker IDs                        63
                                               Scores & Stats                     64
Obscenities                             43     Which Sports to Caption            66
  Obscenities Permitted                 43
  Obscenities Not Permitted             45   Musical Notes & Lyrics               68
  Cock Words                            46   Scripting                            72
                                             Blanking                             74
Parentheticals                          47   Enabling                             75
Phonetics                               48   Blocking                             75
Preparing for the CBC Exam              49   Flush, Flush Delay &
                                             Flush Word Delay                     76
                                             Credits and Funds                    77
                                             Suspend Captions                     77

                                             Captioning Resources                 78
                                               Websites                           79
                                               Books, Publications, Tapes & CDs   79
                                               Captioning Companies               82
                                               Captioning Software Companies      85
                                               Captioning Training                86
                                               Online & Telephone Education       87

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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

                                       History of Captioning

Closed captioning is the most important development in this century for bringing deaf and hard-
of-hearing people into the mainstream. The closed-captioning service officially started in March
1980, but many things had to happen before it became a reality. These events took place in the
1970s.

The 1970s
The first innovators were not thinking about a captioning system for deaf and hard-of-hearing
people. In 1970 the National Bureau of Standards began to investigate the possibility of using a
portion of the network television signal to send precise time information on a nationwide basis.
The Bureau believed that it could send digitally encoded information in a part of the television
signal that is not used for picture information. The ABC-TV network agreed to cooperate. This
project didn't work, but ABC suggested that it might be possible to send captions instead.

This led to a preview of captioning at the First National Conference on Television for the Hearing
Impaired in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1971. Two possible technologies for captioning television
programs were demonstrated that would display the captions only on specially equipped sets for
deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers.

A second demonstration of closed captioning was held at Gallaudet College on February 15,
1972. ABC and the National Bureau of Standards presented closed captions embedded within
the normal broadcast of Mod Squad.

As a result of the enthusiasm these demonstrations created in the deaf and hard-of-hearing
community, the National Association of Broadcasters studied the technical and economic factors
involved in establishing a captioning service. The Association concluded that this captioning
system was technically possible, but certain steps had to be taken before it could become a
reality. The federal government then said it would fund the development and testing of this
system. The engineering department of the Public Broadcasting System started to work on the
project in 1973 under contract to the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped of the
Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW).

While the closed-captioning service was being developed, there were some programs with
"open" captions airing on PBS. In 1971, The French Chef became the very first television
program that was accessible to deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers. The ABC News was
rebroadcast on PBS five hours after its broadcast on ABC-TV. From the time The Captioned
ABC News was first produced in 1973, it was the only timely newscast accessible to deaf and
hard-of-hearing people until NCI's real-time captioning service started in 1982.

A problem that soon became evident with the captioned ABC News program rebroadcast on
PBS was that it competed with its own affiliates' 11:00 p.m. local news. This meant that PBS
stations in most areas had to broadcast the captioned ABC News at 11:30 p.m. or early the next
morning at 6:30 a.m.

The closed-captioning system was successfully tested that same year with the cooperation of
Washington's public television station, WETA. It was here that captions were encoded and
broadcast for the first time using line 21 of the television signal. As a result of these tests, the

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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Federal Communications Commission set aside line 21 in 1976 for the transmission of closed
captions in the United States. Once the Commission gave its approval, PBS engineers
developed the caption editing consoles that would be used to caption prerecorded programs,
the encoding equipment that broadcasters and others would use to add captions to their
programs, and prototype decoders.

Toward the end of the technical development project at PBS, it became clear that in order to get
the cooperation of the commercial television networks, it would be necessary to establish a
nonprofit, single-purpose organization to perform this captioning. And so in 1979, HEW
announced the creation of the National Captioning Institute. The mission and importance of NCI
was clear from the beginning. It was to promote and provide access to television programs for
the deaf and hard-of-hearing community through the technology of closed captioning.

The 1980s
On March 16, 1980, NCI broadcast the first, closed-captioned television series. The captions
were seen in households that had the first generation of closed caption decoder. A silence had
been broken. For the first time ever, deaf people across America could turn on their television
sets--with a caption decoder--and finally understand what they had been missing on television.

The closed-captioned television service was an overnight sensation. Suddenly, thousands of
people who had been living in a world of silence could enjoy television programs along with
hearing people. NCI had truly brought them words worth watching.
With this success, it was only natural that captioned television viewers would want more
accessible programming like prime-time series, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, sports,
children's programming, cartoons, and home videos--the same rich and wide variety of
programming that hearing people take for granted. They wanted instant access to live programs
such as national and local newscasts.

In 1982, NCI developed real-time captioning, a process for captioning newscasts, sports events,
specials or other live broadcasts as the events are being televised. In real-time captioning,
court reporters who have been trained as real-time captioners type at speeds of up to 250 words
per minute to give viewers instantaneous access to live news, sports and information. The
result is that the viewer at home sees the captions within two to three seconds of the words
being spoken. In addition to a wide variety of captioned TV programs, viewers also can enjoy
their favorite releases on home video. In 1980, there were only three captioned home video
titles. Today, deaf viewers routinely can expect new home video releases to be captioned.

NCI has worked tirelessly to increase the number of network, cable, and syndicated television
programs available with captions. It was an effort that paid off. The yearly number of
programming hours captioned by NCI has skyrocketed from 832 hours in 1980 to more than
14,000 hours today.

The present and beyond
NCI ensured a bright future for closed-captioned television by partnering with ITT Corporation in
1989 to develop the first caption-decoding microchip, which could be built directly into new
television sets at the manufacturing stage. This led to the introduction and subsequent passage
of the Television Decoder Circuitry Act, which mandated that, by mid-1993, all new television
sets 13 inches or larger manufactured for sale in the U.S. must contain caption-decoding


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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
technology. Now, millions of people have access to captions with the push of a button on their
remote controls.

With the next generations of television broadcast (SDTV and HDTV) on the horizon, NCI is
already at work to ensure that captions will be of equally high quality on the televisions of the
future. NCI is currently involved in committee activities to develop future captioning
technologies. NCI personnel participate in the Television Data System Subcommittee of the
Electronic Industries Association and the working group developing standards for future
broadcast systems.

In just over a decade, captioning has grown from a little-known service for people who are deaf
to a truly global communications service that touches the lives of millions of people every day.
Because of the efforts of NCI, the television industry, the federal government and so many
others, people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing will never again be isolated from television.

                 Reprinted with permission by the National Captioning Institute.




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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

                   FCC CONSUMER FACTS – CLOSED CAPTIONING

Background

Closed captioning allows persons with hearing disabilities to have access to television
programming by displaying the audio portion of a television program as text on the
television screen. Beginning in July 1993, the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) required all analog television receivers with screens 13 inches or larger sold or
manufactured in the United States to contain built-in decoder circuitry to display closed
captioning. Beginning July 1, 2002, the FCC also required that digital television (DTV)
receivers include closed captioning display capability.

In 1996, Congress required video programming distributors (cable operators,
broadcasters, satellite distributors, and other multi-channel video programming
distributors) to close caption their television programs. In 1997, the FCC set a transition
schedule requiring distributors to provide an increasing amount of captioned programming,
as summarized below.


Benefits of Closed Captioning

Closed captioning provides a critical link to news, entertainment, and information for
individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. For individuals whose native language is not
English, English language captions improve comprehension and fluency. Captions also
help improve literacy skills. You can turn on closed captions through your remote control
or on-screen menu. The FCC does not regulate captioning of home videos, DVDs, or
video games.

Different closed captioning schedules apply to new, pre-rule, and Spanish language
programming.

"New" Programming

As of January 1, 2006, all “new” English language programming, defined as analog
programming first published or exhibited on or after January 1, 1998, and digital
programming first aired on or after July 1, 2002, must be captioned, with some exceptions.

"Pre-Rule" Programming

Analog programming first shown before January 1, 1998, and digital programming first
shown before July 1, 2002, are called “Pre-Rule Programming.” Pre-Rule Programming
must be captioned as follows:

      January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2007: 30 percent of programming per channel
       per quarter.
      January 1, 2008, and thereafter: 75 percent of programming per channel per


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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
       quarter.

Spanish Language Programming

Because captioning is fairly new to Spanish language program providers, the FCC allows
them a longer time to provide captioned programming. All Spanish language programming
that was first shown after January 1, 1998, must be captioned by 2010 with some
exemptions. The following schedule applies to Spanish language “new” programming, or
programming shown after January 1, 1998:

      January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2006: 900 hours of programming per channel
       per quarter or all of the new, non-exempt Spanish language programming on that
       channel, whichever is less.
      January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009: 1350 hours of programming per channel
       per quarter or all of the new, non-exempt Spanish language programming on that
       channel, whichever is less.
      January 1, 2010, and thereafter: 100 percent of all programming, with some
       exceptions.

For Spanish language “Pre-Rule Programming” (first shown before January 1, 1998), the
following schedule applies:

      January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011: 30 percent of programming per channel
       per quarter.
      January 1, 2012, and thereafter: 75 percent of programming per channel per
       quarter.

For more information on the FCC’s closed captioning rules and requirements, go to
www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/caption.html.

Exempt Programming

There are two categories of exemptions from the closed captioning rules.

Self Implementing Exemptions

Self-implementing exemptions operate automatically and programmers do not need to
petition the FCC. Examples include public service announcements that are shorter than 10
minutes and are not paid for with federal dollars, programming shown in the early morning
hours (from 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. local time), and programming that is primarily textual in
nature. There is also an exemption for non-news programming with no repeat value that is
locally produced by the video programming distributor. To see a complete list of self-
implementing exemptions, visit our Web site at:
www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/exemptions_from_cc_rules.html.

Exemptions Based on Undue Burden

The FCC has established procedures for petitioning for an exemption from the closed
captioning rules when compliance would pose an undue burden. To find out about the

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             NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
undue burden exemption, visit our Web site at:
www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/caption_exemptions.html.

A petition, which may be in the form of a letter, must include facts demonstrating that
implementing closed captioning would impose an undue burden, which is defined as a
significant difficulty or expense. There is no form to fill out. A summary of the petition
process is provided at the FCC Web site address above. While a petition is pending, the
programming that is the subject of the petition is exempt from the closed captioning
requirements.

Subtitles in Lieu of Captioning

The rules provide that open captioning or subtitles in the language of the target audience
may be used in lieu of closed captioning.

Filing Closed Captioning Complaints

For captioning problems during non-emergency programming, the FCC’s rules require that
consumers first complain in writing to their television distributor (i.e., your cable or satellite
TV service, or the TV station if you do not pay for cable, satellite, or another subscription
video service).

The FCC rules establish specific time limits for filing closed captioning complaints. Your
written complaint to the distributor should be sent before the end of the calendar quarter
following the calendar quarter when the problem happened.

For example, if the problem occurred on May 3, 2006 (2nd quarter), your complaint must
be filed by September 30, 2006 (end of 3rd quarter). The TV distributor must respond in
writing to your complaint within the time period established in the FCC’s rules at 47 CFR
Part 79.1(g)(3) – that is, within about 45 days of receipt of your written complaint.

Your written complaint addressed to the video programming distributor must provide
specific information about the closed captioning problem and should include:

      the television channel number and call sign or name (e.g., Channel 22 WZZZ,
       Channel 106 The Story Channel);
      the date and time when you experienced the captioning problem;
      the name of the program or show with the captioning problem;
      a detailed description of the captioning problem;
      a specific reference to the FCC’s closed captioning rules (“47 CFR Part 79.1”);
      your name, street, city, state and zip code, and other contact information such as a
       phone or TTY number or e-mail address.

If the video programming distributor fails to respond to your written complaint or a dispute
remains after the time allowed for the distributor to respond, you can send your complaint
to the FCC as indicated below.

When forwarding your complaint to the FCC, you must send an original and two copies
within 30 days of the deadline for the TV distributor to respond - that is, within 30 days

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               NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
after the 45 day period in which the TV distributor should reply to your written complaint.

Your complaint to the FCC should include a signed letter from you showing that you first
sent a written complaint and supporting facts or evidence to the video programming
distributor. Also, you must mail a copy of the complaint and supporting evidence that you
send to the FCC to the video programming distributor (to let the distributor know you have
now complained to the FCC).

Supporting evidence may include videotapes, copies of schedules showing the CC logo
for programming that was shown without closed captioning, or other material. You can file
your complaint using our on-line Complaint Form 475 found at:
http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/cib/fcc475.cfm; sending an e-mail to fccinfo@fcc.gov; calling 1-888-
CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322) voice or 1-888-TELL-FCC (1-888-835-5322) TTY; faxing 1-
866-418-0232; or writing to:

                         Federal Communications Commission
                        Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau
                       Consumer Inquiries and Complaints Division
                                 445 12th Street, S.W.
                               Washington, DC 20554.

Access to Emergency Information

Although not a closed captioning rule, the FCC requires that video programming
distributors that provide emergency information do so in a format that is accessible to
people who are deaf, hard of hearing, blind, or have low vision. Emergency information
is information that helps to protect life, health, safety, or property. Examples include
hazardous weather or dangerous situations such as the discharge of hazardous
material, power failures, or civil disorders.

Emergency information that is provided in the audio portion of the programming must be
provided using closed captioning or other methods of visual presentation, such as open
captioning, crawls, or scrolls that appear on the screen. Emergency information must not
block any closed captioning, and closed captioning must not block any emergency
information. The information provided visually must include critical details regarding the
emergency and how to respond.

Note: Effective January 1, 2006, most television broadcast stations located in the top 25
television markets must close caption their emergency information and breaking news
reports, rather than making the information "visually accessible."

This same requirement to close caption emergency information applies to non-broadcast
networks (e.g., cable and satellite) that serve at least 50 percent of all homes subscribing
to television service, as well as to distributors that did not use the electronic newsroom
technique for creating captions prior to January 1, 2006.

Distributors that are permitted to count electronic newsroom technique to create their
captions may continue to use open captioning, crawls, scrolls or other visual means to

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               NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
convey the emergency information to viewers rather than use closed captioning.
Electronic newsroom technique uses the station's news script computers to generate the
closed captioning that appears on the television screen. Only text transmitted from the
scripting computers to the teleprompters is captioned. Unscripted material, such as
breaking news, live reports from the field, and some weather and sports reports, which
do not appear on the teleprompter, are not typically captioned by the electronic
newsroom technique. Pursuant to the closed captioning rules, television stations in
smaller markets (as described above) are permitted to use electronic newsroom
technique to create closed captions for live programming.

For more information on access to emergency information, go to
www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/emergency_access.html, or view an accessibility of emergency
video programming fact sheet at www.fcc.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/emergencyvideo.html.

Complaints Involving Lack of Access to Emergency Information

If you have a complaint alleging a violation of the FCC’s access to emergency
information rules, you can send it to the FCC by any reasonable means, including our
on-line Complaint Form 475, e-mail, fax, or mail to the addresses and numbers listed
above. You can also submit your complaint in an alternate format audio-cassette
recording, Braille, or by phone at: 1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322) voice or 1-888-
TELL-FCC (1-888-835-5322) TTY.

Your complaint should include the name of the video programming distributor, the TV
channel name and number, the date and time of the omission of access to emergency
information, the type of emergency, and your contact information. With such specific
information, the FCC can notify the video programming distributor of the complaint, and
the distributor must reply to the FCC within 30 days.


             For this or any other consumer publication in an alternative format
             (electronic ASCII text, Braille, large print, or audio) please write or
 call us at the address or phone number below, or send an e-mail to FCC504@fcc.gov.

           To receive information on this and other FCC consumer topics through
                  the Commission's electronic subscriber service, click on
                              http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/contacts.

            This fact sheet is for consumer education purposes only and is not
             intended to affect any proceeding or cases involving this subject
                                   matter or related issues.

08/29/07

      Federal Communications Commission · Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau
                      · 445 12th St. S.W. · Washington, DC 20554
       1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322) · TTY: 1-888-TELL-FCC (1-888-835-5322)
                       · Fax: 1-866-418-0232 · www.fcc.gov/cgb/

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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
                                     Hardware & Software

Captioning Equipment                               Cost

The Basics:
Steno Machine                                        $500 - 4,500
Desktop Computer(s)
(+ one for backup*)                                   500 - 2,000
NOTE: a notebook computer can be used;
however, some of the keyboard commands
are more difficult to access on a notebook
keyboard
1 13-inch Television Set (or larger)
with headphone jack and RCA jack for
baseband video input                                       100
1 13-inch TV set (for display without captions)*           100
VCR or DVD player/burner or TiVo/DVR*                 75 - 500

Software:
Total EclipseNT Court Reporting Software                  3,995
    (Windows 2000 to XP; phasing out 9x)
and AccuCAP Captioning Software Key                       2,995

Cheetah Captivator                                        5,000
   (Operating System:
   MSDOS [6.2 or later recommended]
   Windows 3.1
   Windows 95)
Cheetah TurboCat Court Reporting Software                 5,000

ProCat CaptiVision**

RapidText Rapid Caption**

CATalyst BCS                             alone            3,695
  Broadcast Captioning Suite
  for caseCATalyst                w/caseCatalyst          6,995

**NOTE: I am not familiar with functionality or prices.

Hardware:
USRobotics 33,600 bps to 56k External
Serial Modem(s)                                   100
(+ one for backup*)
or comparable slower, older modem
purchase thru Microwarehouse 800-367-6808 or CDW www.cdw.com
or you can get a used cheap one on eBay



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                     NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
(discuss iCap and internet encoders)

CircuitWerkes TelTap*                                    89
(replaces Gentner Hybrid Coupler for audio line)
purchase thru CircuitWerkes 352-335-6555                 69
http://www.broadcastboxes.com/index-2.html
NOTE: Gentner Hybrid Coupler no longer
manufactured
Or Comrex Telephone Coupler TCB-1                       150
http://www.comrex.com/products/couplers.htm
Or JK Audio Inline Patch Telephone Audio Interface      270
www.jkaudio.com
(The above items require an Audio Amplifier)

Or Phone with Headset (not cordless)                    100
Or Phone amplifying system                              250
      HelloDirect 1-800-435-5634
      Plantronics 1-800-544-4660
(to connect to existing phone)
Or Marantz PMD201 Cassette Recorder                     298
Purchase Martel Electronics 1-800-553-5536
www.martelelectronics.com
NOTE: Shop around carefully and don’t skimp
on quality; your captions are only as good as
you can hear

Audio Amplifier                                          65+
purchase RCA Amplifier at Radio Shack
NOTE: I am not a big fan of this amplifier

Boostaroo Headphone Amplifier*                          30
http://www.boostaroo.com/

USB Serial Port or Serial to USB cable                  40
(not recommended)
OR PCMCIA Serial Card Single or Dual Ports          80-150
(unless computer comes with extra serial port;
need 1 port for writer & 1 port for modem)
purchase at Best Buy or other computer store
OR Laptop Docking Station with serial port              170
(check with laptop manufacturer)
OR Wireless Realtime System
StenoCast X1 Lithium                                    299
www.stenocast.com

UPS Backup Power Supply                            150 - 350
purchase at Best Buy or other computer store




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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

DSS Satellite Receiver & Dish (aka small dish)*    Free Installation
DISH Network or DirecTV
NOTE: If you caption from a DSS Satellite,
there is a several-second delay; most captioning
companies require use of audio line in conjunction
with DSS.

Big Satellite Dish* & 4DTV Receiver                   $3,000 (dish, receiver & installation)
NOTE: Most major networks are no longer
available on the big dish. Use mostly for
syndicated programming and a few
miscellaneous channels. A big dish may not
be economically feasible. Check with captioning
company.

Miscellaneous Items – can be purchased at a computer store, Radio Shack, and online
vendors:

4-6 Powerstrips (6-outlet)                         $100.00

2 Steno Realtime Cables                              50.00
purchase through steno machine vendor

2 Modem Cables                                        20.00

Surge Protector(s)                                    40.00

Audio Patch Cable w/2 phono plugs                      3.00
(if using Gentner Hybrid Coupler)

Audio Patch Cable w/4 phono plugs                      7.00
(if using Gentner Hybrid Coupler)

Headphones (good quality)                            150.00

Mini to ¼ Jacks for headphones                         6.00
(or vice versa – depending on audio system
and/or amplifier)

2 Steno Machine Chargers                              50.00
purchase through steno machine vendor

Audio Plugs & Cables                                  25.00
(depending on audio system
and/or amplifier)

Flash drive or Portable Media Storage                100.00

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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

Videotapes or DVDs                                      25.00

Floppy Diskettes* or writable CDs*                      50.00

External Speakers*                               25.00 - 60.00
(depending on audio system
and/or amplifier)

*Not required

NOTE: Equipment Insurance is recommended in the event of theft or loss. Most
homeowners policies will not cover this much equipment. Visit Marsh Affinity Group
Services at http://www.seaburychicago.com/ or
https://www.personal-plans.com/ncra/welcome.do. It offers plans through NCRA.

SERVICE:
Cable or Digital Cable if available                 50+/month
Depending on programming needed

DSS*                                                60+/month
Depending on programming needed

Big Dish*                                           100+/year
Depending on programming needed

Telephone++                                    200-800/month
(4 lines + cell phone: home, modem, audio,
 fax, on-air emergency contact^)
^some Captioning Companies require separate line

*Not required

++There are a number of long-distance plans available, and they vary greatly, including
unlimited calling plans. Some plans not available in certain areas. Shop around and do not
assume all plans are created equal. Be careful when using dial-around numbers (10-10
numbers). Some may lease lines from other companies, and it could result in garbled captions.

Another growing problem is the popularity of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol). Many phone
companies lease lines from other phone companies. These lines may not be traditional phone
lines but VoIP. VoIP is good for voice but bad for data. Avoid too-good-to-be-true-sounding
long-distance plans for this reason.




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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Realtime for Captioning

Use Prefixes, Root Words & Suffixes
The goal is to strive for clean, accurate captions with the confidence of one’s dictionary and
writing style. In order to achieve over 99% accuracy rate, a good place to start is to examine
one’s steno theory and to modify it such that each and every stroke is uniquely defined. In other
words, avoid using a single stroke in multiple circumstances. For example, if the stroke
PWAOEU is defined as BUY, then avoid using that stroke as a prefix or suffix. Create a unique
stroke to use in those situations. Likewise, the stroke OR should never be used as anything but
the word OR. Adopting this philosophy will greatly reduce the risk for word-boundary issues.
Note: You may use a stroke as a prefix as long as the next stroke is a clear suffix, but do not
define the first stroke as a prefix.

Prefixes and suffixes play an enormous role in captioning. One of the first steps of transitioning
from court reporter to realtime writer and/or captioner is distinguishing between prefixes and
suffixes. Although one may encounter few word-boundary problems while court reporting, they
seem to be ever present in captioning unless the necessary changes are made to one’s writing.

One of the first word-boundary problems I encountered while on the air, unfortunately, was POP
ICONS translated as POPEYE CONS. I used AOEU for both prefixes and suffixes and thought
if I globaled the stroke with another stroke, all would be fine. Obviously, that is one of the great
misconceptions of realtime writing. You can’t simply global your way out of any situation.
Captioning is really about writing your way out of any situation, using prefixes, root words,
suffixes, special characters such as the delete space and space functions, as well as
fingerspelling.

On page 24 is a compilation of some of the basic prefixes and suffixes one ought to have in
his/her dictionary, along with a number of, what I call, non-traditional prefixes and suffixes. Non-
traditional prefixes and suffixes are those that do not generally appear in your desktop
dictionary; however, they can wreak havoc on a captioning session (BA, CA, DA, FA, GA, HA,
JA, LA, MA, NA, PA, QA, RA, SA, TA, VA, WA, ZA as well as CAL, BAL, MAL, NAL, TAL, etc.).

Here’s what can happen:

    The more Monica put in, the more she got back. [The Mormon kaput in, the more she got
     back.]

    The car Linda drove was ten years old. [The Carolyn DA drove was ten years old.]

    He was suspended for steroid use, which is against the regulations of the league. [He
     was suspended Forester OID use, which is against the regulations of the league.]

    The meeting was held in the grand pavilion to accommodate the large crowd. [The
     meeting was held in the grandpavilleion to accommodate the large crowd.]

    Grandma reinforced my suspicions that they were planning a surprise party. [Grand
     Marie enforced my suspicions that they were planning a surprise party.]



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               NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
    The 12-inning game was no problem for umpires and players. [The 12-inning game was
     no problem forum PAOEURS and players.]

    If you expect answers right away, you may be disappointed. [If you expectancies right
     away, you may be disappointed.]

    The men united together to fight the cause. [The menu nighted together to fight the
     cause.]

    As Maloney revved the engine, his opponent put on his race car jacket. [Asthma loany
     revved the engine, his opponent put on his race carjacket.]

    He got high at the party. [He got Hyatt the party.]

    This is the bag dad gave me. [This is the Baghdad gave me.]

    Mexico is right below California. [Mexico is right be local TPORPBia.]

Conflicts
Before Computer-Aided Transcription (CAT) was invented, court reporters rarely concerned
themselves with conflicts. It was up to the typist to know the correct spelling based on the
context of the sentence. However, with the advent of CAT, most software vendors have created
artificial intelligence to assist the court reporter in making guesses at selections or displaying
both/all options to be chosen during the editing process. While this is extremely innovative and
convenient, it is frankly not good enough for captioners to rely on. Therefore, it is important to
resolve all conflicts. Of course, we know about the obvious conflicts like BREAK and BRAKE,
but we must also consider conflicts that are created from misstrokes as well as stacking. For
example, TPHR could be IN, FROM, or THERE. Years ago I misstroked WHR (WHETHER) so
much for WH (WHEN) that I decided to write WHEN out (WHEPB) and define WH as
WHETHER. Stacking presents a whole new set of problems. THAS (THAT IS) appeared one
too many times for –S THAT as in HATS THAT (HAT THAT IS) that I had no choice but to
define it as –S THAT. Keep in mind, when you write realtime at high rates of speed, your
stacking may increase.




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                   NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Limit Briefs & Phrases
The next step to achieving the necessary accuracy rate is to limit the use of briefs and phrases
thereby writing them out. Instead of SAF for SATISFY, either write it out or insert an asterisk
into the original stroke. The asterisk, while foreign to many court reporters, can be a valuable
tool in realtime. If you find it awkward to stroke the asterisk within another stroke, use the half
tap method. To use the same example, stroke SAF and, while holding down the keys, simply
reach over with your index finger to the asterisk key and press it down. After some practice, it
will come more naturally, but there are some strokes where the index finger just isn’t available
and the half tap comes in handy. The primary reason to write out briefs and phrases is to avoid
them appearing in a multi-stroke words if that word is either not in your dictionary or one of the
strokes is misstroked. TETRACYCLINE could translate as AT THE TIME RA PSYCH LEAN. A
much cleaner mistake would be TETRA PSYCHLINE (because I used my RA suffix and LINE
suffix).

There is much controversy swirling around in the field about briefs, thanks to a very talented and
well-respected captioner. I happen to disagree with his philosophy as it applies to captioning.
He believes briefing as much as possible will increase your speed. Now, I will not dispute that
general premise on its face. However, I will argue briefing as much as possible will not increase
your accuracy as a captioner. If you are interested in winning speed contests, perhaps that is
the way to go, but if you strive to write 99% or better every day on any type of programming, it is
my opinion and the opinion of my former supervisor who trained me that a solid realtime theory
devised of prefixes, suffixes, and root words is the best approach to consistent, accurate
captions. I strongly believe one must first be capable of writing anything and everything without
relying on briefs, artificial intelligence, or any other shortcut that may be invented in the next
century. Once that happens, then briefs and some basic intelligence can be used as a tool, not
a crutch. The reasoning is – and this has happened to me – suppose you load the wrong job
dictionary for a show. You write the brief which contains the show’s title in quotes. It does not
translate. Before you can load the dictionary at the first commercial break, you must get through
the first segment; i.e., writing out the title surrounded by quotation marks, as well as any other
show-related briefs. If you never mastered doing that, simply creating a brief every time at the
first sign of difficulty, then you will surely run into trouble.

Another example of something that has actually happened to me is I was captioning a dog
competition. A dog jumped off the dock at 21 feet 9 inches, which should appear as 21’9”.
Unfortunately, and unbeknownst to me, my CAT software’s intelligence was only designed for
single digits in the “feet” portion of the figure. So what translated was 2”19’. I quickly had to
improvise and chose to write 21 feet 9 inches the next several times. If I had been really slick, I
would have written 21, my stroke for single apostrophe, 9, end quote. Now, that’s the work of a
truly talented captioner. If it happens again, I’ll be ready for it




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                   NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Know your Dictionary
Changing your writing is only half the battle. It is imperative that you remember how you
changed your writing. Make use of Post-It notes (or cheat sheets) anywhere and everywhere
until you have memorized the new theory. Review transcripts and steno notes often for errors;
keep lists of problem areas. Purge your dictionary of word-global entries; for example, if you
have the word-global entry MARTIAL ARTS with the steno PHAR/SHAUL, which you have
defined alone as PHARSHALL, create a new and unique way to write MARTIAL, like
PHAR/SHEUL, and delete the word-global (crutch) entry. Practice writing sentences with the
different MARSHALLS in them, including MARSHAL (which I write PHAR/SHAL). Before you
know it, you will “hear” MARTIAL instead of MARSHALL. It helps to visualize it. One of the
ways I remember MARSHAL is having seen it on the back of Harrison Ford’s character in “The
Fugitive” who was a “U.S. MARSHAL.” Whenever I hear FIRE MARSHAL, U.S. MARSHAL,
etc., I see that actor running to some big emergency.

Delete Space & Space
Realtime writing requires the use of manually inserting a space and/or a delete space to achieve
the desired result and to avoid word-boundary issues.

       That groundball play was the best we’ve seen in this game.
       [GROUND delete space BALL]

       He used a bass net to catch the fish.
       [BASS space NET; otherwise it may have translated as BASSINET]

                                                                             Suggested Steno:
                                                                            D-L = {^} in Eclipse
                                                                           SP-S = {~} in Eclipse




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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Word Boundary Sentences
The following are sentences excerpted from a website for the Phoenix Theory. Try writing them
and see what conflicts or word-boundary problems you encounter. Note: I’ve added a few
sentences to the mix of examples that actually happened to me on the air:

STENO NOTES FOR THIS SENTENCE [MAY TRANSLATE LIKE THIS!]
    He gave my husband letters of recommendation. [He gave my hustlers of recommendation.]
      Give them a little leeway. [Give them a lily way.]
      Put the tube away in the backpack. [Put the tuba way in the backpack.]
      We knew mercury was poisonous. [We numeric <RAOE> was poisonous.]
      Does the construction satisfy fire codes? [Does the construction sapphire codes?]
      They have a very low customer approval rating. [They have a very locust <PHER> approval rating.]
      He will object long and loudly to that. [He will oblong and loudly to that.]
      Will they seek retribution? [Will they secret <TREUB/AOUGS>?]
      I think your lie lacks much conviction. [I think your lilacs much conviction.]
      They won’t accept rate increase proposals. [They won’t separate increase proposals.]
      He’s no more talented than she is. [He’s no mortal <EPBT> ed than she is.]
      Set the coffee to perk later. [Set the coffee to percolateer.]
      When was the object seen for the first time? [When was the obscene for the first time?]
      I represent Asian shipping companies. [I representation shipping companies.]
      That will help fulfill our quota. [That will helpful fill our quota.]
      Is he veering a little to the right? [Severing a little to the right?]
      I ordered the ham per your request. [I ordered the hamper your request].
      Charges of fraud lent a new twist to the story. [Charges of fraudulent a new twist to the story.]
      How much stress per vertical pillar? [How much stress pervert <KAL> pillar?]
      We ran some through the shredder. [We ransom through the shredder.]
      You’ll note rising prices have slowed sales. [You’ll notarizing prices have slowed sales.]
      It was significant retribution. [It was cigarette contribution.]
      Is this real tortoise shell? [Is this realtor <TEUS> shell?]
      I knew clear, concise answers were important. [I nuclear, concise answers were important.]
      They won’t accept sissies. [They won’t sepsis <AOES>.]
      Why would a man shun his own brother? [Why would a mansion his own brother?]
      You’re going to mar that table top. [You’re going to Martha table top.]
      Was it a real torpedo? [Was it a realtor peed <O>?]
      He injured his spine in a horrible accident. [He injured his spina horrible accident.]
      We’ll come mend the fence for you. [We’ll commend the fence for you.]


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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
   Do they sell tickets? [Do they Celtics?]
   Either pass or deal the cards. [Either pass ordeal the cards.]
   How much does one can sell for? [How much does one cancel for?]
   Add just another ounce. [Adjust another ounce.]
   They all either ran or began shooting. [They all either ran organ shooting.]
   A big mist is lying over the valley. [A bigamist is lying over the valley.]
   Try to get home before the sun sets. [Try to get home before the sunsets.]
   A friend who has the book let me borrow it. [A friend who has the booklet me borrow it.]
   They have every breed of cat listed. [They have every breed of catalysted.]
   Isn’t handling natural gas tricky? [Isn’t handling natural gastric <y>?]
   Boy, can that guy dance! [Boy, can that guidance!]
   I saw your pal at the game. [I saw your palate the game.]
   I doubt fleeing will do much good. [I doubtfullying will do much good.]
   Add ambivalence to his character flaws. [Adam <PWEUV/HREPBS> to his character flaws.]
   We’ll add unique decorative accents. [We’ll adieu <TPHAOEBG> decorative accents.]
   I’ll have the full sum Monday. [I’ll have the full summon.]
   I am bushed! [I ambushed!]
   He was at that time too far away. [He was tattoo far away.]
   We’ll add hockey to the sports program. [We’ll ad hoc <AOE> to the sports program.]
   Slowly add amount specified. [Slowly adamant specified.]
   It’s not as technical. [It’s not Aztec any <K-L>.]
   We’ll bar terrorists from entering. [We’ll barter <REUS/S> from entering.]
   Tell phone callers I’m out to lunch. [Telephone callers I’m out to lunch.]
   He held the ax elevated, ready to swing. [He held the axle <SRAEUT> ed, ready to swing.]
   It’s a little bay concealed behind a cliff. [It’s a little bacon sealed behind a cliff.]
   I’m having this wart removed. [I’m having thwart removed.]
   She tries to buy unique gifts. [She tries to bayou <TPHAOEBG> gifts.]
   Why don’t you tilt it a little? [Why don’t utility it a little?]
   That bore dominated the conversation. [That boredom <TPHAEUT> ed the conversation.]
   Just smile and bow elegantly. [Just smile and bowel <GANT/HREU>.]
   The can did not look full. [The candid not look full.]
   What’s his cap size? [What’s his capsize?]
   Can’t the car go any faster? [Can’t the cargo any faster?]
   What did the owner of the car tell you? [What did the owner of the cartel you?]
   How does this cast rate in comparison? [How does this castrate in comparison?]
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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
   Pollen in the air can cause Al to sneeze. [Pollen in the air can causal to sneeze.]
   I am as certain about it as anything. [I am ascertain about it as anything.]
   We need short, clear answers. [We need short, clearances.]
   The old vet ran a great race. [The old veteran a great race.]
   We use coal less frequently now. [We use coalesce frequently now.]
   Please come pose for me. [Please compose for me.]
   We need a better way to compute rising costs. [We need a better way to computerizing costs.]
   We left the night crew tons of loading to do. [We left the night croutons of loading to do.]
   Have the dealer ship it directly. [Have the dealership it directly.]
   The deaf sit up front so they can see signing. [The deficit up front so they can see signing.]
   If you sit center stage, you can see everything. [If you citizen <TER> stage, you can see everything.]
   Those who are moaning about working overtime. [Those hormoneing about working overtime.]
   Is the doll finished for her birthday? [Is the dolphin <-RB> ed for her birthday?]
   Move the burden someplace else. [Move the burdensome place else.]
   What does all this drama mean? [What does all this Dramamine?]
   What did you say leaning against the wall will do? [What did you salineing against the wall will do?]
   That’s what the owner of the cab nets per night. [That’s what the owner of the cabinets per night.]
   That’s a farce calculated to deceive me. [That’s a farcical <KHRAEUT> ed to deceive me.]
   We don’t want an identical circumstance later. [We don’t want an identical circulateer.]
   They come fortified with iron. [They comfort <TPAOEUD> with iron.]
   Isn’t Fay talented? [Isn’t fatal <EPBT> ed?]
   They adjust the fee seasonally. [They adjust the feces <TPHAL/HREU>.]
   The doctor ate alone most evenings. [The doctorate alone most evenings.]
   He has a wig he will wear. [He has a wiggle wear.]
   The fee males pay is higher than for females. [The females pay is higher than for females.]
   I always pay pals back what I owe. [I always papals back what I owe.]
   That fiend issued the orders to attack. [That fiendish <AOU> ed the orders to attack.]
   We can fill layers with batting. [We can fillet <ERS> with batting.]
   The doughnuts come plain or sugared. [The doughnuts complain or sugared.]
   We are checking for radon gas. [We are checking foray don gas.]
   If we scare him, he will flee. [If we scare him, he willfully.]
   The problem with the form lies in the wording. [The problem with the formalize in the wording.]
   We found lingering doubts still exist. [We foundling <ERG> doubts still exist.]
   Another gal operates the pressing machine. [Another gallop rates the pressing machine.]
   How did the general rate your performance? [How did the generate your performance?]
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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
   Who did the general side with? [Who did the genocide with?]
   That could strain German-French relations. [That could stranger man-French relations.]
   Did the general win the debate? [Did the genuine the debate?]
   Those girls will yammer all night. [Those girls Williamer all night.]
   May I turn in the form later? [May I turn in the formulateer?]
   She got a threat from a jilted lover. [She got a threat fragilityed lover.]
   I guess estimates have run pretty high. [I guesstimates have run pretty high.]
   Wait till the government tallies up the cost. [Wait till the governmental <HREU> s up the cost.]
   How was the graph calculated? [How was the graphical <KHRAEUT> ed?]
   Let’s save a few till later. [Let’s save a futile later.]
   They had occupied our parking space. [They haddock <PEU> ed our parking space.]
   The thought that I might not win terrifies me. [The thought that I might not winter <TPAOEUS> me.]
   There were quite a few touring the park. [There were quite a futureing the park.]
   I hate red meat. [I hatred meat.]
   He has arduously worked on it. [He hazard <KWROUS/HREU> worked on it.]
   They had a rascal for a son. [They harass <K-L> for a son.]
   I haven’t combed my hair yet. [I haven’t combed my Harriet.]
   I don’t know where in the heck ticks got on him. [I don’t know where in the hectics got on him.]
   Who in the hell met them? [Who in helmet them?]
   When Al locates his son, he will surely punish him. [When allocates his son, he will surely punish him.]
   Fact is better than fiction. [Fact is better than fix]
   The crews fixed the pipeline. [The crucifixed the pipielines.]
   He’s treating her cirrhosis. [He’s treating heresy <ROES/EUS>.]
   He had fiscal year problems to deal with. [Edifice <K-L> year problems to deal with.]
   She lost her mittens. [She lost hermit <EPB> s.
   She kept her rendezvous with fate. [She kept heron day view with fate.]
   She felt his panic. [She felt Hispanic.]
   He had catered the party. [Educate <-ERD> the party.]
   Let’s get that bullet hole sterilized. [Let’s get that bullet holster <HRAOEUZ> ed.]
   My husband bandaged my sprained ankle. [My husband <APBLG> ed my sprained ankle.]
   He has high political aspirations. [He has hypo lit <KAL> aspirations.]
   As operations go, it went pretty well. [Aspirations go, it went pretty well.]
   He is saying the same thing. [Essaying the same thing]
   Is the injury to her hip critical? [Is the injury to her hypocritical?]
   Can someone who’s mentally ill legally sign? [Can someone who’s mentally illegally sign?]
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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
   It’s difficult to imagine nations in such chaos. [It’s difficult to imaginations in such chaos.]
   We can add more ice later. [We can add more isolateer.]
   Is the whole jar gone already? [Is the whole jargon already?]
   He’s so angry, he is steaming! [He’s so angry, esteeming!]
   We scheduled it for June per your request. [We scheduled it for juniper your request.]




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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Prefixes, Root Words & Suffixes
The following list is intended to represent the types of prefixes and suffixes you ought to include in your dictionary.
The steno outline you choose is entirely up to you as long as it isn’t used for anything else.
English          Steno                                          English          Steno
A                A                                              OR               OR
A-               AEU                                            OR-              AOR
-A               A*                                             -OR              -R or *OR
                                                                ORE              OER
E-               AOE or *E                                      OAR              A*OR
-Y               AOE or KWR or YEU
-E (café)        A*EU                                           AN               AN
-IE              AO*E                                           AN-              AEN
-EE              Y*EU                                           -AN              A*N or -N

I                EU                                             EN-            EN
I-               *EU                                            -EN            *EN or -N
-I               AO*EZ                                          (define –N as -EN, use for
EYE              AOEU                                           -IN, -AN, -ON, -UN as long
AYE              AO*EU                                          as it doesn’t conflict with -EN)

OH,              OERBGS                                         IN               N-
OH               O*ERBGS                                        IN-              IN
O-               O*                                             -IN              *IN or -N
-O               OE                                             INN              N*-
OWE              O*E                                            N (alphabet)     N-FPLT
OWED             O*E/D
ODE              OED                                            ON               ON
O’-              OPZ                                            ON-              AON
0 (zero)         O                                              -ON              *ON or –N

U-               *U or AOU                                      UN-              UN
-U               AO*U                                           -UN              U*N
YOU              U
                                                                UNI-             AOUN
AR-              AR                                             -UNE             AO*UN
ARE              R-
AIR              AEUR                                           AL               AL
-AIRE            YAEUR or YA*EUR                                AL-              AEL
-AR              A*R or -R as long as                           -AL              A*L
                 it does not conflict                           ALE              A*EL
                 with -OR words                                 AIL              AEUL
AER-             AER
                                                                AF-/AV-          AEUF
AIRY             AEUR/Y                                         AVENUE           AEF
-ARY             A*ER                                           -AF/-AV          A*F
ERR              *ER/*-R
-ER              ER                                             AG-              AEUG
ER-              *ER                                            AGO              AG or AEG
IR-              *IR                                            -AG              A*G
-ER              IR
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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

English   Steno                           English         Steno
EF-/EV-   EF                              OCC-            OK
-EF/-EV   *EF                             -OCK            O*K
                                          OKAY            O*/KAEU or ORK
ELLE      *EL
EL-       EL                              AS              AZ
-EL       -L                              AS-             SKWRAES
-LE       *-L                             -AS             A*Z
                                          ASS             A*RSE
ILL       EUL                             -S A (STACK)    AS
I WILL    EU/HR                           ES-             ES
ILL-      *EUL                            -ES & -ESS      *ES
-IL       -L
                                          IS              S-
OL        OL                              IS-             IS
-OL       O*L                             -IS             *IS

UL        UL                              OS-             OS
-UL       *UL                             -OS             O*S

AM        APL                             US              US
AM-       SKWRAEPL                        -OUS            O*US
-AM       A*PL or KWRAPL                  OUST            OU*FT
                                          U.S.            *US
EM-       EM
-EM       *EM                             AD              AO*D
IM-       IM                              ADD             AOD
I AM      I/AM                            AD-             SKWRAED
-IM       *IM                             -AD             KWRAD
                                          -ED A (STACK)   AD
OM-       OM
-OM       O*M                             ED              ED
                                          -ED             -D
UM-       UM                              ’D              A*ED
-UM       *UM
                                          ID              ID
AB-       AB                              -ID             *ID
AB        A*B
                                          AT              AT
OB-       OAB or OEB                      AT-             SKWRAET
OBJECT    OAB/SKWREBGT                    -AT             KWRAT
-OB       O*B                             @               A*T

AC-       AK                              ET-             ET
-AC       A*K                             -ET/-ETTE       *ET

ECC-      EK                              EF-             EF
-ECK      *EK                             -EF             *EF

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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
English     Steno                       English     Steno
IF          F-                          STER-       STER
-IVE        IF                          -STER       ST*ER
I HAVE      I/S-R
                                        AND         SPW
ANT         APBT                        ANDER-/
AUNT        AUPBT                       INTER-/
ANTI-       APB/TEU                     ENTER-      SPW-R
-ANT        A*PBT or KWRAPBT            ENTER       SPW*ER
ANT-        SKWRAEPBT
                                        RE-         RE
EX          EBGZ                        -RY         REU
EX- (ex-)   EBGS                        RHEA        RAOE
EX-         KP-                         -REE        RAO*E
-EX         *EBGS or *EBGZ
                                        PRE-        PRE
AFTER-      SKWRAFR                     -PRY        PREU
AFTER       AFR
-AFTER      A*FR or KWRAFR              PRO-        PRO
AFRO-       AF/RO*                      PRO         PROE
AFRICAN     AFR/KA*PB
                                        RO          RO
OFF         AUF                         ROW         ROE
OFF-        SKWRAUF                     ROE         RO*E
-OFF        A*UF or KWRAUF              ROWE        RO*EU
OV-         OF                          -RO         RO*
-OV         O*F
                                        COY         KOEU
OVER        OEFR                        CO- (co-)   KO*EU
OVER-       SKWROEFR                    CO- (co)    KOE
-OVER       O*EFR or KWROEFR            -CO         KO*E
                                        LEE         LAOE
UNDER       UPBD                        -LY         LEU
UNDER-      SKWRUPBD                    LEIGH       LAO*E
-UNDER      U*PBD or KWRUPBD            LE-         LE
                                        LI-         L*EU
UP          UP
UP-         SKWRUP                      BY          BEU
-UP         *UP or KWRUP                BYE         BAO*EU
                                        BUY         BAOEU
MAN         PHAPB                       -BY         B*EU
-MAN        PH-PB                       BY-/BI-     BAO*EUF
MAN-        PHA*PB                      BI          B-FPLT/EU-FPLT
MEN         PHEPB
-MEN        PH*-PB                      CON-        KOPB
MEN-        PH*EPB                      CON         KO*PB
                                        KAHN        KAUPB
TON         TOPB                        CAAN        KA*UPB
-TON        T-PB                        CANNES      KRA*UPB

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             NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

English   Steno                        English   Steno
COME      KOPL                         JER-      SKWRER
COM-      KUPL                         -GER      -SKWR*ER
-COM      K*OPL
                                       HER       HER
TELL      TEL                          HER-      HER/H-F (HYPHEN)
TELE-     TAEL                         -HER      H*ER
-TEL      T*EL
                                       MISS      PHEUS
THINK     THEU                         MIS-      PH*EUS
-THY      TH*EU
                                       MAL-      PHAL
DAILY     TKAEUL                       -MAL      PHA*L
DALE      TKAEL
-DALE     TKA*EL                       DID HE    TKE
DALY      TKAEUL/AOE                   DE-       TK*E
DALEY     TKAEUL/AO*E                  DID I     TK/EU
                                       DI-       TK*EU
FOR       TPOR                         -DY       TKEU
FORE-     TPOAR
FOUR      TPOER                        SELF      SEFL
-FORE     TPO*R                        SELF-     S*EF
                                       -SELF     SEF
CORE      KOR
CORPS     KO*R                         JACK      SKWRAK
COR-      KOER                         JACK-     SKWRAEK
-COR      KO*ER                        -JACK     SKWRA*K

PER       PER                          CAR       KAR
PER-      PUR                          CAR-      KR-
-PER      P*ER                         -CAR      KA*R
PURR      P*UR                         KARR      KRAR
                                       CARR      KRA*R
TER-      TUR
-TER      TER or T*ER                  YOU’LL    AOUL
                                       -UAL      AO*UL
TOUR      TOR
TORE      TOER or TO*ER                YOU’RE    AOUR
-TOR      T*OR                         -URE      AO*UR
TOWER     TOUR
                                       I CAN     EU/K-
MORE      PHOR                         -IC       EUK
MOORE     PHOAR
MOR-      PHOER                        MANY      -PL
-MORE     PHO*R                        -M        *-PL
-MOR      PHORZ
MOWER     PHOE/ER                      NER-      NER
                                       -NER      N*ER

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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
English       Steno                       English         Steno
GO            TKPW                        MEANT           PHEPBT
-ING          -G                          -MENT           -PLT or *-PLT

CAL-          KAL                         BERG            PWERG
-CAL          KA*L                        -BERG           PW*ERG
TAL-          TAL
-TAL          T*AL                        BURG            PWURG
TALL          TAUL                        -BURG           PW*URG
                                          BURGH           PWAOURG
CAN           K-
CAN-          KAN                         -SH             -RB
-CAN          K*AN                        -RB             *-RB or AURB
                                          ISH-            EURB
YA            KWRA                        -ISH            *EURB
-IA           KWRA*
                                          ABLE            AEUBL
Y’ALL         KWRAL                       -ABLE           -BL
-IAL          KWRA*L
YAWL          KWRAUL                      ETH-            EPBLG
                                          -ETH            *EPBLG
JAN (“Yan”)   KWRAPB
-IAN          KWRA*PB                     -NY             TPH*EU
YAN-          KWRAEPB                     ANY             TPHEU
YAWN          KWRAUPB
                                          -ES (Perezes)   *-Z
YON-          KWROPB                      -S              -S
BEYOND        PWE/KWROPBD                 -S              -GS (misstroke)
-ION          KWR*OPB                     -ING            -G
                                          -INGS           -G/-S
YUM           KWR UM                      -TION           SH*UPB
-IUM          KWR*UM                      SHUN            SHUPB
                                          -ATION          A*EUGS
YO            KWR O                       ASIAN           AEURB/KWRA*PB
-IO           KWR O*E
YO-           KWR OE                      SKI             SKAOE
                                          -SKI            SKEU
MER-          PHER                        -SKY            SK*EU
-MER          PH*ER                       SKY             SKAOEU
                                          63              SKE (non-number bar users)
MONT-         PHOPBT
-MONT         PH*OPBT                     TEE             TAOE
MONTH         PH-PBLG or PH-GT            -TY             TEU
                                          TEA             TAE
MOUNT         PHOUPBT
-MOUNT        PHO*UPBT                    PARTICULAR      TEURK
MT.           PH*T                        -TIC            TEUK
                                          TICK            T*EUK


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            NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
English   Steno                       English   Steno
FULL      TPUL                        STONE     STOEPB
-FUL      TP*UL                       -STONE    STO*EPB

WELL      WEL                         WOOD      WAOD
WELL-     WAEL                        -WOOD     WA*OD
-WELL     WE*L
                                      LAND      HRAPBD
WAY       WAEU                        -LAND     HRA*PBD
WEIGH     WAE
-WAY      WA*EU                       GATE      TKPWAEUT
-AWAY     WA*E                        -GATE     TKPWA*EUT
                                      GAIT      TKPWAEU/-*T or TKPWAET
RED       RED
-RED      R*ED                        SIDE      SAOEUD
REDD      RED/-D                      -SIDE     SAO*EUD
                                      -CIDE     KRAO*EUD
NET       TPHET                       CRIED     KRAOEUD
NET-      TPHAET                      CIDE-     KROEUD
-NET      TPH*ET                      SIDE-     SOEUD

WITH      WEUPBLG or W-               -ED FOR   TPORD
-WITH     W*EUPBLG                    FORD      TPOERD
WITH-     WEAPBLG                     -FORD     TPO*RD

SER-      SER                         FOR THE   TPORT
-SER      S*ER                        FORT      TPOERT
                                      FT.       TP-*RT
BER-      PWER                        -FORT     FO*RT
-BER      PW*ER
                                      VIEW      SRAOU
LER-      HRER                        -VIEW     SRAO*U
-LER      HR*ER
                                      FIELD     TPAOELD
FER-      TPER                        -FIELD    TPAO*ELD
-FER      TP*ER
                                      HEAD      HED
FIELD     TPAOELD                     -HEAD     H*ED
-FIELD    TPAO*ELD
                                      PORT      PORT
MATE      PHAEUT                      -PORT     PO*RT
-MATE     PHA*EUT
                                      RIDGE     RAOEUFP
GRAND     TKPWRAPBD                   RICH      REUFP
GRAND-    TKPWRAEPBD                  -RIDGE    RAO*EUFP
                                      -RICH     R*EUFP
HAND      HAPBD
-HAND     HA*PBD                      HORN      HORPB
                                      -HORN     HO*RPB

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             NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

English   Steno
GORE      TKPWOR
-GORE     TKPWO*R

MIND      PHAOEUPBD
-MIND     PHAO*EUPB

BUG       PWUG
-BUG      PWU*G

FIRE      TPAOEUR
-FIRE     TPAO*EUR

BURY      PWUR+”Y” suffix
-BURY     PWU*R+”Y” suffix
BERRY     PWER+”Y” suffix
-BERRY    PW*ER+”Y” suffix

STYLE     STAOEUL
-STYLE    STAO*EUL
STILE     STAOEU/-L

GRADE     TKPWRAEUD
-GRADE    TKPWRA*EUD

ROOM      RAOPL
-ROOM     RAO*PL

KILL      KEUL
-KILL     K*EUL
KIL-      KREUL

KEY       KAOE
-KEY      KAO*E
KE-       KE

GREAT     GRAEUT
-GRATE    GRA*EUT
GREAT-    GRAET
GRATE     GRA*ET

STEP      STEP
-STEP     ST*EP
STEP-     STAEP

LYNN      HREUPB
-LIN      HR*EUPB


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            NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
PROPER NAME SUFFIXES:

-ARD     A*RD
-BERG    PW*ERG
-BURG    PW*URG
-DALE    TKA*EL
-DORF    TKO*FRB
-ERT     *ERT
-ET      *ET
-HEIM    HAO*EUPL
-KIN     K*EUPB
-OV      O*F
-RET     R*ET
-ROFF    RO*F
-VARD    SRA*RD
-VERT    SR*ERT




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                    NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

                                     Non-traditional Prefixes & Suffixes

       TUBA                BAO*E    BEE           B*EU    DRIVE-BY         BAO*U    MALIBU
BA*    TAOU/BA*                     PWAOE = BE            DRAOEUF/B*EU              MAL/BAO*U
                                    PWE = BE-
CA*    BURKA               KAO*E    LATCHKEY      KEU     DONKEY           KAO*U    HAIKU
KA*    BUR/KA*                      LAFP/KAO*E            DOPB/KEU                  HAOEU/KAO*
                                                                                    U
DA*    LINDA               DAO*E    DEE           DEU     WINDY            DAO*U    FONDUE
       LIN/DA*                                            WEUN/DEU                  FON/DAO*U
FA*    ALFALFA             FAO*E    FE FE         FEU     ALFIE            FAO*U    KUNG FU
       AEL/FAL/FA*                  FAO*E/FAO*E           AEL/FEU                   KUNG/FAO*U
GA*    TOGA TOE/GA*        GAO*E    OBLIGEE       GEU     CARNEGIE         GAO*U    MONTAGUE
                                    OBL/GAO*E             KARN/GEU                  MOPBT/GAO*
                                                                                    U
HA*    HA-HA HA/HA*        HAO*E    MAHI          HEU     FAHEY            HAO*U    DONAHUE
                                    MA/HAO*E              FAEU/HEU                  DON/HAO*U
JA*    NINJA               JAO*E    BENGIE        JEU     BENJI            JAO*U    BIJOU
       NEUPB/JA*                    BEN/JAO*E             BEN/JEU                   BE/JAO*U
LA*    KAYLA               LAO*E    LEIGH         LEU     LOVELY           LAO*U    MARILU
       KAEU/LA*                     LAO*E                 LOF/LEU                   MAR/LAO*U
MA*    GRANDMA             MAO*E    KISSIMMEE     MEU     ENEMY            MAO*U    EMU
       GRAEPBD/MA*                  KIS/MAO*E             EN/MEU                    E*/MAO*U
NA*    CESSNA              NAO*E    BOB NEY       N*EU    FELONY           NAO*U    KNEW
       SES/NA*                      (congress)            FEL/N*EU                  NAO*U
                                    BOB NAO*E             ANY=NEU
       GRANDPA             PAO*E    PEE           PEU     THERAPY          PAO*U    PEW
PA*    GRAEPBD/PA*                  PAOE                  THER/PEU                  PAO*U
KWA*   AQUA                KWAO*E   MARQUEE       KWEU    COLLOQUY         KWAO*U   BARBECUE
       ABG/KWA*                     MAR/KWAO*E            KOL/KWEU                  BARB/KWAO*
                                                                                    U
RA*    ET CETERA           RAO*E    MARIE         REU     MARRY            RAO*U    GURU
       ET/SET/RA*                   MA/RAO*E              MAR/REU                   GAOU/RAO*U
SA*    ELSA                SAO*E    GENESEE       SEU     PAPACY           SAO*U    HAVASU
       EL/SA*                       JEN/SAOE*             PAEUP/SEU                 HAF/SAO*U
TA*    VISTA               TAO*E    MONTE         TEU     MONTY            TAO*U    VIRTUE
       VEUS/TA*                     MON/TAO*E             MON/TEU                   VIR/TAO*U
VA*    SILVA SIL/VA*       VAO*E    HUMVEE        VEU     ENVY             VAO*U    FAIRVIEW
                                    HUM/VAO*E             EN/VEU                    FAEUR/VAO*U
WA*    SANWA               WAO*E    OUI           W*EU    MALAWI           WAO*U    AWU (volcano)
       SAN/WA*                      WAO*E                 (country)                 AU/WAO*U

                                                          MAL/W*EU
                                                          WHICH=WEU
YA*    RUSSIA              YAO*E    ‘83           YEU     SOON-YI          YAO*U    BAYOU
       RURB/YA*                     YAO*E                 SAON/YEU                  BAOEU/YAO*U
ZA*    EXTRAVAGANZA        ZAO*E    CHIMPANZEE    ZEU     RITZY            ZAO*U    SHIH-TZU
       KP/TRAF/GANPB/ZA*            KHIFRP/AN/            RIT/SWREU                 SHEUT/ZAO*U
                                    SWRAO*E




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                          NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual


                                     Non-traditional Prefixes & Suffixes

BA*L   DECIBAL             BA*N    TALIBAN       BA*R    CROWBAR           BA*D      CARLSBAD
       TKES/PWA*L                  TAL/BA*N              KROE/PWA*R                  KARLS/PWA*D
                                                         LUMBER
                                                 B*ER    HRUPL/PW*ER
CA*L   TYPICAL             CA*N    DUNCAN        CA*P    HANDICAP          CA*T      BOBCAT
       TEUP/KA*L                   TKUPB/KA*N            HAPBD/KA*P                  BOB/KA*T

                                                                           KA*EUGS   EDUCATION
                                                                                     ED/KA*EUGS

                                                                                     EDUCATE
                                                                           KA*EUT    ED/KA*EUT

DA*L   KENDALL             DA*N    SEDAN         DA*R    RADAR             DA*K      KODAK
       KEPB/TKA*L                  SA/TKA*PB             RAEU/TKA*R                  KO*E/TKA*BG

                                                                           DA*D      BAGHDAD
                                                                                     PWAG/TKA*D
E*S    GODDESS             AO*ER   AUCTIONEER    YA*EU   MILLIONAIRE
       TKPWOD/E*S                  AUBGS/AO*ER   R       PH-L/KWRA*EUR
FA*L   TRIUMPHAL           FA*N    ORPHAN        FA*R    AMFAR
       TRAO*EU/UPL/FA*L            OAR/TPA*PB            APL/TPA*R
       SIMILAR             L*ER    HUSTLER       LO*R    BAYLOR            L*ATE     ISOLATE
LA*R   SEUPH/HRA*R                 HUS/HR*ER             PWAEU/HRO*R                 AOEUS/HRA*EUT
MA*L   ANIMAL              MA*N    MANPOWER      M*ER    CUSTOMER          MA*EU     MELEE
       AN/PHA*L                    PHA*PB/POUR           KUFT/PH*ER                  MA*EU/HRAEU
NA*L   TERMINAL            NA*R    SEMINAR       N*ET    CABINET           NA*EUGS   DESTINATION
       TERM/TPHA*L                 SEPL/TPHA*R           KAB/N*ET                    TKEFT/NA*EUGS
PA*L   MUNICIPAL                                 P*ER    DIAPER
       PHAOUPBS/PA*L                                     TKAOEU/P*ER
RA*L   FEDERAL             RA*N    VETERAN       R*ON    PATRON            RA*EUGS   FEDERATION
       TPED/RA*L                   SRET/R*AN             PAEUT/R*ON                  TPED/RA*EUGS
SA*L   DORSAL              SA*N    ARTISAN       S*ER    CANCER            SO*R      WINDSOR
       TKOR/SA*L                   ART/S*AN              KAPB/S*ER                   WEUPBD/SO*R
TA*L   CAPITAL             TA*N    RATTAN        TO*R    SENATOR           T*OP      ROOFTOP
       KAP/TA*L                    RA/TA*N               SEPB/T*OR                   RAOF/T*OP

                                                         TORE = TO*ER
VA*L   CARNIVAL            VA*N    CARAVAN       V*ER    SILVER
       KARPB/VA*L                  KAEUR/VA*N            SEUL/SR*ER




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                      NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

Root Words & Inflected Endings
There exists a philosophy in captioning whereby coming back for inflected endings will decrease
your chance for untranslates. Those inflected endings are –S, -D, and -G. The idea is there is a
better chance of a root word residing in your dictionary than there is that root word in the plural or
past-tense form as well as any other suffix. While it may be easier to write the word STOPPING
in one stroke, STOP-G, if you retrain yourself to always come back for the inflected ending, then
it will pay off on the occasion when another word+inflected ending is not in your dictionary.

Another benefit of this principle is cleaner, more accurate captions. I used to struggle with
MEAN, MEANS, MEANING, and MEANINGS, because I attempted to write them all in one
stroke. After all, wasn’t that the goal in court reporting school? When I began coming back for
the inflected endings, I decreased my chances to misstroke the intended word which resulted in
one of the other words. Now, this means coming back twice for –INGS, PHAOEPB/-G/-S. That
may seem burdensome, but after some time and practice, it’s as easy to write as one stroke.
That allowed me to reglobal –GS, which I had defined as –INGS, to simple –S, because I
frequently misstroked my plural –S with –GS.

Once you master this principle, I have to warn you, you may begin to stroke some otherwise one-
stroke names in two strokes. I have had to add SKWRAEUPL/-S and SKWROEPB/-S, James
and Jones respectively, to my dictionary.




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                      NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

Practice Techniques
Transitioning from court reporter to captioner is an exciting but challenging journey. The two key
elements to any successful transition are dictionary building/purging and honing your writing
skills.

It is important to work on your theory modification before dictionary building or, at the very least,
build your dictionary with the new way you intend to write something. For example, let’s say you
use ON for a prefix, the word ON, and a suffix and you intend on changing that to AON for prefix,
ON for the word ON, and *-ON for a suffix. It may take you months to actually master that
change. However, you may begin entering words in your dictionary that match the new writing
theory. Be sure to delete the old entries as well or, at least, move them to a job dictionary which
you can load during translation of depositions for court work but unload during captioning
practice.

The process of modifying your theory is a long and arduous one, especially if you have been a
reporter for decades. It is easy to become overwhelmed with the prospect of making so many
changes. Keep in mind you will be more successful if you take on the changes one at a time or
one group at a time. Theory modification is an ongoing process and will likely continue years
after you are on the air. Try to prioritize the conflicts and word-boundary areas that are most
prominent. Make a list of issues you would like to work out, and begin at the top of the list,
crossing items off as you master them.

Believe it or not, the first step is actually thinking about the change. As you are writing, try to
think about every stroke and how it affects the stroke preceding it and the stroke following it. Will
it cause a word-boundary problem? Do I need to insert a delete space or a hard space to avoid a
problem? In the beginning, you may find you will think about it just after you stroke a conflict or
potential problem stroke. Oops, I should have inserted an asterisk in that stroke. That is good!
That may happen ten times, but on the 11th time, you will think about it before you stroke it and
will make the necessary adjustment to the stroke to avoid a problem. Consider that progress.

So you may be asking, where do I begin? Simply, set up your steno machine and laptop or
computer in front of the TV. It is helpful to have headphones plugged into the TV to filter out
background noise. Beforehand, record the local news or a national news program, such as
“World News with Charles Gibson,” which is on ABC, or “NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams.”
Play back the tape writing the first ten minutes and stopping. Review your transcript, globaling,
entering any names, researching any spellings. And then write the same ten minutes again.
Repeat these steps for the first ten minutes until you either master it or you just can’t write that
ten minutes again. Move on to the next ten-minute segment and repeat. Continue doing this
until you reach the 30-minute mark. At that point, rewind the tape to the beginning and write the
entire 30 minutes straight through without stopping, except fast-forwarding through commercial
breaks.

In the beginning, you can expect very low accuracy scores. That is very normal. The two areas
crucial to mastering a program are speed and accuracy. Rarely do both come at the same time.
Usually, you achieve one at the expense of the other. It is important to feel like you are
accomplishing something at every sitting. It is counterproductive to try to get every word AND



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                       NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

produce perfect captions while training. You will achieve neither and end up feeling horrible.
Instead, strive for perfect captions first. Try writing every other sentence or every third sentence
rather than dropping mid-sentence. Once you feel comfortable with your accuracy, turn to speed.
Try getting every word no matter what the realtime output looks like. Alternate these two
techniques throughout your practice session. After some time of doing so, try to get nearly every
word AND clean captions. See how it feels. Again, it will take some time.

As a matter of fact, in the very beginning, you may not be able to write at all. I experienced great
frustration because I had such difficulty taking down TV people. They just speak differently.
They emphasize certain words that do not seem to need emphasizing. They tend to skip over
punctuation, and it is sometimes hard to determine where a sentence ends and another begins. I
assure you all of these things are normal and, in time, you will become accustomed to the way
TV people speak just as you have attorneys, judges, and witnesses. The important thing is DO
NOT GIVE UP. It will get better!

Scoring your work is an important indication of your progress. There is a formula used to
calculate accuracy rates. Convert your unedited transcript into a .txt (or ASCII) file or .rtf file and
open in Microsoft Word. Count all the errors, keeping in mind a two-stroke word that does not
translate if broken into two English words counts as two errors. Multiply number of errors by 100.
Divide that number by total word count, which can be ascertained in Word by clicking on Tools
and then Word Count. Then subtract that number from 100. And that is your score. 98.5% is
considered entry-level on-air quality. Some companies hire new captioners at 98%, but I believe
that is too low. I suggest striving for 98.5% before approaching companies. The ultimate goal,
however, is above 99%.

If you experience difficulty in certain areas, try the following practice techniques that I developed.
You can also use these techniques while practicing Caption Accelerator:

Tape your local news, watch it first and jot down names and enter them into a job dictionary.
Then write the first ten minutes repeatedly focusing on the following items ONE AT A TIME for
each take:

                First take – focus on NUMBERS
                Second take – focus on FINGERSPELLING
                (fingerspell random words instead of stroking them out)
                Third take – focus on PUNCTUATION
                Fourth take – focus on EDITING & PARAPHRASING
                Fifth take – focus on SPEED
                Sixth take – focus on ACCURACY
                Seventh take – focus on coming back for INFLECTED ENDINGS
                Eighth take – focus on WATCHING THE SCREEN while writing

Write the whole ten minutes as perfectly as you can incorporating all of the above, [Focus
meaning at the detriment of all other categories; in other words, get the punctuation perfectly
even if you drop the next two sentences. Focus on speed without worrying about accuracy, etc.]



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                     NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

The next time you sit down to practice, begin with the second ten minutes of the tape and repeat
the above steps. Continue this for a week or two, committing to at least two to three hours of
practice session a day, and at the end of two weeks, hopefully, you’ll have mastered all of the
above items or at least made great improvement.

For sports, tape a game and repeat the above steps increasing the segment time to 20 minutes.
Add speaker IDs to the list of practice items above.




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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

                                      SAMPLE

                         Captioner Trainee Correction Sheet


Speaker ID           Wrong Word           Plural              Spelling/Dict Entry


111                  1111                                     11


Misstroke            Apostrophe           Numbers             Quotes

1111111                                   1111



1,2 Word/Hyphen      Extra/Missing        Inflected Endings   and/an
(1/2 point)          Word

1111 1                                    11


Punctuation          Stack/Split Stroke   Style               Other
(1/2 point)



11111                                     11




Errors:                     32

Word Count:                 2,000

Errors x 100:               3,200

divided by Word Count:      1.6

100 – 1.6 = Score:          98.4%




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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Editing, Paraphrasing & Fingerspelling
One of the tools captioners use to achieve accurate captions is to edit, or paraphrase. It is
acceptable and appropriate to do so when the accuracy of your captions would be otherwise
compromised. However, contrary to popular belief, a good captioner will always strive to write
verbatim. The following are examples of when to edit and how to edit.

Speed
Let’s face it. Even a merit writer cannot get everything all the time. I found editing extremely
difficult in my first two years as a captioner. I desperately wanted to get every word, and I did,
but at the expense of accurate captions. Because of my desire to be as close to verbatim as
possible, I began to implement little tricks of the trade without completely paraphrasing. I simply
began to “intentionally drop” a word here or there to allow me to catch up.

       >> THE FAMILY OF AN ALABAMA TEENAGER MISSING IN ARUBA IS REFUSING
       TO GIVE UP HOPE THAT SHE WILL BE FOUND.

       Edited:
       >> THE FAMILY OF A TEENAGER MISSING IN ARUBA IS REFUSING TO GIVE UP
       HOPE THAT SHE WILL BE FOUND.

       >> IN THE MEANTIME, NICK JOHN AND ABRAHAM JONES, WHO WERE
       ARRESTED IN CONNECTION WITH THE DISAPPEARANCE OF 18-YEAR-OLD
       NATALEE HOLLOWAY, WILL BE BACK IN COURT TODAY AS THE JUDGE
       DETERMINES IF THERE IS ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO HOLD THEM.

       Edited:
       >> IN THE MEANTIME, TWO MEN, WHO WERE ARRESTED IN CONNECTION WITH
       THE DISAPPEARANCE OF 18-YEAR-OLD NATALEE HOLLOWAY, WILL BE BACK IN
       COURT TODAY AS THE JUDGE DETERMINES IF THERE IS ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO
       HOLD THEM.

Of course, there are those occasions when paraphrasing becomes necessary, especially during
a sports segment.

       >> SIXTH INNING, STILL SCORELESS.
       RYAN KLESKO STEPS UP AND LAUNCHES ONE TO THE DEEPEST PART OF THE
       DOG POUND, OFF THE TOP OF THE WALL.

       Paraphrased:
       >> SIXTH INNING, STILL SCORELESS.
       KLESKO LAUNCHES ONE TO THE DEEPEST PART OF THE FIELD, OFF THE WALL.

       >> WELL, EARLIER IN THE DAY YESTERDAY, BASEBALL'S AMATEUR DRAFT, THE
       PADRES TAKING A COUPLE OF PITCHERS IN THE FIRST ROUND, INCLUDING
       RIGHT-HANDER CESAR CARRILLO FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI, THE ACC
       PITCHER OF THE YEAR.
       THEY THEN TOOK LEFTY CESAR RAMOS IN A SUPPLEMENTAL FIRST-ROUND
       PICK WHEN THEY LOST DAVID WELLS TO THE RED SOX.


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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
       Paraphrased:
       >> WELL, YESTERDAY, BASEBALL'S AMATEUR DRAFT, THE PADRES TAKING A
       COUPLE OF PITCHERS IN THE FIRST ROUND, INCLUDING CESAR CARRILLO,
       THE ACC PITCHER OF THE YEAR.
       THEY THEN TOOK LEFTY CESAR RAMOS IN A SUPPLEMENTAL FIRST-ROUND
       PICK WHEN THEY LOST DAVID WELLS.

Accuracy
Editing and Fingerspelling are crucial tools in captioning to ensure the highest of quality.
Although it is acceptable and appropriate to replace names with proper nouns such as HE, SHE,
and THEY, it is the goal, whenever possible, to give the viewer a name even if the spelling is not
readily available.


       >> A MURRIETA MAN ACCUSED OF SHOOTING A CHULA VISTA POLICE OFFICER
       WILL BE ARRAIGNED TODAY.
       21-YEAR-OLD RYAN GOFORTH WAS ARRESTED EARLY YESTERDAY, TUESDAY
       MORNING, AFTER AN EIGHT-HOUR SEARCH.

       Fingerspelled:
        >> A MURRIETA MAN ACCUSED OF SHOOTING A CHULA VISTA POLICE OFFICER
       WILL BE ARRAIGNED TODAY.
       21-YEAR-OLD RYAN G-O-F-O-R-T-H WAS ARRESTED EARLY YESTERDAY,
       TUESDAY MORNING, AFTER AN EIGHT-HOUR SEARCH

       Glued:
       >> A MURRIETA MAN ACCUSED OF SHOOTING A CHULA VISTA POLICE OFFICER
       WILL BE ARRAIGNED TODAY.
       21-YEAR-OLD RYAN GO (DELETE SPACE) FORTH WAS ARRESTED EARLY
       YESTERDAY, TUESDAY MORNING, AFTER AN EIGHT-HOUR SEARCH.

       Edited:
       >> A MURRIETA MAN ACCUSED OF SHOOTING A CHULA VISTA POLICE OFFICER
       WILL BE ARRAIGNED TODAY.
       A 21-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS ARRESTED EARLY YESTERDAY, TUESDAY MORNING,
       AFTER AN EIGHT-HOUR SEARCH.

During the next commercial break, I was able to Google Ryan Goforth and found that is indeed
the correct spelling. I then take a moment to enter it in my job dictionary the way I would write it.

Fingerspelling takes practice. I recommend running through some basic finger drills each day
before practicing from the TV. Start by going through the alphabet, but do it slowly and return all
fingers to the home-row key between each stroke. Next, pull out a book or magazine, and
practice fingerspelling words randomly. Finally, close your eyes and practice fingerspelling
names familiar to you. Visualize the word in your mind. Every time I have to
fingerspell, I visualize it in big bright letters in my mind, because I find it easier to fingerspell
something if I can see it.



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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Alphabets
I have several alphabets I use regularly for captioning. As a beginner, you only have to be
concerned with the first three.
                                                                        Eclipse Dictionary Entry

      A-FPLT = A (glues to other letters and numbers)                            {&A}

      A-FRPBLGTS = A- (stitching)                                                {&-A}

      A-6789 = A. (acronyms with periods)                                        {&A.}

      A*-FPLT = “A” (quoted alphabet)                                            “A”

      A-RBGS = literal case/lowercase A                                          {l1}{&a}{l0}
                   (used for fingerspelling in webcasting
                   or mixed-case captions and for fingerspelling
                   literal case items)




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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Dictionary Building
Any and all information required for a captioning dictionary can be found by searching the
internet (www.google.com). Or you can purchase dictionary building software: Dictionary
Jumpstart 1-866-648-JUMP, www.dictionaryjumpstart.com OR CATapult www.CRRBooks.com.

If using the internet, after searching for the following types of information, enter the names into a
Captioning job dictionary. Be sure to enter odd-spelling names together AND to have a unique
way of writing the odd part of the name (example: MARTHA STEWART  PHAR/THA*
STAOURT can be globaled as MARTHA STEWART, and STAO*URT can be globaled as
STEWART to distinguish it from STUART. Or COURTENEY COX  KORT/TPH*EU KOBGZ
can be globaled as COURTENEY COX, and K*ORT/TPH*EU can be globaled as COURTENEY
to distinguish it from COURTNEY. When COURTENEY or MS. STEWART are mentioned
without COX and MARTHA respectively, they need to be written the unique way to achieve the
correct spelling.

      World Leaders (past and present)
      U.S. States and their major cities (need briefs for all the states)
      Countries, Continents, and major international cities
      Top entertainers (past and present), actors, musicians, TV personalities, models, reality
       TV “stars,” comedians, popular TV shows and their characters, top movie titles
      Members of U.S. Congress and the Senate
      Obama Administration, including White House spokesman and cabinet members
      Election candidates, including unknown Presidential candidates
      Governors, mayors of major cities
      Supreme Court justices
      Top professional sports figures (NBA, NFL, MLB, NHL, PGA, LPGA, NASCAR), including
       coaches, general managers, and owners (enter in sports dictionary)
      Professional sports team names, including mascots and team nicknames (enter in sports
       dictionary)
      Notorious figures, such as serial killers and mobsters and people involved in political
       scandals
      Oceans, rivers, lakes, mountain ranges, islands, volcanoes, etc.
      Hurricanes (past and present)
      CEOs of major corporations, especially those under indictment or involved in scandals
      Foods, herbs and spices, wines, liquors, and beverages
      Flowers, plants, and trees
      Automobiles and motorcycle names (makes and models)
      Holidays and holiday terms
      Zodiac signs
      Animals, especially dog breeds
      Fashion designers

While building your dictionary will take quite some time to complete, it is recommended you
focus on modifying your steno theory first. After all, if you build your dictionary first and then
change the way you write second, you will have no choice but to go back through your
dictionary and change those entries you’ve recently entered. Making theory changes is the first
step. Implementing the changes with consistency may take months or even years.



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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Obscenities
OBSCENITIES PERMITTED ON SOME SHOWS:
Create separate dictionary and only load on certain shows -- HBO, MTV, Jerry Springer, Dr.
Phil, Jenny Jones, etc. For example, Dr. Phil bleeps most of these while Springer doesn’t.
Many shows and networks have become much more conservative.

In your main dictionary, the steno for obscenities should be defined as a clean word and
fingerspelled if used in a news report, for example.

Word            Suggested          Steno In Main Dix defined as
                Steno in
                Obscenities dix
ass             A*RS               AS, AE*US, A*S, 5-S, 5*S, 5EUS, 5E*US = as, as-, or -as

asses           A*RS -S            ASZ, AE*USZ, A*SZ, 5-SZ, 5*SZ, 5EUSZ, 5E*USZ = as, as-
                                   or -as

bitch           PW*EUFP            PWEUFP, PWEUPBLG, PW*EUFP, PW*EUPBLG,
                                   3WEU67, 3W*EU67, PWAOEUFP, PWAOEUPBLG,
                                   PWAO*EUFP, PWAO*EUPBLG, 3WA0EU67, 3WA0*EU67,
                                   PWEUT/-FP, PWEUT/*-FP = bridge

bitches                            (Add one-stroke entries as necessary e.g. PWEUFPS =
bitching                           bridges)

boob            PWAO*B             PWAOB, PWAO*B, 3W50B, 3W50*B = Bob

boobs           PWAO*BS or /S      PWAOBS, PWAO*BS, 3W50BS, 3W50*BS = bobs

cock            N/A                KO*BG = cock
cocks                              KO*BG/S = cocks as in cocks a gun
(see pg. 46)                       KOBG = cook
                                   KOBGS = Cox
                                   KOBG/S = cooks
Dick            N/A                TKEUBG = Dick as in a name
                                   Use judgment; e.g., if KICK trans as DICK often, may need
                                   to write DICK with asterisk
fag             TPA*G              TPAG, TPA*G, TPAEUG, TPA*EUG, 235G, 235*G,
                                   235EUG, 235*EUG = tag

fart            TPA*RT             TPART, TPA*RT, TPAEURT, TPA*EURT, 235R9, 235*R9 =
                                   part

farts           TPA*RTS or /S      TPARTS, TPA*RTS, TPAEURTS, TPA*EURTS, 235R9S,
                                   235*R9S = parts


Hell            HE*L               HEL = hel or held


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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
kike          KAO*EUK      KAOEUK, KAO*EUK, K50EUK, K50*EUK = kick

nigger        N/A          TPHEUG/ER, THP*EUG/ER, 234*EUG/ER = finger
                           Note: check long vowel entries, can be entered as Niger
pee           PAO*E        PAOE, PAO*E, 350E, 350*E = pea

piss          P*EUS        PEUS, P*EUS, PAOEUS, PAO*EUS, 3EUS, 3*EUS,
                           35EUS, 35*EUS = miss or piece

pisses        P*EUSZ       PEUSZ, P*EUSZ, PAOEUSZ, PAO*EUSZ, 3EUSZ, 3*EUSZ,
                           35EUSZ, 35*EUSZ = misses or pieces

poop          PAO*P        PAOP, PAO*P, 3507, 350*7 = pop

psychobitch   SAOEUBG OE   N/A
              PWEUFP

psychobitches SAOEUBG OE
              PWEUFP/S

punk-ass      PUFRPBG/A*RS N/A

queer         KWAOER       KWAOER, KWAO*ER, KW50*ER, KW50*ER = year

queers        KWAOERS      KWAOERS, KWAO*ERS, KW50*ERS, KW50*ERS = years
slut          SHR*UT       SHRUT, SHR*UT, SHRAOUT, SHRAO*UT, 14RU9,
                           14R*U9, 14R50U9, 14R50*U9 = shut

tit           N/A          T*EUT = tit as in tit for tat
                           TEUT = tut
whore         WHO*R        WHOR, WHO*R, HOR, HO*R = who or hour

whores        WHO*RS       WHORS, WHO*RS, HORS, HO*RS = whose or hours




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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
OBSCENITIES NOT PERMITTED EXCEPT PAY CHANNELS:
You may create a separate obscenities dictionary for pay channels if you do such work, only
loading such dictionary during pay-channel programming. These words should never appear on
network television in the United States even if they are spoken unless the captioning company
you are working for has a policy permitting it.

Word          Steno In Main Dix defined as
cocksucker    N/A

cunt          KUPBT, K*UPBT, KUPBTS, K*UPBTS, KAOUPBT, KAO*UPBT, KAOUPBTS,
              KAO*UPBTS, KAOUPBTSZ, KAO*UPBTSZ, KU7B9, K*U7B9, KU7B9S,
              K*U7B9S, KU7B9SZ, K*U7B9SZ = can’t

fuck          TPUBG, TP*UBG, TPAOUBG, TPAO*UBG, 23UBG, 23*UBG, 2350UBG,
              235*0UBG = truck

fucks         TPUBGS, TP*UBGS, TPAOUBGS, TPAO*UBGS, 23UBGS, 23*UBGS,
              2350UBGS, 235*0UBGS, TPUBGSZ, TP*UBGSZ, TPAOUBGSZ,
              TPAO*UBGSZ, 23UBGSZ, 23*UBGSZ, 2350UBGSZ, 235*0UBGSZ,
              TPUBGZ, TP*UBGZ, TPAOUBGZ, TPAO*UBGZ, 23UBGZ, 23*UBGZ,
              2350UBGZ, 235*0UBGZ = trucks

              TPUBGD, TP*UBGD, TPAOUBGD, TPAO*UBGD, 23UBGD, 23*UBGD,
fucked        2350UBGD, 235*0UBGD = trucked

motherfucker N/A

shit          SHEUT, SH*EUT, SHAOEUT, SHEO*EUT, 14EU9, 14*EU9, 1450EU9,
              1450*EU9 = shut

shits         SHEUTS, SH*EUTS, SHAOEUTS, SHEO*EUTS, 14EU9S, 14*EU9S,
              1450EU9S, 1450*EU9S, SHEUTSZ, SH*EUTSZ, SHAOEUTSZ,
              SHEO*EUTSZ, 14EU9SZ, 14*EU9SZ, SHEUTZ, SH*EUTZ, SHAOEUTZ,
              SHEO*EUTZ, 1450EU9SZ, 14EU9Z, 14*EU9Z, 1450EU9Z = shut or shuts

twat          TWAT, TWAUT, TWA*T, TWA*UT, TWAEUT, TWA*EUT, 2W59, 2W5U9,
              2W5*9, 2W5*UT, 2W5EU9, 2W5*EU9 = twas




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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
COCK WORDS
Many permitted words contain the word part “cock.” You may enter the following words in
dictionary both with asterisk in KOBG stroke & without:

Cockade
Cock-a-doodle-doo                                 Cocklebur
Cock-a-hoop                                       Cockleshell
Cockaigne or Cockayne                             Cockloft
Cock-a-leekie                                     Cockney
Cockalorum                                        Cockneyism
Cockamamie or cockamamie                          Cock of the rock
Cock-and-bull story                               Cock of the wood
Cock-and-hen                                      Cockpit
Cock-a-whoop                                      Cockroach
Cockatoo                                          Cockscomb
Cockatrice                                        Cock’s-foot or cock’s foot
Cock-beaded                                       Cockshut
Cockboat                                          Cockshy
Cock-brained                                      Cockspur
Cockchafer                                        Cocksure
Cockcroft                                         Cockswain (pronounced KOK/SIN)
Cocked                                            Cocktail
Cocker                                            Cock-tailed
Cockerel                                          Cock-throttled
Cockeye                                           Cock-up
Cockeyed                                          Cocky
Cock-feathered                                    Bibcock
Cockfight                                         Half-cocked
cocking                                           Petcock
Cockhorse                                         Turkey-cock
Cockle




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                   NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Parentheticals
Parentheticals are commonplace in captioning and should be used to indicate non-verbal
sounds that may or may not be apparent to the viewer. Parentheses ( ) are not used in
captioning (except in Canada) but replaced with the brackets [ ]. Although the following is a list
of common parentheticals used in the industry, there are times when it becomes necessary for
the captioner to manually insert a parenthetical. For example, if there are tires screeching in the
background that does not have any bearing on the program, a captioner does not insert the
parenthetical
[ TIRES SCREECHING ]. However, if it is evident that the screeching tires adds to the content,
it is appropriate to insert the parenthetical.

Another common parenthetical is [ SPEAKING FOREIGN LANGUAGE ], which should be used
when the captioner cannot with certainty identify the language being spoken.

Some companies use this style: [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ]
While others use this style: [CHEERS AND APPLAUSE]
And others use this style (mainly Canada): (cheers and applause)

A parenthetical should appear on a new line by itself (exception: [ BLEEP ] and [ INAUDIBLE ])
Eclipse definition: {N}[{~}Laughter and Applause{~}]{$}
For other software: new line, hard bracket, hard/lock space/sticky space, text, hard/lock
space/sticky space, hard bracket, new line no punctuation

HR-P HR-P = [ LAUGHTER AND APPLAUSE ]
HR-F HR-F = [ LAUGHTER ]
WH-S WH-S = [ WHISTLE ] (used only in sports)
PR-PB = [
PR-PB PR-PB = ]
PHR-Z PHR-Z = [ APPLAUSE ]
PWHR-P PWHR-P = [ BLEEP ]
KH-P KH-P = [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ]
KH-RZ KH-RZ = [ CHEERS ]
T-BG T-BG = [ TALKING AT THE SAME TIME ] (used only in entertainment and talk shows)
TPHAUB TPHAUB = [ INAUDIBLE ] (used only in webcasting)
SP-PB SP-PB = [ SPEAKING SPANISH ]
S-RS/S-RS = [ SIRENS ]
SKR-PL SKR-PL = [ SCREAMS ]
SKWR-BL SKWR-BL = [ UNINTELLIGIBLE ] (used only in webcasting)
ST-B ST-B = [ PLEASE STAND BY ] (used to test with Master Control)




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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
                                            Phonetics
The phonetics table can be found in Eclipse by opening the User Settings, Programming Tab; in
BCS, File, Open, List, Table Phonetic; in DigitalCAT, Tools, Windows Explorer, DigitalCAT
Phonics.
Note: Ignore asterisks (for use in Eclipse only)

STKPWHR={N}>>            PHR=pl                   0=o*                     -RBGS=rks
STKPWHR=/                34=m*                    *EU=i*                   -RBGS=,
1234=sn                  PH=m                     *E=e*                    -RBG=rk
STPH=sn                  3=p*                     *U=u*                    -RB=sh
SKWR=j                   P=p                      *=|                      -R=r*
1KWR=j*                  W=w                      -EUFPL=ism               -7B8G=th
SPW=int                  4R=l*                    EURBGS=irks              -PBLG=th
1WR=z*                   HR=l                     EU=i                     -PBL=n
SWR=z                    4=h*                     ERBGS=erks               -7B8=n*
SR=v                     H=h                      E=e                      -7BG=ng*
1R=v*                    R=r                      URBGS=urks               -PBG=ng
S=s                      50*EU=i*                 U=u                      -7B=n*
1=s*                     AO*EU=i*                 -6R7B8G=nch              -PB=n
2K3W=g*                  AO*E=ee                  -FRPBLG=nch              -PL=m
TKPW=g                   50*E=ee                  -FRPBG=nk                -78=m*
TKHR=del                 AO*U=u*                  -6R7BG=nk                -P=p
TK=d                     50*U=u*                  -6R7B=rch                -7=p*
2K=d*                    AO*=oo                   -FRPB=rch                -BG9=ct
TPHR=fl                  50*=oo                   -FRP=mp                  -BGT=ct
234R=fl                  50EU=i*                  -6R7=mp*                 -BGS=x
234=n*                   AOEU=i*                  -6RB=rv                  -BGS=ks
TPH=n                    50E=ee                   -FRB=rv                  -BGZ=x*
TP=f                     AOE=ee                   -6R=fr                   -BG=k
23=f*                    AOU=u*                   -67BS=n*                 -B=b
THR=thr                  50U=u*                   -FPBS=ns                 -LGTS=t
24R=thr                  AO=oo*                   -FPB=n*                  -8G9S=t*
24=th                    50=oo*                   -67B=n*                  -8G=lk*=
TS=t*                    A*EU=a*                  -FPLT=ment               -L=l
T=t                      5*EU=a*                  -FPLT=.|                 -8=l*
2=t*                     5*=a*                    -FPG=ching               -G=g
KPW=g*                   AEU=a*                   -67G=ching               -9SZ=t*
KP=ex                    5EU=a*                   -FPS=ches                -TSZ=t*
KWR=y                    ARBGS=arks               -67S=ches                -TS=t*
KW=qu                    5=a*                     -67D=ched                -9S=t*
K4R=cl*                  A=a                      -FPD=ched                -9D=t*
KHR=cl                   O*EU=oi*                 -FP=ch                   -TD=t*
KH=ch*                   O*E=o*                   -67=ch                   -T=t*
K4=ch                    0EU=oi                   -FBG=vic                 -9=t*
KR=cr                    OEU=oi                   -6BG=vic                 -SD=ds
K=k|                     0E=o*                    -69=st                   -S=s
3W=b*                    OE=o*                    -FT=st                   -DZ=d*
PW=b                     ORBGS=orks               -6=f*                    -D=d
34R=pl                   O=o                      -F=f                     -Z=z

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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Preparing for the CBC Exam

Certified Broadcast Captioning (CBC) Certification Study Guide
In November 2003, NCRA initiated the new Certified Broadcast Captioning (CBC)
certification.

Written Knowledge Test
The Written Knowledge Test is a 90-minute, 100-question, multiple-choice test based on,
but not limited to, the following four areas of knowledge needed to perform the duties of
a broadcast captioner. A candidate must pass with a score of 70 percent or higher.
Writing Realtime
Language Skills
Realtime Writing in the Broadcast Environment
Research
How to Prepare for the CBC Exam is now available from NCRA at www.ncraonline.org or
phone 800-272-NCRA (non-members $24.95; members $19.95).

My recollection of the exam is the majority of the questions seemed to be geared towards
grammar, punctuation, and spelling. There were a number of questions related to captioning
procedures, equipment, FCC regulations, and the history of captioning. Current versions of the
test have included a variety of sports captioning questions.

Familiarize yourself with the FCC regulations included in this workbook as well as the History of
Captioning. Brush up on grammar, punctuation, and spelling rules. If you haven’t already,
explore everything there is to know about your computer and Windows. This will not only
benefit you with regard to the CBC exam but it will be a huge benefit to you as a captioner if you
are working remotely without a technical staff on-site.

Join the Yahoo! Broadcast Captioners group and take advantage of the information given by
experienced, working captioners.

The link is http://groups.yahoo.com/group/broadcastcaptioners/.

Find a mentor through the group or NCRA’s mentoring program.




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                    NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Style

Literal Case/Mixed Case Captions
Since most live captioning is performed in ALL CAPS, special commands are needed to force
lowercase letter(s).

        Eclipse AccuCAP -- surround letter(s) with {l1} and {l0} (lowercase L numeral 1 and
        lowercase L numeral zero). {l1} turns literal case on; {l0} turns literal case off.
        M{l1}c{l0}Donald.

        Cheetah Captivator -- place <L> before the lowercase letter.
        M<L>cDonald

        Stenograph BCS -- to the right of New Text box, click on FS box. Double-click on
        <Caption:KeepCaseNext> before letter you want to be lower case.
        Or<Caption:KeepCaseOn> before and <Caption:KeepCaseOff> after multiple letters.
        M<Caption:KeepCaseNext>cDonald
        <Caption:KeepCaseOn>von<Caption:KeepCaseOff>

        ProCAT – M[l]cDonald

Search your dictionary for the following types of entries and modify the entries with your
software’s corresponding commands; exceptions: some proper names do not take lowercase,
check spelling before adding commands:

English       Example Eclipse AccuCAP           Appearance on air
                      dictionary entry
al-           {l1}al{l0}-Sheikh                 al-SHEIKH
De            D{l1}e{l0}Vry                     DeVRY
Di            D{l1}i{l0}Caprio                  DiCAPRIO
Du            D{l1}u{l0}Pont                    DuPONT
La            L{l1}a{l0}Mont                    LaMONT
Le            L{l1}e{l0}Tourneau                LeTOURNEAU
Mac           M{l1}ac{l0}Kenzie                 MacKENZIE
Mc            M{l1}c{l0}Donald                  McDONALD
(sp) de (sp) Ponce {l1}de{l0} Leon              PONCE de LEON
(sp) de la (sp)Via {l1}de la{l0} Valle          VIA de la VALLE
(sp) del (sp) Camino {l1}del la{l0} Plaza       CAMINO del la PLAZA
von           Claus {l1}von{l0} Bulow           CLAUS von BULOW
        but Hans Von Sponeck                    HANS VON SPONECK
(sp = space)

Add the following entries to your dictionary forcing the first letter to be lowercase or
create a literal case “I” prefix to write before a word to create these and yet-to-be-
invented Apple products:
             eBay                                iTouch
             iPod                                iVillage
             iPaq                                iBook
             iTV                                 iTune
             iMac                                iPhone
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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Add the following entries to your dictionary forcing the lowercase letter(s) to be
lowercase (Eclipse example given):
                  CHiPS         CH{l1}i{l0}PS
                  TiVo          T{l1}i{l0}V{l1}o{l0}
                  F'ing         F'{l1}ing{l0}
                  NyQuil        N{l1}y{l0}Quil
                  VoIP          V{l1}o{l0}IP
                   YouTube      Y{l1}ou{l0}Tube

Acronyms
All television networks are written WITHOUT periods

       ABC, CBC, NBC, FOX, WB, UPN, BET, MTV, VH1, MSNBC, CNN, OWN, USA, etc.

Suggested Steno:

ABS = ABC          KR-BS = CBS          TPH-BS = NBC     PH-FT = MTV
KR-PBS = CNBC      KR-PB = CNN          PH-BS = MSNBC    E-FPLT KP*-PT = E!
SR*-N = VH1        ABZ = ABC NEWS       KR-BZ = CBS NEWS TPH-BZ = NBC NEWS

VITAC: 2-, 3-, and 4-letter acronyms that spell a word are written WITH
periods (Exception: TV)

       SHE MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT OVER THE P.A.
       HIS PR MAN LEAKED THE STORY TO THE TABLOIDS
       I WORKED FOR C.A.T. SYSTEMS
       BMC WON THE BID
       THE S.W.A.T. TEAM WAS CALLED IN TO CONTROL THE SITUATION
       THE PHONE COMPANY IS OFFERING VoIP TO ITS CUSTOMERS

NCI: 2- and 3-letter acronyms are written WITH periods but 4-letter
acronyms are not

       SHE MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT OVER THE P.A.
       HIS P.R. MAN LEAKED THE STORY TO THE TABLOIDS
       I WORKED FOR C.A.T. SYSTEMS
       B.M.C. WON THE BID
       THE SWAT TEAM WAS CALLED IN TO CONTROL THE SITUATION
       THE PHONE COMPANY IS OFFERING VOIP TO ITS CUSTOMERS

Measurements & Heights
Use figures for feet and inches but words for just feet (NOTE: period and comma placed
after ” when ” is used as inches)

       SHE IS JUST UNDER 5’2”, SHORT FOR HER AGE
       THE DOG JUMPED 21’4” OFF THE DOCK
       HE WAS SEVEN FEET TALL



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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Use a lowercase X surrounded by hard spaces/sticky spaces when spoken as “BY”

        4x4
        2x4

Numbers
Ten and under use words. (Exception: Wind speeds and temperatures)
Exception: NCI uses figure for ten and words for nine and under

11 and over use figures up to 999,999

Use figure plus the word million, billion, trillion except if thousands are spoken

        4 million
        12 billion
        100 trillion
        8,507,444
        12,600,500,000

Use .5 for half, .25 for quarter, .75 for three-quarters when preceding million, billion,
trillion

        4.5 million
        3.75 trillion
        11.25 gazillion

Convert half, quarter, and three-quarters

        HALF MILLION should be written as 500,000
        QUARTER BILLION should be written as 250 MILLION
        THREE QUARTER MILLION should be written as 750,000

Fractions
Write out except when accompanied by a whole number (exception: Stock Market, see
below), and use decimals for tenths, hundredths, and thousandths
                                                                        Suggested Steno
       ONE-HALF                                       (define with preceding hard/lock/sticky space)
       TWO-THIRDS                                                       KW*RT = 1/4
       TWO AND A HALF should be written as 2 1/2                        TPHA*F = 1/2
       EIGHT AND A QUARTER should be written as 8 1/4                   THR-*BG = 3/4
       THREE AND A THIRD should be written as 3 1/3                     W-*PBLG or W-*T
                                                                        or W-GT = 1/3
       EIGHT TENTHS should be written as .8
       FIVE HUNDREDTHS should be written as .05
       SEVEN THOUSANDTHS should be written as .007




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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Stock Market
Do not use commas unless Dow is over 10,000; NASDAQ and S&P do not take a comma

        THE DOW IS DOWN 30 POINTS AT 10,222.
        THE NASDAQ IS DOWN 11 POINTS AT 1983.
        THE S&P 500 LOST 4 1/3 TO 1162.80
        YOUR LOCAL INDEX FELL 5/8 (not 5/8ths or 5/8s)

Money
Use figures under 1 million

        TWO DOLLARS AND FIFTY CENTS should be written as $2.50

Write dollar sign even if not spoken if intention is clear

        FOUR MILLION should be written as $4 MILLION

Use .5 for “half”

        EIGHT AND A HALF DOLLARS should be written as $8.50
        SIX AND A HALF BILLION DOLLARS should be written as $6.5 billion
        A QUARTER OF A MILLION DOLLARS should be written as $250,000
        A HALF BILLION DOLLARS should be written as $500 million
        THREE-QUARTERS OF A MILLION DOLLARS should be written as $750,000
        SEVENTY-FIVE CENTS should be written as 75 CENTS
        A DOLLAR FIFTY should be written as $1.50
        FOUR AND A HALF DOLLARS should be written as $4.50

Include dollar sign even if not spoken

Insert MILLION, for example, in series if not spoken in all instances

      THE COST OF THE PROJECT WAS ESTIMATED AT $50 MILLION TO $60 MILLION
      (spoken 50 to $60 million)

Times
Use figures for all times (Exception: whole number plus minutes; TWO MINUTES TO
GO); do not use the word “o’clock”

      THANK YOU FOR JOINING US HERE ON 10NEWS LIVE AT FIVE should be written
      as THANK YOU FOR JOINING US HERE ON 10NEWS LIVE AT 5:00

      WE HAVE FOUR AND A HALF MINUTES TO GO IN THE HALF should be written as
      WE HAVE 4:30 TO GO IN THE HALF

      WE’LL SEE YOU BACK HERE TOMORROW AT TWELVE NOON should be written
      as WE’LL SEE YOU BACK HERE TOMORROW AT 12:00 P.M.



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Ages
Use figures when referring to ages of people and animals

       SHE WAS 4 1/2 YEARS OLD
       THE KITTEN WAS JUST 8 WEEKS
       THE 5-YEAR-OLD CHILD WAS PRESUMED MISSING

Punctuation
Periods, question marks, and exclamation points are followed by a new line        KP-PT = !
Optional – Create strokes without new line for the following type of items:

       E!                  KP*-PT
       “Jeopardy!”
       6’5”.               P*-P or *-FPLT
       5’10”,              W*-B or *-RBGS

Do not use semicolons or ellipses. Use colons only in titles, speaker IDs, and times

When using colons in titles and speaker IDs, only one space follows

       “STAR WARS EPISODE III: REVENGE OF THE SITH”

       >> Reporter: GOOD EVENING.
       SHE BROKE A RECORD WITH A TIME OF 6:47.18 (six hours, 47 minutes, 18
      seconds)

Plurals & Possessives
Use lowercase S or apostrophe S depending on company’s style with acronyms and
numbers. Use S apostrophe in words and acronyms ending in S. Add –ES to names ending
in S to make plural. Create a steno stroke for lowercase S – in Eclipse {^}{l1}s{l0} – and –ES
so as not to rely on software intelligence. I use <E*-Z>. Create a steno stroke for –S to add
to names when you do not want the software to change the spelling. I use <*-Z>.

            DVDs                  DVD’S
            1970s                 1980’S
            CBS’                  ABC’S
            WITNESS’              JONESES (more than one Jones)
            ELVIS’                JONES’ (belongs to John Jones)
            KENNEDYS              JONESES’ (belongs to the more than one Jones)
            ‘80s                  ‘80’S




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Speaker IDs
Use >> (Chevrons) to indicate speaker changes
Some companies use >>> to indicate a topic change (even within the same speaker)

       >>> TOPPING OUR NEWS THIS HOUR, A HIGH-SPEED CAR CHASE TIES UP
       TRAFFIC ON THE BOULEVARD.
       >>> AND LATER –
       LEARN HOW TO MAKE YOUR MONEY GROW.
       >>> BUT FIRST, WE CHECK IN WITH METEOROLOGIST JOE JONES WITH THE
       FORECAST.
       JOE?
       >> THANKS, JANE.
       >> I HOPE YOU HAVE SOME GOOD NEWS FOR US.
       >> YES, JANE, I THINK YOU’LL LIKE WHAT I HAVE TO TELL YOU.

Use Speaker IDs, or tokens, for talk show hosts, announcer, and translator. There is only
one space after the colon.

       >> GOOD AFTERNOON.

       >> Dr. Phil: ALL RIGHT.
       LOOKING GOOD.

       >> Announcer: COMING UP ON “A CURRENT AFFAIR” –
       THE JURY DELIBERATES IN THE MICHAEL JACKSON TRIAL.

       >> Translator: I HAVE BEEN IN THIS COUNTRY FOR SIX MONTHS.

NCI’s & Visual Audio Captioning’s style is ALL CAPS and no chevrons (>>).

            OPRAH: HELLO.

In Eclipse AccuCAP, speaker ID’s are defined as {S:Dr. Phil} (case sensitive).

In Stenograph BCS, to define a speaker ID, click on FS box, double-click on
<Caption:NewLineParagraph>>><Caption:KeepCaseOn>Reporter<Caption:KeepCaseOff>:
(There is no space between >> and <Caption:KeepCaseOn> and also no space after the :
at the end.)

Quotations
Use quotations around movie, show, song, book, and newspaper, magazine, and poem
titles, as well as nicknames within a name

       “SHREK 2” TOPPED SALES AT THE BOX OFFICE THIS WEEKEND.
       “HOLLABACK GIRL” DROPPED TWO SPOTS ON THE VIDEO COUNTDOWN.
       “HEATHER HAS TWO MOMMIES” WAS BANNED FROM THE LIBRARY.
       “THE NEW YORK POST” REPORTED THE TAKEOVER.
       SEAN “P. DIDDY” COMBS CREATED THE CLOTHING LINE SEAN JOHN.
       DIDDY HAS SEVERAL PROJECTS.

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Slashes
Use slashes for dates and fractions

        9/11/01
        2/3
        50/50

Phone numbers
Use hyphens to separate numbers

        555-1212
        1-800-222-TIPS

Percentages
Use the percent symbol

        25%

Insert percent symbol in series if not spoken in all instances

        THE VALUE OF THE PROPERTY ROSE 20% TO 25% IN ONE YEAR (spoken 20 to
       25%)

Convert fractions to figures

        8.5% (spoken 8 1/2 percent)
        .4% (spoken 4/10 of a percentage point)

Web Addresses
Create stroke for .com, .org, .gov, .net, .info, .tv, .edu, .ca, etc.
(Some companies use all lowercase)

        WWW.COMESEEMYSHOW.COM
        www.fcc.gov

Use delete space stroke between words in web addresses
In Eclipse, you can use {GLUEON} and {GLUEOFF} commands:

        Suggested Steno
        TKPWHR*PB = {GLUEON}
        TKPWHR*F = {GLUEOFF}

It’s very important to stroke the {GLUEOFF} command after the website name, or the
remainder of the realtime text will glue together until you do. As a safeguard, I have defined
.com, .org, .gov, .net, .info, .tv, etc. with a {GLUEOFF} command preceding the dot.




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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Captioning Sports
Sports can be very exciting to caption, and you do not have to be a sports fan to do so. But I
must admit I have been known to get into and start cheering while on the air, especially
during playoffs! On the other hand, I find sometimes I’m so deep in concentration with
keeping all the names and all the stats straight that I have no idea what is actually going on
during the game. I can’t tell you how many times I got off the air and somebody asked me,
“So who won?” and I embarrassingly said, “Hmm, I have no idea!” Really!

I do love captioning sports, though, because it is a nice break from the (not so good) news
that we are so accustomed to writing. And when it is a close game, I often feel my
adrenaline going. There is nothing like it. Unfortunately, many captioners do not caption
sports. Either they never learned how, can’t find the time to learn how, or just think they
would not like it because maybe they are not big sports fans. I can’t stress enough how little
that has to do with captioning sports. An analogy would be as a court reporter, you may not
like getting in car accidents, but some days you love to take an easy accident case. On the
other hand, you may not like listening to endless hours of an asbestos worker’s job history,
but you know there will be 15 copy sales that day, so you’re all for it.

The other nice thing about sports is, with the pregame and postgame shows, they can last
anywhere from two to four hours. Some days I am on the air for a total of four hours. So on
a Sunday I can likely make more money in one afternoon captioning a football game than I
would make in a ten-hour period on a Monday.

Sports Dictionaries
I have two sports dictionaries because one company, NCI, uses all caps all the time;
therefore, I need a SPORTS LOWERCASE dictionary to insert names like McDUFFY for the
companies that require lowercase letters. I have found the best way to handle this is to have
both dictionaries loaded at all times except when doing work for NCI. Every time I enter a
name with a lowercase letter, such as McDUFFY, I enter it in both dictionaries, McDuffy in
my SPORTS NCI dictionary and M{l1}c{l0}Duffy in my SPORTS LOWERCASE dictionary. I
place LOWERCASE SPORTS in a slot of higher priority than the other. If I write McDUFFY
when both dictionaries are loaded, my software will choose the entry from the SPORTS
LOWERCASE dictionary. On NCI work, I would still have LOWERCASE SPORTS loaded
but Eclipse has a nice feature where you can uncheck it so it does not apply to the
translation. However, if at any time I want to add an entry to that dictionary, it will always be
in the same slot and I can do so easily. All other sports names that do not have a lowercase
letter in them are entered into the SPORTS NCI dictionary.

Prepping
Expect to spend anywhere from one to four hours prepping for a sporting event. It could
take even longer in extraordinary circumstances such as the Olympics. Try to prep a day or
two before the game. It is not wise to prep too far in advance because you want the
information to be as current as possible. Likewise, avoid prepping the day of the event
because unforeseen circumstances could reduce your prep time.
I obtain all prep information from the internet. Using a search engine such as Google, type
in the team you want to prep for, New York Jets. Choose the team’s home page. Look for
the link to “Team,” “Players,” or “Roster” and click on it. Rather than print it from the
webpage, I prefer to copy and paste the roster into a new Word document so I can edit the
fonts and delete the information I do not need, such as height and weight, etc. I try to fit all

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                  NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
the information on one page large enough to read from a couple feet away. This is possible
for most sports; however, some sports, like football, I will divide the roster into two columns
to fit the whole roster onto two pages. I find it helpful to either highlight or use a different
color font for first-string players.

I have network-specific, league-specific, and if necessary company-specific dictionaries,
such as CBS NFL CAPTIONMAX. That dictionary contains speaker ID’s unique to the
network, quoted segment briefs, such as “Subway Postgame Show,” briefs for network
programming, such as “The Late Show with David Letterman,” and any other entries unique
to that network, league, or captioning company, such as briefs for funding/credits. I also
have dictionaries for each network that contain network-specific entries such as ESPN, as
well as league- or
sport-specific dictionaries such as COLLEGE BASKETBALL, MLB, or HOCKEY. Those
dictionaries would contain entries specific to that sport. For instance, many college players’
careers end when they graduate; therefore, I only put the top players in my sports dictionary,
who are more likely to either go on to the NBA or be referred to in the future because of their
performance. For a professional league-specific dictionary such as MLB, I may enter briefs
for ROGER CLEMENS and BARRY BONDS, as they are referred to nightly, but I do not
want those briefs in my SPORTS dictionary.

I begin by copying all the entries from those two dictionaries into a newly created “game day”
dictionary, simply named by date, 080109 Game Day. I also copy all of the entries from the
two teams’ job dictionaries if they exist. If not, I create them. I then load the following job
dictionaries in this order:

                                         Master CaptionMax
                                          080109 Game Day
                                          Sports Lowercase
                                                 NFL
                                               Current
                                                Sports
                                     New York Jets (Away Team)
                                  Pittsburgh Steelers (Home Team)
                                        CBS NFL CaptionMax
                                            Bonfilio (main)

Begin a realtime session. Enter all of the players’ names into the appropriate dictionary.
To elaborate, a player like Bryan Thomas would be globaled PWRAOEUPB/TOPL/A*Z =
Bryan Thomas and entered into my Sports dictionary. But I may global
PWRAOEUPB/TOPL/AS (the old way I used to write THOMAS) and enter it into the New
York Jets dictionary. Note: It would be unwise to global PWRAOEUPB as BRYAN and
enter it into the NEW YORK JETS dictionary or the GAME DAY dictionary. You ought to
create a unique way of writing BRYAN in the event they say his name without being followed
by THOMAS.

Now, I like to create briefs for the first-string team as well as all quarterbacks, receivers,
running backs, and kickers. It’s also helpful to have briefs for the head coaches, offensive
coordinators, and defensive coordinators from both teams. All of this information can be
found on the team’s website under DEPTH CHART and COACHING STAFF. It is also a
good idea to click on FRONT OFFICE and obtain the team’s owners, general manager, etc.


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You may have to do a little digging. As long as we’re at it, get the team mascot name as well
as the name of the stadium and city they play home games in.

So a team-specific entry like H-RM/H-RM for HERMAN EDWARDS (NY Jets head coach)
would be entered in NEW YORK JETS AND GAME DAY dictionaries. The reason I enter it
into both dictionaries is because of the hierarchy of the dictionaries. GAME DAY takes
priority over all other job dictionaries except MASTER. It is possible that H-RM/H-RM could
be a brief for something else which resides in CURRENT and, therefore, would take priority
over NEW YORK JETS. The reason I also load CBS NFL CaptionMax and CBS dictionaries
even though I copied those entries into GAME DAY is in the event I enter new entries during
the game that belong in those dictionaries for the future. Again, I would enter them into both
GAME DAY and whichever CBS dictionary is appropriate for the same reasons as above.
Notice the double-stroke, vowel-less brief. It’s a really good habit to get into. It lessens your
chance of word-boundary issues. Make note of briefs next to players’ names on the roster
for easy reference and use a bright highlighter to draw your attention to them.

Once you enter a name into the appropriate dictionary, write the name to make sure it
translates correctly. Also write it in subparts, first name, force out, last name, force out, first
and last name together, force out. This will ensure that you have the correct spellings of the
first and last names if they are not written together.

On the day of the game, load the dictionaries as listed above, and start your realtime
session. It’s a good idea to run through all your rosters by writing all the players’ names to
make sure they translate correctly.

Invest in some typist stands. Prop your rosters up in a location that can be easily viewed,
including cheat sheets for coaching staff and front office staff. Print out your depth chart
(football) and have it handy. This handy chart lists the first three strings of players. In
baseball, Major League Baseball’s website has a scoreboard. You can click on icon for
“Gameday” (green baseball field), and there you will get the lineups, starting pitchers, and
even the umpires’ names (scroll down). They do like to mention the umpires by name.

Sports Leagues’ Websites
Major League Baseball www.mlb.com
National Football League www.nfl.com,
NFL Officials: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_NFL_officials
National Basketball League www.nba.com
Women’s National Basketball League www.wnba.com

For other sports, type in the league name or team name in a search engine, and you will be
shown a list of websites.

Sports Organizations’ Websites
ESPN www.espn.com
CBS Sports www.cbssportsline.com
Sports Illustrated CNN www.sportsillustated.cnn.com
FOX Sports www.msn.foxsports.com



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Caption Positioning
It is important to check with your software vendor to be sure your captioning software is
capable of moving captions from bottom to top and left to right. Although, some
programming requires caption positioning other than the normal 3-line bottom, full line
length, in most cases, the positioning will not change during the program; however, in sports
captioning, moving the captions around during the event is quite common. Here I will
discuss the basic premise.

Although there exists different procedures for each sport, there are general guidelines to
consider. Create macros for caption positioning. Each network and sport may have a
different position; however, generally, when the program begins, use three lines at the
bottom (baserow 15) and move to two lines at the top at the start of action (baserow 2).
See Figure 1:

Baserow = lower-most line text appears, aka Baseline (BCS terminology)


Figure 1:
                                     TELEVISION SCREEN
 1
 2                                     2-LINE BASEROW 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15                                    3-LINE BASEROW 15




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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
 The captions should never cover up the score box, so indent from left or from right
 accordingly. See Figures 2 and 3.

 Figure 2:


                    >> Michael: THE YANKEES COME UP TO BAT IN THE
NYY NYY 5           FOURTH LEADING BY FOUR.
TB  TB 1




 Figure 3:



                                                       NYY
    >> Michael: THE YANKESS COME UP TO BAT IN THE FOURTH                          NY 5
    LEADING BY FOUR.                                   TB                         TB 1




 The score box usually does not move from the start of the game; however, in football, it will
 move from left to right upon possession change. When the ball changes possession, there
 will usually be a commercial break. After blanking and enabling, change your caption
 position. Then when the game resumes, you will not have to remember to do it.

 In tennis the score box may change in size (become longer) as the match progresses.
 Therefore, an adjustment to line length may be necessary at a commercial break.


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FOX Sports Net, ESPN, and many other networks place the scoreboard across the top of the
screen. You should, therefore, position your captions one line below, two-line baserow 3.
See Figure 4.

Figure 4:
                                  TELEVISION SCREEN
  1
  2
  3                                    2-LINE BASEROW 3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15


Macros for caption positioning can be created. I have macros on my NUM KEY PAD on my
computer keyboard as well as steno strokes to play them back. Some examples include:

                                                     Eclipse Dictionary Entries:

T*P = TOP 2-LINE FULL LENGTH                               {BLANK}{POS:1,2}{P}
PW*PL = BOTTOM 3-LINE FULL LENGTH                          {BLANK}{POS:13,3}{P}
HR*-FT = INDENTED FROM RIGHT (text flush left)             {L1} or {L2} or {L3}
R*T = INDENTED FROM LEFT (text flush right)                {R1} or {R2} or {R3}
TAO*UP/TAO*UP = BOTTOM 2-LINE
   ELEVATED UP ONE LINE (baserow 14)                       {POS:14,2}{P}
TKO*EUPB/TKO*EUPB = TOP 2-LINE
   BUMPED DOWN ONE LINE (baserow 3)                        {POS:2,2}{P}


When moving captions from bottom to top or vice versa, wait three seconds and then blank
the screen first. You can also include a blank command as the first line of your macro to
accomplish this.




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Speaker IDs in Sports Captioning
Using Speaker IDs, or tokens, is commonplace in sports captioning. You will be provided
ahead of time the name of the broadcast team. Generally, most sports will be “called” by two
broadcast announcers – the play-by-play announcer and the color commentator – although
sometimes there will be one or more extra announcers in the box or sports reporters on the
floor or field. You may only see them on camera at the beginning of the event and perhaps
one or two times during action, but through the majority of the event, you will have to identify
them by voice only. Sometimes you can distinguish between the speakers based on what
they are saying. The play-by-play announcer will be describing the events of the game play
by play and is usually the first person to speak when the event begins. He/she is usually the
main speaker and tends to be a broadcaster by profession as opposed to the color
commentator who is usually a former player of the sport that is being played. The color
commentator is responsible for adding color to the comments. He/she will analyze the plays
after the fact on instant replays. They are also known for rattling off stats and telling stories
of their glory days as a player. It is helpful to have some basic knowledge of the color
commentator, or analyst’s, history as a player for this reason.

If you caption the same sport for the same network frequently, you will come to know the
broadcast team and their voices. However, if you find yourself having difficulty distinguishing
between the speakers or the accuracy of your captions becomes compromised because you
are struggling with speaker IDs, it is appropriate to abandon using them and simply use
chevrons (>>) for the duration of the event.

Speaker ID’s should be entered in the appropriate job dictionaries at the time you prep for
the sporting event. Most companies define them as follows

>> Mike: (chevron, chevron, initial cap, lowercase, colon, ONE space).

NCI’s style is to use all caps all the time; therefore, it would be as follows:

MIKE: (no chevrons, all caps, colon, ONE space).

I always try to enter my speaker IDs as one stroke, preferably no vowels and no asterisk, if I
can. I attempt to use the first initial of the name for the initial stroke and the final consonant
sound of the name for the final stroke. So in the case of Mike, PH-BG is already defined as
my Mc- prefix, so I would use a stroke like OEU, which is uncommon. Therefore, I would
define PHOEUBG for Mike. Another trick I use, if the first choice of a brief is not available, is
to add the –Z. So Jay would be SKWR-Z. Then there are easy ones that work perfectly, like
ST-F for Steve and K-PBLG for Keith.




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Scores & Stats
Again, style varies depending on captioning company and sport, but generally, there are
exceptions to the numbers rules when captioning sports.

In football when referring to the yard lines, use figures.

        FIRST AND TEN ON THE 5-YARD LINE.


Use hyphens when a measurement modifes a noun and follow “numbers ten and under
written out” rule.

        THE QUARTERBACK COMPLETED A FIVE-YARD PASS.

Scores are written in figures separated by a hyphen, even if the word “to” is spoken, and
preceded by a comma.

        THE YANKEES SQUEEZED OUT A WIN AGAINST THE DIAMONDBACKS, 4-2

Use figures even if words are used to describe zero, such as nada, nothing, zip.

        THE JETS ARE LEADING AT THE HALF, 27-0.

Use figure-hyphen-figure when implying tie scores.

        THEY’RE ALL KNOTTED UP WITH TWO APIECE should be written as THEY’RE
        ALL KNOTTED UP 2-2.

Use hyphen in place of words “of” but use word “for” when spoken (some companies replace
“for” with a hyphen also). Exception: “O-FER” is written OH-FER.

        HE IS 0 FOR 2 TONIGHT.
        SHAQ SHOT 3 OF 4 FROM THE FOUL LINE should be written as SHAQ SHOT 3-4
        FROM THE FOUL LINE

In tennis, replace the word LOVE with 0 (zero) and separate sets with commas.

        15-0 (spoken LOVE)
        7-5, 7-5, 7-6

In golf, use figures for scores, pars, clubs, and holes

        12th HOLE
        2 OVER PAR 7
        5 UNDER PAR
        5 IRON




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In basketball, use a hyphen to separate zone phrases

       TWO-THREE ZONE
       2-3 ZONE (NCI uses figures)

In baseball, use decimals for batting and pitching averages; use numerals in a series of stats

       HE IS BATTING .350
       HE IS ONE HIT AWAY FROM BATTING 1.000 (batting “a thousand”)
       HE HAS AN E.R.A. of 1.45
       HE HAS 37 HOMERS, 2 DOUBLES, AND 15 RBIs.
       (Exception: NCI follows NINE and under use words, so 37 HOMERS, TWO
       DOUBLES, AND 15 R.B.I.’S)

In baseball, use figures separated by hyphen for pitch counts

       AND THE 3-2 PITCH (3 balls, 2 strikes, aka full count)




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Which Sport to Caption
Many companies start new captioners out with golf because it is slower paced than many
other sports.

Baseball is a played at a nice pace as well; however, there is a lot of “filler” between the
commentators, so the captioner really has to have a solid dictionary including old-timers and
hall-of-famers. I really love captioning baseball, not only because of the slower pace of the
game, but because you can make a good chunk of change doing it. A game is supposed to
be nine innings, which should take three hours. It rarely does, however, and tack on a pre-
or post-game show and you could be billing for four or five hours in one afternoon or
evening.

Personally, I find tennis difficult because I just never understood the game and find the lingo
foreign. Otherwise, it’s not one of the more difficult sports to caption, considering you only
have two players’ names to keep straight.

Basketball, although it blesses us with short rosters, can be very fast-paced and will surely
challenge even a merit writer. I like basketball, though, I guess because there is a lot of
action, so I find it more exciting. Plus I am a huge fan of women’s professional basketball
and women’s college basketball, so I jump at the chance to caption those. A college game
will usually stick to a two-hour slot, so you barely get a knot in your back doing those!

Football is just fun, fun, fun. Perhaps it is because I am a fan. But the lengthy rosters will
keep you on your toes. I am referring to professional football. College football, on the other
hand, has an even lengthier roster. You will no doubt need several typist stands for that!

Some captioners enjoy NASCAR and auto racing in general. I think you have to be a fan to
like it. I am not; therefore, I will pass on it every time. What I find so difficult about it is
making out what the announcers are saying over the loud, roaring engines.

Hockey is pretty challenging. Most of the players are from foreign countries, thus foreign
names, which can be difficult to pronounce let alone write. On top of that, the play-by-play
announcers love to call the action as fast as it’s happening, which can by trying for any
veteran captioner as well as a newbie. I don’t care for hockey because of those reasons, but
I have captioned my fair share of it when called upon.

Soccer is a sport I have yet to caption. I am not entirely sure why that is, but it just hasn’t
come my way yet. What I do know about soccer is it is an international sport; therefore, you
will be writing a lot of foreign names, not to mention announcers with foreign accents that
can be difficult to understand. The other thing about soccer is there is only one break
between two 45-minute periods, so you will write for two hours straight with only one
commercial break. That alone would cause me to shy away from it, as I rely heavily on my
commercial breaks to rejuvenate my fingers and my brain.

Horseracing is another one of those unusual sports that can be very exciting if you are
interested in racing. Because of the fast-paced nature of a race, however, it too can be quite
challenging to write. The other challenge, albeit a fun one, is the names of the horses.
Pretty creative owners if you ask me!


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Some companies start captions off with golf, because it is very slow paced. I have only
captioned it one time, and compared to most other sports, it was much easier to do.

Of course, every once in a while, I am called upon to do a less-common sport, which may be
more difficult just in terms of knowing how to prep for it. For example, I once captioned a
show that incorporated several sporting events in one hour, dog-sled racing, surfing,
snowmobile competition, skiing and snowboarding, and body-boarding. I had little choice but
to over-prep for that show, because I had to enter all participants, even though it was likely
they would talk about the top five competitors in each sport, because you just never know. I
had to enter an entire glossary for each sport, with the exception of skiing and
snowboarding, because it consisted of many terms that were not in my dictionary. And I had
to do a lot of reading up on each event to determine what the highlights were and to
familiarize myself with the culture of the sport. Needless to say, I spent a lot more time than
necessary and entered a lot more names and terms that never came up. But you know
Murphy’s Law – if I hadn’t, they would have.

If you find yourself in a position to caption something like the Olympics, you will no doubt get
a crash course in such sports as curling, luge, skeleton, bobsled, figure skating, skiing and
snowboarding in the Winter Olympics and volleyball, gymnastics, cycling, swimming, diving,
and track & field in the Summer Olympics. And similar to the challenges of the foreign
names in ice hockey, obviously, the Olympics attract nations from all over the world. You will
quickly learn that in Scandinavian countries “Js” are pronounced as “Ys” and that in some
cultures, the order of one’s names is reversed; namely, last name first, which is known as the
Eastern Order and is used in East Asian cultures such as China, Japan, Korea, Singapore,
Taiwan, and Vietnam, as well as in Hungary. Imagine my surprise when I globaled what I
thought to be a first and last name together only to have the sports announcer refer to the
athlete by his last name first. Many of these athletes had middle names as well, so there
were a number of variations in terms of globaling. It was a bit of a nightmare to say the least.

It is also important to note, when globaling names of foreign origin, to research the types of
pronunciations of the different countries. It is only natural to want to enter a name into your
dictionary as we would pronounce it in America. One of the primary challenges of captioning
the Olympics is the names and their “odd” pronunciations. I have spent hours upon hours
entering names, only to be flabbergasted the minute the announcer begins saying the
names. Oftentimes, what I have entered is not even close to the actual pronunciation. It
forces me to continually refer to the roster to locate the name so I can see it and then write it
in my “English version.” That process is doable but will surely slow me down as I take the
extra step of “translating” the name into something comprehensible to me. I must be frank
with you, though, I have captioned entire events using this process simply because I have
such difficulty writing in steno the sounds that are required in a French name, for example.
There is a Canadian ice hockey player named St. Louis but pronounced SAN/LAOU/AOE.
Once I learned of the French pronunciation, I did enter it during a commercial, but I wrote
SAEUNT/LAOU/EUS the majority of the time.




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                                   Musical Notes & Lyrics


    DICTIONARY          DICTIONARY ENTRY                   SUGGESTED           DESCRIPTION
    ENTRY (Eclipse      (Stenograph BCS)                   OUTLINE
    AccuCAP)

    {N}¶{~}             <Continuation                      SNOET               OPEN note
                        Paragraph><Caption:Music
                        Note><Sticky Space>
    {~}¶{$}¶{~}         <Sticky Space><Caption:Music       SNOET2              COMBO note
                        Note><New                                              (end note, new
                        Line><Caption:Music Note>                              line, open note)
    {~}¶{$}             <Sticky Space><Caption:Music       SNO*ET              END note
                        Note><New Line>
    {~}¶¶{$}            <Sticky Space><Caption:Music       SNO*ET2             END of song note
                        Note><Caption:Music
                        Note><New Line>
    {N}¶¶{$}            <Continuation                      SNOET/Z             STANDALONE
                        Paragraph><Caption:Music                               note (no lyrics)
                        Note><Caption:Music
                        Note><Continuation
                        Paragraph>

    {N}¶ {$}                                               SNOET/Z             STANDALONE
                                                                               note (no lyrics)
                                                                               FOR NCI WORK
2
 Represents double stroke
¶ in Eclipse, CTRL-W, select paragraph symbol.
¶ will appear as musical note once it passes through encoder.

Musical notes surround lyrics in captioning to represent singing or, in the case of the
standalone note, to represent instrumental music.

NOTE: NCI style includes a speaker ID (chevron) before the first line of lyrics, an open
musical note, the lyrics, and a musical note at the end of the song:

>> ¶ O SAY CAN YOU SEE
BY THE DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT
WHAT SO PROUDLY WE HAILED
AT THE TWILIGHT'S LAST GLEAMING
O SAY DOES THAT STAR SPANGLED
BANNER YET WAVE
O'ER THE LAND OF FREE
AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE ¶




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A typical song file in Eclipse AccuCAP:

¶ O SAY CAN YOU SEE
BY THE DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT ¶
¶ WHAT SO PROUDLY WE HAILED
AT THE TWILIGHT'S LAST GLEAMING ¶
¶ WHOSE BROAD STRIPES AND
BRIGHT STARS ¶
¶ THROUGH THE PERILOUS FIGHT ¶
¶ O'ER THE RAMPARTS WE WATCHED
WERE SO GALLANTLY STREAMING ¶
¶ AND THE ROCKETS' RED GLARE
THE BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR ¶
¶ GAVE PROOF THROUGH THE NIGHT
THAT OUR FLAG WAS STILL THERE ¶
¶ O SAY DOES THAT STAR SPANGLED
BANNER YET WAVE ¶
¶ O'ER THE LAND OF FREE
AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE ¶¶

A typical song file in Cheetah Captivator:

\M O SAY CAN YOU SEE\E
BY THE DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT \M\E
\M WHAT SO PROUDLY WE HAILED\E
AT THE TWILIGHT'S LAST GLEAMING \M\E
\M WHOSE BROAD STRIPES AND\E
BRIGHT STARS\E
THROUGH THE PERILOUS FIGHT \M\E
\M O'ER THE RAMPARTS WE WATCHED\E
WERE SO GALLANTLY STREAMING \M\E
\M AND THE ROCKETS' RED GLARE\E
THE BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR \M\E
\M GAVE PROOF THROUGH THE NIGHT\E
THAT OUR FLAG WAS STILL THERE \M\E
\M O SAY DOES THAT STAR SPANGLED\E
BANNER YET WAVE \M\E
\M O'ER THE LAND OF FREE\E
AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE \M\M\E

\M in a Captivator file will appear as a musical note once it passes through encoder.
\M\M in a Captivator file will appear as a double musical note once it passes through
encoder.
\E in a Captivator file will appear as a new line with no punctuation once it passes through
encoder.




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A typical song file in Stenograph BCS:

♪   O SAY CAN YOU SEE
BY THE DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT ♪
♪ WHAT SO PROUDLY WE HAILED
AT THE TWILIGHT'S LAST GLEAMING ♪
♪ WHOSE BROAD STRIPES AND
BRIGHT STARS ♪
♪ THROUGH THE PERILOUS FIGHT ♪
♪ O'ER THE RAMPARTS WE WATCHED
WERE SO GALLANTLY STREAMING ♪
♪ AND THE ROCKETS' RED GLARE
THE BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR ♪
♪ GAVE PROOF THROUGH THE NIGHT
THAT OUR FLAG WAS STILL THERE ♪
♪ O SAY DOES THAT STAR SPANGLED
BANNER YET WAVE ♪
♪ O'ER THE LAND OF FREE
AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE ♪♪

Writing lyrics takes a lot of practice and concentration. A captioner must not only listen to the
lyrics but be precise in the placement of the musical notes. He/She must also force a new
line to keep sentences short. Any steno stroke may be used. I use SKWRAO, which is
defined in Eclipse as {F} (Fixed paragraph) or <New Line> in BCS, which will force a new
line without punctuation. Some captioners just write and write with no musical notes, no
forcing of new lines, or randomly tossing notes in inconsistently. A good captioner will take
care to make his/her live-writing lyrics as neat and clean as the song files above.

A good rule is to place an open note before the first line, force a new line at a logical place,
place a closed musical note at the end of that line and repeat. It is also acceptable to
surround four lines, rather than two, with notes. In that case, place a musical note at the
beginning of the first line, force a new line, write the second line, force a new line, write a
third line, force a new line, write the fourth line, place a note at the end of that line.

If there is speaking within a song, it is acceptable to place the double chevron (>>) before
the spoken words to indicate the artist has switched from singing to speaking; however, an
exception would be rapping. Although sometimes rapping sounds like speaking, it is a form
of singing and should, therefore, be surrounded by musical notes.

In the middle of a song containing lyrics, oftentimes there will be an instrumental break. It is
not necessary to place a standalone musical note in at that point. Simply leave the last lines
of lyrics up for at least three seconds, then blank and wait for the next verse. However, if the
instrumental break is unusually long, 30 to 60 seconds, then a standalone musical note can

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be placed, if for no other reason than to signify to the deaf or hearing-impaired viewer that
the captions are still working.

A situation where a standalone musical note may be used is when there is no speaking and
there is music playing that contains no lyrics. In this case, simply place a standalone note on
the screen, let it hang for at least five seconds and then blank. Wait about three seconds,
and then send another standalone note; again let it hang for at least five seconds and then
blank. Repeat these steps for the duration of the instrumental song. If someone is speaking
and there is simply background music, it is not necessary to place musical notes, unless
there is a pause in the speaking creating a natural spot for the musical notes to appear.
In certain circumstances, if the instrumental-only song can be identified, a parenthetical
description may be used.

       [ “Taps” playing ] or
       [ The “Rocky” theme playing ]

Another acceptable captioning practice would be to write a parenthetical in the event a song
with lyrics can be identified but the captioner does not feel he/she can make out the words
well enough to caption the song with the best quality.

       [ Rap music playing ]
       [ Rapping ]
       [ “Shake Ya Tailfeather” playing ]

Along the same lines, another acceptable practice in the above situation is to simply write
standalone musical notes as described above, letting them hang, blanking, and repeating.
This is particularly useful if the captioner cannot identify the title of the song and/or make out
the lyrics and write them with the best quality. This practice, however, should not be used on
a regular basis. A captioner should always attempt to write lyrics whenever possible. That is
why it is so important for captioners to not only keep up with topical events but topical
entertainment events such as popular music and the like. If a captioner has at least heard of
“Shake Ya Tailfeather,” he/she has a much better chance of writing the lyrics. At least the
chorus of the song could be written.

Occasionally, when attempting to write lyrics, a captioner will begin a line and then not
understand the last word or two heard. It is best not to panic and not to spend too much time
on it or many lines after will be lost. An acceptable solution is to either write a word that
sounds like what was heard or a word that fits the context or to simply place an end musical
note and move on. Dashes may be used; however, it doesn’t always look very nice. Making
up lyrics out of the blue is not the best idea either. It’s definitely a judgment call.

Finally, if a captioner thinks he/she heard an obscenity in a song, he/she must be absolutely
positive that obscenity was aired before writing it. The best policy is “When in doubt, leave it
out.” Simply write [ Bleep ] (I use PWHR-P/PWHR-P).




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Scripting
Oftentimes captioners are provided with a script of a program. There are three options when
receiving a script:

       Convert script from Word or other program into captioning software and send file.
       Start realtime session in captioning software and create script file by writing
        provided script, edit new file and send.
       Prep from provided script and write program without sending script file.

Some scripts contain unneeded information to the captioner, such as stage direction and
such. In this case, it would be time-consuming to convert and edit the provided script and a
captioner may be better off either prepping from it or writing it into a new script file.

Other scripts may be perfect for converting and importing into a captioner’s software but may
arrive at the last minute, in which case prepping from it would be the best decision. The
most important thing to remember is if a script is provided and there is ample time to convert
it and import it or to write it and create a new script file, that is the ideal scenario. Sending a
script file that has been edited beforehand will almost always yield a cleaner or more
accurate product than writing a program live.

When editing a script to be imported into captioning software, the text must be changed to
uppercase, and a new line must be inserted after each period and question mark. Once
imported, it may be necessary to insert slug lines – a descriptive line at the top of each new
story, used by some software to locate that story quickly. Some captioning software have a
script manager feature, which manages multiple scripts for one program. Consult your
captioning software vendor for instructions on how to set up and send a script file.

A typical script file, copied, pasted, and edited from an email into a new transcript file:

        >> Mike: THE WORLD OF
        RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE
        AWFULLY CONFUSING TO
        NAVIGATE.
        MOST MEN AND WOMEN
        STRUGGLE DAILY WITH DATING
        DILEMMAS.
        DO I ASK HIM OUT?
        SHOULD I CALL HER TODAY OR
        TOMORROW?
        HOW CAN I BE BETTER IN THE
        BOUDOIR?
        BUT SOMETIMES WHEN YOU
        HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE
        OPPOSITE SEX, IT'S BEST TO
        GO DIRECTLY TO THE SOURCE.
        A PAIR OF WEB SITES ARE
        TRYING TO MAKE
        RELATIONSHIP WOES A LITTLE
        LESS WORRISOME.

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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

The most important thing to remember when sending a script file is to wait until the last word
of a line is spoken before sending the line. Oftentimes scripts are deviated from; many
people ad lib, and a captioner could end up sending words that were not spoken. It may be
necessary to write what is being said rather than send it from the script file in the event the
words spoken do not match the words in the script. This exercise is a unique skill and
should not be attempted without much practice. The end result should be seamless, and
there should not be long pauses between live realtime writing and script sending. Practice
going back and forth between writing and sending, moving the cursor from the line that is
being written to the next line that will be sent. If ever you become lost in the script, abandon
it and continue writing live realtime until such time that a search can be performed within the
script, perhaps at a commercial break. Once a captioner becomes skilled at writing and
scripting, editing text in the script on the fly can be incorporated as well, making small
corrections before sending a line.

If there are obscenities in a script, replace the obscenity with [ BLEEP ]. If you are unsure if
an obscenity is permissible or not permissible or if the program will bleep the obscenity,
insert a flag or comment (check with software vendor) before the line with the obscenity to
alert you that it is upcoming, and be prepared to write the line from your machine.




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               NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Blanking
Blanking simply means clearing the screen of captions.

In Eclipse AccuCAP, the definition is {BLANK}. I use the stroke STPHAO, but any stroke
can be used.
In Stenograph’s BCS, it is <Caption:Clear>.
In Cheetah Captivator, it is <BV>.

A general rule when blanking is to wait at least three seconds before doing so, or read the
lines that appear on the screen to make sure there is enough time for them to be read before
blanking. Some instances where blanking is appropriate (again, varies from company to
company):

      Graphics – if there are graphics on the screen which closely match what the speaker is
      saying, it is acceptable to blank rather than write what is being said. However, if the
      speaker is giving more information than appears on the screen, do not blank; rather,
      continue writing.
      If a phone number or address appears on the screen and your captions are covering
      up that information, use your judgment whether it is more distracting to continue writing
      or blanking.

      Open Captions – sometimes programs will put up open captions, meaning you do not
      have to have captions turned on on your TV to view them. Examples of these
      situations are a 911 call or other tape-recording that may be difficult to understand. If
      you haven’t begun writing the dialogue yet, you may wait three seconds, blank, and
      begin writing once the captions from the recording have been removed.

      Exception – however, if you are captioning an audio-only program, you should never
      blank because you cannot see the broadcast. There may be occasions where lottery
      numbers or other information is displayed on the screen where there is no
      accompanying description by a speaker. It is appropriate to blank in those
      circumstances.

      Pauses – if there is a lull in a program between applause, a pause between speakers,
      or a musical interlude, rather than let captions hang for too long, it is likewise
      appropriate to blank.

      Teases – on some shows, especially talk shows, there will be a tease for the segment
      coming up after the commercial. Sometimes, there will be a pause, some music, and a
      graphic saying “Next” or “Coming up.” This is a good place to blank.




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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
Enabling (Passthrough)
Enabling, or passthrough, is taking your captions offline and enabling other captions to come
online, such as commercials.

In Eclipse AccuCAP, I define STKPWHRAOEUFRPBLGTS as a macro {M:CC:RT Blank &
Pass}.
In Stenograph’s BCS, it is <Caption:Pass>.
In Cheetah Captivator, it is <PASS>.

It is very important to enable quickly when, A, going to commercial break and, B, a show has
ended. As a program goes into a commercial break, the commercial’s captions will pop on
immediately unless you have not enabled quickly enough. You would be, in effect, stepping
on their captions. Therefore, it is crucial that you enable BEFORE the program breaks. In
order to do this effectively, it is appropriate and permissible to blank after the speaker
completes a sentence or two before finishing. This will give you ample time to let your
captions hang for three seconds, blank and enable. If you caption the same program
regularly, you will learn the best time to do this.

       >> TIME IS MOVING QUICK.
       COMING UP, A TEENAGER SURVIVES AN ATTACK BY A GREAT WHITE SHARK
       OFF THE NEW JERSEY COAST.
       >> HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS LAUNCH THEIR SUMMER VACATION WITH A
       CATAPULTING CONTEST.
       THAT IS STRAIGHT AHEAD.

In this example, if I became aware this station tended to break immediately without any type
of music or pause after the last word, I would stop writing after NEW JERSEY COAST, let
my captions hang for three seconds, blank and enable, all while the second speaker is
saying the next two sentences. Of course, you can’t predict what the last sentence or two is
going to be; however, you can get a feel when a commercial break is coming. COMING UP
is a cue as well as music playing over the teases. It is preferred that we blank and enable
too soon rather than step on others’ captions.

In one of the newscasts I caption daily, the anchor always ends the program by saying, “AND
THAT IS THE NEWS TO THIS NOON HOUR. WE THANK YOU FOR JOINING US, AND
WE WILL SEE YOU TOMORROW.” My cue is “AND THAT IS THE NEWS TO THIS NOON
HOUR.” I automatically stop writing and get out in plenty of time.

Blocking
Blocking is the opposite of enabling, and as captioners we rarely have the need to manually
block captions. That is because when you begin writing on the steno machine, the first
stroke automatically blocks the encoder so no other captions can come through. However,
there are instances where you may need to hit a block command.

Some encoders are slower than others to kick in, so there is a bit of a delay when you first
begin writing. If you insert a block command as soon as the show starts or immediately upon
returning from a commercial, the captions will appear more quickly.
The macro for Block in Eclipse AccuCAP is {M:CC:Block}.
BCS: <Caption:Block> in Format Symbol Box.

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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

FLUSH (or FORCEOUT)
In captioning it is important to be able to force out your last strokes so that they will appear
on the TV screen without hanging in the buffer for too long. You can choose any stroke you
like, but a common stroke is *#, which is ASTERISK and NUMBER BAR. If you are writing at
a steady pace, it may not be necessary to force out; however if you reach the end of a
sentence, stroke a period, and must wait for the next sentence to begin, you must flush out
the pending strokes. Practice flushing often so that it becomes a regular part of your writing.

In Eclipse, define your flush stroke as {FLUSH}

In BCS <Caption:Flush>

In DigitalCAT, Dump Stroke

FLUSH DELAY & FLUSH WORD DELAY
There is much confusion around Flush Delay and Flush Word Delay. The Flush Delay is
related to the amount of time the translator will wait between one stroke and the next stroke
written in the event the first stroke is used in multiple dictionary entries. For example, if you
write ED, which is defined as Ed and you have Edward and Edmond in your dictionary, the
system will wait to determine if the next stroke is WARD or PHOPBD. If it is, it will translate
EDWARD or EDMOND; if it isn’t a stroke that makes up another complete word that begins
with ED, it will translate as ED. If you set your Flush Delay to 30,000, which is what I
recommend, and stop writing and do not flush after ED, then ED will appear 30,000
milliseconds later. The Flush Delay is irrelevant if you are writing continuously. It is only
when the speaker pauses and thus the captioner pauses that it becomes important.

The Flush Word Delay only affects the output. It holds a stroke or strokes in the buffer
allowing the captioner to make a correction before the words are sent to the encoder.
Stroking the Flush or Forceout command will override the Flush Delay and/or Flush Word
Delay settings immediately.




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CREDITS and FUNDS
Credits are popped on or rolled up usually at the end of a program displaying the captioning
company that provided the closed captioning.


                              CAPTIONING BY CAPTIONMAX
                                 www.captionmax.com


Funds are popped on or rolled up either at the beginning or end of a program displaying who
paid for the closed captioning.


                                      [ CAPTIONS PAID FOR
                                          BY ESPN ]


Credits and Funds can be created in a transcript file and sent from keyboard or machine
macros.

SUSPEND CAPTIONS

Suspend captions is a feature that allows the captioner to make dictionary entries during
commercials or prior to a show beginning without the strokes going out over the air.
In Eclipse, the macros are {CC:RT Suspend on} and {CC:RT Suspend off} and
{M:CC:RT Suspend toggle}.




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CLOSED CAPTIONING RESOURCES




                COMPILED BY:
    JENNIFER M. BONFILIO, CRR, RMR, CBC

                 www.njcaptions.com




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                 NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
This list is in no way meant to be complete or all-inclusive.

WEBSITES
www.google.com (my favorite search engine!)
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/broadcastcaptioners/
www.ncraonline.org
www.captions.org/jobs.cfm
www.reportercentral.com
www.crrbooks.com
www.robson.org//gary/captioning/index.html
www.redlodgebooks.com
www.captionreporters.com
http://www.broadcastboxes.com/index-2.html

BOOKS, PUBLICATIONS, TAPES and CD-ROMs
Realtime Broadcast Captioning: Recommended Style and Format Guidelines For U.S.
Programming
        By NCRA Captioning Community of Interest
Available from NCRA at www.ncraonline.org or
http://www.njcaptions.com/training.html#bookmark3

Realtime Captioning...The Vitac Way
       By Amy Bowlen and Kathy DiLorenzo
       The authoritative guide to realtime broadcast captioning.
Available from NCRA at www.ncraonline.org or phone
800-272-NCRA ($65.95)

Realtime Writing--The Court Reporter's Guide to Mastering Realtime Skills
        By The National Captioning Institute
       Covers realtime theory and the basics of conflict-free writing, avoiding word-boundary
       errors, specific rules for prefixes, suffixes, and punctuation, how to adapt your skills
       for realtime and captioning, includes accompanying practice drills on audio-cassette.
Available from NCRA at www.ncraonline.org or phone
800-272-NCRA (member price $29.95)

Writing Naked: Principles of Writing for Realtime & Captioning
        By Kevin and Mary Daniel
This book ensures your transition from court reporter to realtime writer or captioner is a
smooth one. Tried-and-true principles for resolving conflicts in your writing.
Available from NCRA at www.ncraonline.org or phone
800-272-NCRA (member price $26.95)


Inside Captioning
        By Gary Robson
Describes the history and theory of captioning, the technologies, the laws, and the people.
Available on website www.redlodgebooks.com



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                NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

The Closed Captioning Handbook
        By Gary Robson
The latest book by the Captioning Guru and a Testament to what has happened and evolved
in captioning, a must-have for any captioner.
Available on website www.redlodgebooks.com or
Red Lodge Books, 13 South Broadway, Red Lodge MT 59068, 406-446-2742
orders@redlodgebooks.com or NCRA www.ncraonline.org or phone 800-272-NCRA
(member price $39.95)

Alternative Realtime Careers
        By Gary Robson
       Everything a court reporter needs to know about branching out into captioning and
       CART, from technical to marketing, includes a realtime and captioning historical
       timeline, a lengthy glossary, and a thorough index.
Available on website www.redlodgebooks.com or www.ncraonline.org or phone 800-272-
NCRA (member price $33.95)

Various Articles on Captioning
       By Gary Robson
Available on website www.robson.org//gary/captioning/index.html

The Sampler
       By Monette Benoit
       A variety of five handbooks for reporters and captioners: ADA, politics, court, weather,
       electronics, technology, religious vocabulary, sports, and more.
Available on website www.crrbooks.com

CRRBooks’ Professional Advanced Drills CD-ROMs Volumes I-V
        By Monette Benoit and Robert McCormick
       Volume I: Sports, Olympics, Paralympics, NCAA Division Colleges, Sports Medicine,
       Drug Testing, Technology, Security, Terrorism Handbook.
       Volume II: ADA, Civil Rights, Business, Insurance, Real Estate, Agribusiness,
       Convention Handbook.
       Volume III: Politics, Elections, Government, Foreign Affairs, IRS, Military, Criminal,
       Judicial, Sociological, Media Handbook.
       Volume IV: Environment, Weather, Sciences, Pollutants, Gemology, Botanical,
       Taxonomy, Chemistry, Mathematics, Electronics, Physics, Astronomy, Space, World
       Geography, Geology, Languages Handbook.
       Volume V: Universal Religions, Places, Names, Categories, Adherents and
       Denominations, Non-Christian Philosophies and Religions, New Age Terminology,
       Native American Terms, Theological Literature, Church History Handbook.
Available on website www.crrbooks.com




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               NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
CATapult
       Dictionary Building Software
       Court Reporter Reference Books & CDs
Available on website www.crrbooks.com
or phone 888-WKT-CRRB (prices vary)

Dictionary Jumpstart
       Anissa R. Nierenberger
       Dictionary Building Software
Available at www.dictionaryjumpstart.com
or phone 888-648-JUMP (5867) (prices vary)

The Caption Accelerator, Volume 1
       CD includes 60 individual news story practice segments at 10 speed levels from 130
       wpm. Also name, sound-alike, and word boundary drills
Available at www.stenographu.com
or phone 800-228-2339 ext. 7400
(Professional Version $119.95; Student Version $99.95)




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CAPTIONING COMPANIES

AmeriCaption, Inc.                             Caption First
      P.O. Box 50653                                P.O. Box 1924
      Sarasota, FL 34232                            Lombard, IL 60148
      1-941-359-8100                                800-825-5234
www.AmeriCaption.com                           www.captionfirst.com

Australian Caption Centre                      The Captioning Company, Inc.
       Level 4, 187 Thomas Street                      95-1249 Maheula Parkway
       Haymarket NSW 2000                              Unit G-5
       Tel: + 61 2 9212 5277                           Mililani, HI 96789
www.captiondownunder.com                               808-632-1174
                                               http://www.thecaptioncompany.com/
Broadcast Captioning & Consulting
Services                                       The Captioning Group
       37 Glenbrae Avenue                            11149 Acama Street
       Toronto, Ontario                              Studio City, CA 91602
       Canada M4G 3R4                                or 215 - 10th Avenue S.W.,
       416-696-1534                                  Suite 205
www.closedcaptioning.com                             Calgary, AB T2R 0A4
                                                     1-800-717-9707
Broadcast Consulting Services, Inc.            www.captioning.com
       5740 Foremost Drive, S.E.
       Grand Rapids, MI 49546                  CaptionIt!
       616-974-0811                                   1960 Old Government St.
http://www.netcapinc.com/                             Mobile, AL36606
                                                      251-476-6327
Caption Advantage                              http://www.caption-it.com
      4440 Ashfield Terrace
      Syracuse, NY 13215-2463                  Caption King
      877-227-2382                                  1306 Second Street
www.captionadvantage.com                            Nevada, Iowa 50201
                                                    877-733-6672
Caption Center                                 www.captionking.com
      Media Access Group at WGBH
      125 Western Avenue                       CaptionMax
      Boston, MA 02134                              2438 27th Avenue South
      617-300-3600                                  Minneapolis, MN 55406
http://main.wgbh.org/wgbh/access/access.html        800-822-3566
                                                    www.captionmax.com
Caption Colorado
      475 17th Street – Suite 450              Caption Perfect
      Denver, CO 80202                         captioning@aol.com
      800-494-1431
www.captioncolorado.com




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               NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

Caption Reporters, Inc.                  Line 21 Captioning Services, LLC
     700 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 302          126 Hummingbird Lane
     Alexandria, VA 22314                      Voorhees, NJ 08043
     703-683-2300                              215-840-9309
www.captionreporters.com                 highrobert@aol.com

Caption Technologies                     Media Captioning Services, Inc.
     348 Ascot Ridge Lane                     2141 Palomar Airport Rd. #330
     Greer, SC 29650                          Carlsbad, CA 92009
     800-676-0211                             760-431-2882
www.captiontechnologies.com              www.mediacaptioning.com

Carolinas Captioning                     National Capitol Captioning
     3635 Stokes Avenue                       2820 Washington Blvd. #2
     Suite B                                  Arlington, VA 22201
     Charlotte, North Carolina 28210          800-651-1721
     704.552.6753                        www.capitolcaptioning.com
www.carolinas-captioning.com
                                         National Captioning Institute
Closed Captioning Services                    1900 Gallows Road – Suite 3000
     3600 29th Street, S.E.                   Vienna, VA 22182
     Kentwood, MI 49512                       703-917-7600
     616-940-9444                        www.ncicap.org
www.ccscaption.com
                                         Network Captioning Services, Inc.
CompuScripts                                     5740 Foremost Drive, S.E.
    1825 Gadsden Street                          Grand Rapids, MI 49546
    Columbia, SC 29201                           616-974-0811
    803-988-8438                         http://www.netcapinc.com/
www.compuscriptsinc.com
                                         Paradigm Reporting & Captioning, Inc.
Karasch & Associates                           1400 Rand Tower
     720 East Market Street                    527 Marquette Avenue South
     Suite 115                                 Minneapolis, MN 55402-1331
     West Chester, PA 19382                    800-545-9668
     800-621-5689                        www.paradigmreporting.com
www.karasch.com
                                         Rapid Text, Inc.
LNS Captioning                                1801 Dove Street, Suite 101
     1123 SW Yamhill Street                   Newport Beach, CA 92660
     Portland, OR 97205                       949-399-9200
     800-366-6201                        www.rapidtext.com
www.lnscourtreporting.com
                                         Riverside Captioning Company
                                              621 Second Street
                                              Hudson, Wisconsin 54016
                                              715-386-0799
                                         www.closed-captioning.com

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              NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual

Spanish Captioning International, Inc.   U.S. Captioning
        5740 Foremost Drive, S.E.              2079B Lawrence Drive
        Grand Rapids, MI 49546                 De Pere, WI 54115
        616-974-0811                           920-338-9201
http://www.netcapinc.com/                uscapt@netnet.net

Talking Type Captions                    Visual Audio Captioning
      10812 St. Paul Street,                  Fairfax, VA
      Kensington, MD 20895                    703-278-9110
      301-933-1900                       www.visualaudiocaptioning.com
www.talkingtypecaptions.com
                                         VITAC Corp.
                                              101 Hillpointe Drive
                                              Canonsburg, PA 15317
                                              800-27-VITAC
                                         www.vitac.com




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            NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
CAPTIONING SOFTWARE COMPANIES

Advantage Software (Eclipse AccuCap)
      925 Central Parkway
      Stuart, FL 34994
      800-800-1759
      www.accucap.com

Cheetah International (Captivator)
     1500 West El Camino Avenue #476
     Sacramento, CA 95833-1945
     866-302-2287
     www.caption.com

ProCAT (CaptiVision)
     5126 Clareton Drive, Suite 260
     Agoura Hills, CA 91301
     800-966-1221
     www.procat.com
     www.ecaption.com

Rapid Text, Inc. (Rapid Caption)
      1801 Dove Street, Suite 101
      Newport Beach, CA 92660
      949-399-9200
      www.rapidtext.com

Stenograph, L.L.C. (BCS)
     1500 Bishop Court
     Mount Prospect, IL 60056
     800-323-4247
     www.stenograph.com

Stenovations (DigitalCAT)
     606 Virginia St East
     Suite 500
     Charleston, WV 25301
     304-346-8363
     www.stenovations.com




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             NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
CAPTIONING TRAINING

     NJCaptions
     Jennifer M. Bonfilio, CMR-CBC-CPC
          Series of teletraining seminars and one-on-one follow-up training
          CEUs approved by NCRA & NJ
     418 Rowan Avenue
     Hamilton Twp., NJ 08610
     609-392-7329
     www.njcaptions.com or captions@optonline.net

     Realtime Fitness Online
         Series of online captioning seminars
     www.realtimefitnessonline.com

     EduCaption, Inc. – Caption Masters Training
     Judy Brentano, RPR, FAPR
     Heidi Thomas, RPR, RMR, CRR
     Lori Wanbaugh, RPR, CRR
           CEUs approved by NCRA
     770-952-4019
     www.educaption.net

     Duncan Captioning Services – Erin K. Duncan, RPR, CSR
           One- or two-day seminars, various cities
           CEUs approved by NCRA
     2275 Lake Whatcom Blvd.
     PMB 179
     Bellingham, WA 98229
     866-4CConTV
     www.captioningseminars.org
     DuncanCaptioning@hotmail.com

     Stark State College & VITAC Boot Camp
     Three-Day Training Program
           CEUs approved by NCRA
     330-966-5453 Ext. 4358
     www.reportercentral.com




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            NJCaptions Broadcast Captioning Training Manual
ONLINE AND TELEPHONE EDUCATION

     NCRA Teletraining & E-Seminars
     800-272-6272
     www.NCRAonline.org
           17 Captioning E-Seminars scheduled at the current time
           http://www.legalspan.com/ncra/category.asp?CatalogID=&CategoryID=200109
           28110254122638&UGUID=
           Earn 1.6-3.0 CEUs per completed seminar

     Stenograph University Online
     1500 Bishop Court
     Mount Prospect, IL 60056
     800-323-4247 x4700
     www.stenographu.com
         Three Captioning courses to choose from
         Earn 1.6-3.0 CEUs per completed course




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