Nicholas Hayman_ late of Christiana Bridge_ left the country and is .doc

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					Newspaper Records Relating to Christiana

On the 30th of this Instant March will be exposed to sale by Publick Vendue, at the House
of Agnes Shanan, Administratrix of the Estate of Jeremiah Shannon, late of New Castle
County, deceased, a certain tract of Land belonging to the said Estate, situated on White
Clay Creek, near Samuel Johnson’s Mill, and bounding on James Heritage, Esq.; and the
Rev. Mr. George Gatasby, The Tract contains Two hundred and fifty Acres, or
thereabout, well water’d and Timber’d, fifty acres of it clear, and within Five Miles of
convenient Landing; there is two Settlements thereon, a good Orchard, and many other
Conveniency. Enquire of the above named Agnes Shannon, at her house near Christiana
Bridge, and know further (Pennsylvania Gazette, 13 Mar 1730).

New-Castle, March 9, 1729-30
SIR,
I Send you a Copy of the dying Speech of William Kelsey, who was executed on
Saturday last for Burglary and burning the Goal of this County; he would not suffer any
Person to write it for him, but penned it himself. I cannot easily conceive how any Man
could die with a greater Presence of Mind, than this unfortunate Fellow.
I am, Sir, Yours, &c.
COPY of William Kelsey's Speech and Dying Words.
I Hope this will be an Example to all that behold me this Day, and that they will refrain
all evil Ways: for I confess to God and this Congregation, that I have been a great Sinner,
but especially these four or five Years past. The Sin which I was first guilty of was the
BREAKING THE LORD'S-DAY in many Ways, and that led me into other grievous
Sins: Then Secondly, disobeying My Mother, who have me many good Counsels, but I
refused to take them; for my Father died when I was a Child. Thirdly, The first Sin I was
guilty of in Stealing, was one Shilling one Penny in Silver, which I stole from my
Brother, and that led me into another of the same kind: for I went and broke a Man's
Barn, and stole a Sack out of the same, and went and sold it to a Man, and it being found
with him, he was taken by a Warrant and put into Prison and tried for his Life, which is a
great Trouble to me, but he was cleared by the Law, having a Man who [ ] I sold him the
Sack; Then I was taken for the same Fact, and was committed to Prison, and was found
guilty of the same, and was to be whipped for that Crime, but chose to be transported to
this Country than to suffer that Punishment; and being Servant with one Edward Mayne
in Kent County, stole from him [ ] Hat and pair of Gloves, and ran away from him ....a
Suit of Clothes from one William Melliner...I came to John Garretson's at
Christiana...was committed to this Prison of New Castle...went and put Fire in the
dormant Window in the upper Part, the which wicked Crime...may take Warning by me,
and that they may not be guilty of breaking the LORD's DAY or blaspheming his HOLY
NAME, which I was so much guilty of, and that they may not disobey their Parents, nor
keep bad Company, or frequent Taverns. I declare, now as I am a dying Man, William
Scott, whom I said was with me a breaking John Garretson's House, was not, nor any
other Person.
William Kelsey. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 13 Mar 1730)
ON the 30th of this Instant March will be exposed to Sale by Publick Vendue, at the
House of Agnes Shanan, Administratrix of the Estate of Jeremiah Shannon, late of New
Castle County, deceased, a certain Tract of Land belonging to the said Estate, situated on
White Clay Creek, near Samuel Johnson's Mill, and bounding on James Hermitage, Esq;
and the Rev. Mr. George Gatasby. The Tract contains Two hundred and fifty Acres, or
thereabouts, well water'd and Timber'd, fifty Acres of it clear, and within Five Miles of
convenient Landing; there is two Settlements thereon, a good Orchard, and many other
Conveniency. Enquire of the above named Agnes Shannon, at her House near Christiana
Bridge, and know further. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 13 Mar 1730)

STOLEN or Stray’d from Rees Jones, of Christiana Bridge, a mouse color’d Mare,
branded on the off Shoulder with the Letters ORA or OAR bald fac’d, her off hind Foot
white, she had with her a Mare Colt, about a Year old, of greyish color, and bald fac’d.
Whoever takes up the said Mare and Colt, and gives Notice to Rees Jones of Uchlan in
Chester County, or to Thomas Edwards, Esq., in Lancaster, or to the Subscriber hereof,
shall have Twenty Shillings Reward paid by Rees Jones, Surgeon, Christiana Bridge,
March 4, 1737/8. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 30 Mar 1738).


STOLEN or Stray'd away from Rees Jones, of Christiana Bridge a mouse colour'd Mare,
branded on the off Shoulder with the Letters ORA or OAR bald fac'd, her off hind Foot
white, she had with her a Mare Colt, about a Year old, of greyish Colour, and bald fac'd.
Whoever takes up the said Mare and Colt, and gives Notice to Rees Jones of Uchland in
Chester County, or to Thomas Edwards, Esq; in Lancaster, or to the Subscriber hereof,
shall have Twenty Shillings Reward paid by Rees Jones, Surgeon. Christiana Bridge,
March 4, 1737,8. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 30 Mar 1738).


RUN away on the 28th inst. from the Subscriber hereof at Christiana Bridge, a Servant
Man named James Downing, an Irish Man, he is short of Stature, black Complexion,
broad Shoulders, bandy Legs, hooper arsed, walks as if he was Hip shot: Had on when he
went away, a good Felt Hat, white quilted Cap, an old drab colour'd Broad Cloth Coat
full trimm'd with open Sleeved, and no Pockets, an old reddish colour'd Waistcoat
without Sleeves, old coarse Kersey Breeches, two pair of bluish Stockings, good Shoes
and Buckles, he formerly was a Servant to Joseph Thomas of Pencader Hundred in New
Castle County, afterwards went to Ireland, and came back again last Fall a Servant with
Mr. James Johnson; he knows all Parts of the Country and is an abominable Lyar.
Whoever takes up the said Runaway and brings him to his Master, or secures him so that
he may be had again, shall have Twenty Shillings Reward and reasonable Charges paid
by John Read. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 6 Apr 1738).


RUN away on the 6th Inst. from the Subscriber at Christiana Bridge, an English Servant
Man named Abraham Lay, a lusty well set Man, aged about 30 Years, his Hair cut off.
Had on when he went, a coarse light grey double breasted Pea Jacket and Breeches with
white metal Buttons, old Felt Hat, speckled or homespun Shirt, yarn Stockings, and old
Shoes. Has lately been a fighting and is very much bruised in the Face. Whoever takes up
and secures the said Servant in any Goal so that his Master may have him again, shall
have Forty Shillings Reward, and reasonable Charges paid by Lewis Howell.
N.B. He pretends to be a Carpenter by Trade, and is very talkative about all Affairs.
(Pennsylvania Gazette, 12 Apr 1739)


On the 10th Inst, as MORTON JUSTICE, jun. a young Man near CHRISTIANA, in
NEW-CASTLE, was sitting in his Father's House, and several Children with him, a
Thunder Clap shatter'd the Chimney from top to bottom, and kill'd him: It also kill'd a
Dog, that lay under a Child's Seat, about six Foot distant from the said young Man, and
hurt the Child but very little.
On the 13th Inst. a Servant, that lately came from London, endeavouring to come ashore
from a Vessel, fell into the River, and was drowned.
And on the 14th in the Evening, one HENRY MADDOCK, fell off one of the Wharves
into the River, and was drowned. 'Tis supposed that a Rope which was fix'd from the
Wharff to a Vessel, in his Way, occasion'd his Fall. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 17 May
1739).


Stray'd away from John Read, of Christiana Bridge, two bay Mares, one a dark bay, 8
Years old, branded on the near Buttock thus M a Star in her Forehead, a Swallow Fork in
her off Ear, about 13 Hands high, had on a good Bell marked IR. The other a bright bay,
5 Years old, branded K C on her off Buttock but very blind, about 13 Hands high, and
has a flesh Mark on her off Ham. Also a small black Horse, 4 Years old, branded on the
near Shoulder I O and on the near Buttock G C. Likewise a middle siz'd dark grey Horse,
with a small Bell on. Whoever takes up the said Creatures and brings them to the
Subscriber, shall have Forty Shillings Reward, or Ten Shillings for each, and reasonable
Charges paid by John Read. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 25 Oct 1739).

The Rev. Mr. WHITEFIELD having given me Copies of his Journals and Sermons, with
Leave to print the same; I propose to publish them with all Expedition, if I find sufficient
Encouragement. The Sermons will make two Volumes in twelves, on the same Character
with this Advertisement, and the Journals two more, which shall be delivered to
Subscribers at 2s. each Volume, bound. Those therefore who are enclined to encourage
this Work, are desired speedily to sind in their Names to me, that I may take Measures
accordingly.
B. FRANKLIN
Note, There will be 24 Sermons in the two Volumes so that the Price of each Sermon will
not exceed 2 d. with the Binding. Subscriptions are also taken in by Mr. Awbray Bevan at
Chester, Mr. Curtis at New Castle, Mr. John Read at Christiana Bridge, Mr. Jonas Green
at Annapolis, Mr. William Parks at Williamsburgh, Mr. Andrew Reed at Trenton, and
Mr. John Croker at New York. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 13 Dec 1739)


STRAYED away from the Subscriber hereof, the 7th of Octob. last, Two Bay Mares, One
a dark Bay, about 9 Years old this Spring, with a small Star in her Forehead, with a small
Crop in her Off Ear, branded on the Near Buttock thus M. The other a light Bay, 6 Years
old this Spring, with a long Main and Tail, with a flesh Mark above her Off Ham,
branded with K C on the Off Buttock, but hard to be seen, a small White on her Off Fore
foot on the Heel. Whosoever takes up the said Mares, and brings them to John Read, at
Christiana Bridge, in Newcastle County, shall have Forty Shillings Reward, and
reasonable Charges, paid by John Read. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 6 Mar 1840)

TO BE LET, A large commodious House, late in the Occupation of Abel Armstrong,
which has been for many Years a well accustomed Tavern, being well situates for that
Business; likewise a large new dwelling House fit for a Storekeeper, or other Business;
both at Christiana Bridge. Enquire of Dr. Jones at the same place. (Pennsylvania Gazette,
4 Jun 1741)


THERE is large convenient dwelling House and Lot, containing 11 Acres of Ground, a
part of which is a large young Orchard, together with Kitchin, Garden, Well and Stable
very fit for either Tavern of Country Store, to be let at Christiana Bridge. Enquire of
Francis James on Part of the Premises, or Isaac Janvier, Joyner, in New Castle, and hear
the Terms. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 2 July 1741)


To be Sold by PUBLICK VENDUE, To the Highest Bidder, for ready Money, or a years
Credit, upon giving Security, on Thursday the 10th Day of September next, at Christiana-
Bridge, in New Castle County, upon Delaware: A tract of Land in the said County of
New-Castle, containing 201 Acres, and 126 Perches of Land, with the Buildings, Forge
and Appurtenances. late of the Estate of Samuel James, together with an eighth part of
the Furnace and the Land thereto belonging (commonly called or known by the Name of
Samuel James's Arbitinton Iron Works) July 15. 1741. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 16 Jul
1741).

WHEREAS an Advertisement has been publish'd in the American Weekly Mercury the
13th of August, and some others, and also in the Gazette, that a Tract of Land late the
Estate of Samuel James, together with an Eighth Part of the Furnace and Land thereto
belonging (commonly call'd or known by the Name of Samuel James's or Arbitinton Iron
Works) is to be Sold on Thursday the 10th of September next at Christiana Bridge, in
New Castle County, upon Delaware. This is to give Notice, that the Owners of said iron
Works, do not allow the said Samuel James to have any right to any Part of the said
Furnace, nor any Land thereto belonging. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 3 Sep 1741).

WHEREAS it has been the Practice of may Persons, for some years past, feloniously to
break and take away off the Land of Joseph Carter, in Ridley Township, Chester County,
and Province o Pennsylvania, the Stones (commonly known by the Name of Crum Creek
Scyth Stones:) These are therefore to give publick Notice, that if any Person or Persons
shall presume to take or carry away any of the said Stones off the Land aforesaid; they
shall be prosecuted according to Law, as in the Cases of Trespass. And these are to give
further Notice, that Persons may be supplied with said Stones, which are reckoned the
best ever found out for whetting Scythes, by any of the following Persons, to wit, John
Biddle, and Thomas Peters, in Philadelphia, and Province of Pennsylvania; Simon Battin,
in Trenton, West New Jersey; Hugh McGarrah, in Wilmington, and John Read, at
Christiana, in the County of New Castle. (Pennsylvania Gazette, 3 Jun 1742)


RUN away from the Owners of the Iron Works, near Burdenstown, an Irish Servant Lad
named John Roath, about 20 Years of Age; he was used to the Sadler's Trade: Had on
when he went away, a brown drugget Coat, a blue knap Jacket, with red Lining, and brass
Buttons; also a white corded dimithy Jacket, short brown curled Hair, ozenbrigs Shirt and
Trowsers, a pair of white thread Stockings, and old Shoes; he went away with one Daniel
Norris, a lusty, tall, well set Fellow, very hard favoured, and thick legs: Had on, a blue
camlet Coat, with slash Sleeves, a pair of blue camlet Breeches, a blue Jocky Coat, Shoes
and Boots; rides a sorrel Mare, about 13 Hands high, & paces pretty swift, with a hunting
Saddle, partly new, with plush Seat and Housen. Whoever takes up and secures the above
Servant Lad, giving Notice to Joseph Peace, or Andrew Read, at Trenton, or Francis
Bowes, at Christiana Bridge, shall have Two Pounds Reward, paid by Andrew Read,
Joseph Peace. Burdenstown, Aug. 27. 1743. (Pennsylvania Gazette,1 Sep 1743).


Just Imported from LONDON, And to be SOLD by the Rev. Jones, Rev. Mr. Tennent,
Mr. Samuel Hazzard, Merchant, in Philadelphia, by the Rev. Mr. David Davis, at the
Welch Tract and by Doctor Reece Jones, at Christiana Bridge, at Prime Cost. A
DISCOURSE concerning the New Birth, to which are added 64 Hymns on several
Subjects. A Discourse on Justification, to which are added three Poems. A Discourse on
Walking with God, together with some Thoughts on Joseph's Blessing, to which are
added some brief Hints on fatherly Chastisements. Letters on spiritual Subjects, to
Friends and Relations; all four neatly bound. Likewise the Eight following Tracts, not
bound, viz. Letters sent to an honourable Gentleman, for Encouragement of Faith. Letters
to the Rev. Mr. John Wesley, against Perfection. A Second ditto, in Vindication of the
Doctrine of Grace, A Letter to all Saints, on the general Duty of Love. A Letter to the
Negroes lately converted in America. The Hurt Sin doth to Believers. Meditations and
Observations on the eleventh and twelfth Verses of the sixth Song of Solomon. A brief
Account of the gracious Dealings of God with the Author. With many other Discourses
on useful Subjects. (Pennsylvania Gazette,3 Nov 1743).


To be LET, A GOOD large well accustomed INN, at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle
County, to which belongeth Twenty Acres of good Pasture well fenced, with Orchard,
and other Conveniences, more or less, as may be approved of. The Place is very fit for
such Publick Business. Enquire of Doctor Reese Jones at the said Bridge. (Pennsylvania
Gazette, 31 May 1744).

Nicholas Hayman, late of Christiana Bridge, left the country and is reported dead. Sons:
John, Giles, Nicholas and Peter (Pennsylvania Gazette, 30 Jul 1752).


Philadelphia, July 20, 1752.
Notice us hereby given, that John Hayman, Giles Hayman, and Nicholas Hayman, sons
of Nicholas Hayman, late of Christiana Bridge, in the county of Newcastle, on Delaware,
who some years ago departed out of the sand county, and have since been reported to be
dead; that if said report be false, and that the said John, Giles, and Nicholas Hayman, or
either of them, be yet living, or if dead their representatives, and all and every person or
persons, having, or presuming to have, any right to a certain estate left to the aforesaid
John, Giles, and Nicholas Hayman, jointly with a certain Peter Hayman (brother to the
aforesaid John, Giles, and Nicholas) by the testament and last will of John Hayman, of
the city of Amsterdam deceased, that they appear on or before the first day of February
next, in the said city of Amsterdam, before the High Sheriff, Aldermen, and Justices of
said city of Amsterdam, and prosecute their claim to said estate, on pain of an eternal
silence. (Pennsylvania Gazette,30 Jul 1752).


Philadelphia, June 21, 1753.
RUN away from Thomas Ogle, of New Castle county, near Christiana bridge, two men,
one, named John Connor, aged about 25 years, of a middle stature, and well set, has short
black hair, and has lost one of his toes; and, on one of his arms, has letters set in with gun
powder: The other, named Thomas Johnston, aged about 20 years, of a middle stature,
well set, and wears a cap, took his wife, a little boy, about 4 or 5 years of age, with him;
also a small black horse, with some grey hairs, and white about his face: Said men stole
from Thomas Ogle a beaver hat, little worn, and sundry other goods. Whoever takes up
and secures said men, so as they may be brought to justice, shall have Thirty Shillings
reward, and reasonable charges, for each, paid by THOMAS OGLE. (Pennsylvania
Gazette,21 Jun 1753).


TO be sold by GEORGE ADAMS, at Christiana bridge, A new pair of French burr mill
stones, imported in the ship Myrtilla, Capt. Budden, from London.
N.B. The purchaser may have them delivered in Philadelphia
without any trouble or expence, if required. (Pennsylvania Gazette,23 Aug 1753).
New Castle, April 16, 1754
ON Tuesday, the 7th day of May next, will be exposed to sale, at publick vendue, a
plantation or tract of land in New Castle hundred, containing about 200 acres. Also a tract
of land at the Iron Hills, in Peneader hundred, containing about 300 acres; and also a
house and lot of ground at Christiana Bridge, being the real estate of the Rev. Timothy
Griffith, late of this county, deceased. Attendance will a given on the premises by Mrs.
Sarah Griffith, Administratrix of said estate. The vendue to begin at the plantation in New
Castle hundred, by order of a orphans court. Richard McWilliam, Clerk of the Orphans
Court.
N.B. On said day will be sold, Very good feather beds and bed clothes, chest of drawers,
and several other goods, fitting for husbandry. (Pennsylvania Gazette,25 Apr 1754).
January 7, 1755
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL persons indebted to the estate of doctor Reese Jones, deceased, late of Christiana
bridge, in the county of New Castle, are desired to make speedy payment: And those that
have any demands against said estate, are desired to bring them in, in order to be settled
by Evan Morgan, and wife, and John Watson, administrat.


May 13, 1756
The Pennsylvania Gazette
In the Press, and will be published next Week, at the New Printing Office, in Market
street, Philadelphia, A SERMON, Explaining the DUTIES of CHRISTIAN SUBJECTS
to their SOVEREIGN; preached in Christiana Church, in New Castle County, and
Christiana Hundred, upon Delaware, on the Twenty fourth Sunday after Trinity, in the
Year 1755. By the Reverend Mr. ISRAEL ACRELIUS, M.A.

April 7, 1757
The Pennsylvania Gazette
RUN away from the subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle County, on
Delaware, an Irish Servant Girl, named Honor Bryant, of a short Stature, black Hair,
down Look, speaks much with the Brogue, has remarkable large Breasts, aged about 20
Years: Had on when she went away, a Calicoe Gown, and a Linsey Petticoat, but it is
thought she will change both her Name and Apparel. She was taken up at Wilmington,
and rescued from the Constable by the Grenadiers of Capt. PorterCompany, belonging to
the third Battalion of the Royal Americans, and put on board a Shallop for Trenton, and
there concealed and protected by Lieutenant Willington, of said Company, contrary to
law, and the Perswasions of the Burgess then present, and against an Order from Major
Provost, and supposed she is still in said Company, in keeping of said Willington.
Whoever takes up and secures said servant, so that her Master may have her again, shall
have Forty Shillings Reward, and reasonable Charges paid by JOHN McCARTY.

August 9, 1759
The Pennsylvania Gazette
LIST of LETTERS remaining in the Post Office, in Philadelphia…. William
Cunningham, John Ceary, John Connelly, Hugh Camble, Mrs. Coel, John Cox. Thomas
Campbell, Joseph Chew, Clayton Congill, Henry Cameur, Robert Caldwell, Mary
Claminsin, Bridget Cox, William and Samuel Correy, William Colbert, Hugh Campble,
Hugh Campbell, Edward Campbell, William Cunningham, Jacob Cooper, Charles
Carson, Anthony Carye, Nathaniel Chapman, James Carter, Connor Curtin, Elizabeth
Connor, alias Palmer, James Craige, Sarah Wister [sic], John Cuthbertson, Mr. Craige,
Jacob Cansell, George Cunningham, Samuel Crossan, Elizabeth Caurcock. Ann Clayton,
John Champe, Capt. Clark, Jane Cardie, John Collins, Patrick Clacktage, and Jonathan
Cochrane, all in Philadelphia. William Creath, Christopher Cooper, Cornelius Carty,
Martha Cannan, and John Clark, in New Castle County; Mary Clapham, Bordentown;
John Cary, Nicholas Cruse, Mary Creely, and Samuel Cary, in Germantown; Elizabeth
Cooper, Duck Creek; Margaret Cale, Lewistown; Moses Coats, William Clingan,
Andrew Crawford, Benjamin Cox, Theophilus Canby, Robert Campbell, Gabriel Clark
and Adam Clyton, in Chester County; Cornelius Collings, Christiana; Alexander
Campbell and James Campbell, in Foggs Manor; Hugh Creighton, Haddonfield, William
Crow, Octorara; Joseph Chambers, Salem County; Rosse Cathe, New London;
Archibald Caird, Forks of Delaware; John Craige, Cecil County; George Clark,
Yorktown; Collin Campbell, Burlington; Susanna Chapman, Makefield; Robert Clinch,
and James Cunningham, in Lancaster County; Joseph Clark, Pequea; Roger Cannon,
Frankfort; John Cannon, Cumberland County; Joseph Chambers, and John Cayton, in
Kent County; John Clayton, Dover, David Clarke, New Castle County.


December 6, 1759
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL Persons indebted to Thomas Montgomery, near Christiana Bridge, on Mortgage,
Bonds, Notes, or Book Debts, are hereby desired to pay the same, as he intends to move,
with his Family, in the Spring, to Philadelphia. Said Thomas Montgomery has imported
from London, and sundry Parts of Europe, a large Assortment of European and East India
Goods, which he will sell, by Wholesale or Retail, cheap for ready Money, or short
Credit.

February 21, 1760
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FORTY SHILLINGS Reward.
Broke out of the Goal at New Castle, the 31st Day of December last, at Night, a certain
David Morgan, about 30 years of Age, about five Feet six Inches high, of a sandy
Complexion, small Eyes, and short curled Hair, professes to be a carpenter by
Trade; his Parents now live at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle County. Whoever
apprehends the said Prisoner, and brings him to the Goal at New Castle, or secures him in
any other Goal, so that the Subscriber may have him again, shall receive the above
Reward, and reasonable Charges, paid by JOHN GARRITSON, Goaler.

March 13, 1760
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, March 10, 1760.
RUN away from the subscriber, on Monday morning, a Molatto slave, named George, he
is a lusty young fellow, about 5 feet 11 inches high, 20 years of age, a very white
Molatto, and has short black curled hair: Supposed to have on when he went away
a brown coat, full trimmed, and buckskin breeches, with many other clothes, and is
supposed to have made for Philadelphia. Whoever secures the said slave in any goal,
shall receive forty shillings reward, and reasonable charges, paid by me WILLIAM
PATTERSON. N.B. All masters of vessels and others are forewarned not to
carry him off at their peril.

July 24, 1760
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED or stolen, on the 17th Instant, from off the Plantation of Mr. John Porter, near
Christiana Bridge, New Castle County, a large Mouse coloured Mare, belonging to the
Rev. Charles Tennent, at White Clay Creek; she is about 15 hands high, with a small Star
in her Forehead, paces and trots well, five Years old past, and shod before: Any Person or
Persons that takes up the Thief and Mare, shall receive Five Pounds, and for the Mare
only Twenty Shillings, with reasonable Charges, paid by CHARLES TENNENT. N.B.
The Mare is to be delivered to Mr. John Porter, or the Rev. Charles Tennent.

April 9, 1761
The Pennsylvania Gazette
NOTICE is hereby given, that the Landing on White Clay Creek, commonly known by
the Name of McPhersonLanding, is now put in good Order, and every thing in Readiness
for carrying on the Shalloping Business, Likewise good Stables and Troughs for the
Feeding of Horses. Also good Stores for the Securing of Goods from the Inclemency of
the Weather, or any other Disadvantages. Those who please to favour us with their
Custom, may depend upon having their Business transacted with the utmost Care and
Dispatch, and at as low Rates as is common at Newport, by ARCHIBALD FINNEY, and
HENRY LOUGHHEAD. N.B. Said Landing is a Mile and a Half nearer for those
Waggons that go down Newport Road, and but six Perches farther for the Waggons that
come by the Way of Newark. The Road is altogether as good, if not better. The Road
from said Landing comes into Christiana Bridge Road, at the House commonly known
by the Name of the Widow ShannonHouse, where those who come by the Way of
Newark, are desired to strike off.

December 17, 1761
The Pennsylvania Gazette
NOTICE is hereby given to all Persons indebted to Thomas Montgomery, at Christiana
Bridge, in New Castle County, on Book, to come and settle their Accompts, and pay or
give their Bonds for the Ballance, he being desirous to settle all his Book Accompts
before he moves to Philadelphia, which he intends to do next Spring. He has on Hand a
large Assortment of European and East India Goods, which he will sell by Wholesale or
Retail, cheap for ready Money or short Credit. There was brought from Philadelphia, by
Josiah Williams Shallop, and is in said Montgomery Store, one Barrel of Sugar, and some
Hanks of Iron Wire, a Wallet, with some Chocolate and other Goods in it; the Owners of
them are desired to come and take them away.

April 8, 1762
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ON or about the 23d Day of June last, six new Castor Hats were delivered to a young
Man, belonging to a Shallop then lying at Mr. Reese MeredithWharff, in Philadelphia, in
Trust to be given to Joseph Thomas, Store keeper, near Christiana Bridge; but as they
were never given to said Thomas, the Subscriber offers a Reward of Twenty Shillings to
the said young Man, if he delivers the said Hats, according to the Confidence reposed
in him; or the Sum of Three Pounds to any Person who will inform said Subscriber, with
Certainty, that the young Man hath embezzled or designs to defraud him of the Hats
aforesaid. CHARLES MOORE.

August 12, 1762
The Pennsylvania Gazette
THIS is to give Notice to all Persons indebted to Thomas Montgomery, by Cash Note, or
Book Accounts (before he moved from Christiana Bridge, in New Castle County) That he
has left a List of the Ballances due to him in the Hands of Mr. John Thompson, Merchant,
at Christiana Bridge and desires them to pay, as it answers better to pay said Mr.
Thompson than it does to pay me in Philadelphia. Said Montgomery has a good
Assortment of European and East India Goods, imported in the last Vessels from London
and Liverpool, which he sells cheap for ready Money or short Credit, at this Store in
Front street.

September 23, 1762
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, Sept. 8, 1762.
RUN away from the Subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, New Castle County, on the
2d Instant, a Servant Woman, named Margaret Bennett, a lusty fat Woman, named
Margaret Bennett, a lusty fat Woman, full faced, long visaged, heavy browed,
remarkable for large Legs; had on when she went away, a brown Stuff Gown, a striped
Linen Bed gown, two Petticoats, the one yellow Shaloon, and the other red Cloth Serge, a
Check Apron. a Pair of new Shoes, and black Yarn Stockings: She came from Ireland
with Capt. Miller, in the Ship Phoenix, from Londonderry. Whoever takes up and secures
the said Servant in any Goal, so that her Master may have her again, shall have Forty
Shillings Reward, and reasonable Charges, paid by JOHN READ, or ALEXANDER
MONTGOMERY.




October 14, 1762
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL Persons indebted to the Estate of William Smith, late of Christiana Bridge, in the
County of New Castle, deceased, are hereby desired to make Payment to the Subscribers;
and those having Demands against said Estate, to bring them in, that they may be settled
by GEORGE ADAMS, and DONALDSON YEATS, Administrators. N.B. For some
time past there has been left in said Adams Store, a Piece of Negroe Cotton, not directed
to any Person. The Owner is desired to apply for the same.
November 18, 1762
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be SOLD,
A WATER Lot of Ground in Wilmington, whereon are commodious Brick and Frame
Store Houses, a Dwelling house, with a good Garden and Grass Lot belonging to it, with
two Stables, the one Stone, and the other Frame, and convenient Sheds; a Wharff in good
Repair, and all Things necessary for exporting Flour, or any other Produce to
Philadelphia, or any foreign Market. The Shaloping Business is now carried on there by
Messieurs Cancade and Seal. Any Person inclining to Purchase, is desired to apply to the
Subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle County, for Terms. The Title is
indisputable. JOSEPH LEWDEN, jun.


December 9, 1762
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED away, on the 24th of May last, from off the Plantation of John McClays, near
the Red Lyon, six Miles below New Castle, in New Castle County, a bay Stone Colt, one
Year old last May, with a Star in his Forehead, about 3 Inches long, neither Brand nor Ear
mark. Whoever takes up said Colt, and secures him, so as the Owner may have him
again, shall have Fifteen Shillings Reward, and reasonable Charges, paid by Alexander
Porter (Miller) living in the Welsh Tract, or Joseph Rotherham (Miller) at Whiteclay
Creek, near Christiana Bridge, or by me the Owner thereof. THOMAS MARSHALL.

January 13, 1763
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL Persons indebted to the Estate of William Smith, late of Christiana Bridge, in the
County of New Castle, deceased, are hereby desired to make Payment to the Subscribers;
and those having Demands against said Estate, to being them in, that they may be settled
by GEORGE ADAMS, and DONALDSON YEATES, administrators. N.B. For some
time past there has been left in said Adams Store, a Piece of Negroe Cotton, not directed
to any Person. The Owner is desired to apply for the same.

March 31, 1763
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL Persons indebted to the Estate of William Hay, late of Christiana Bridge, in New
Castle County, deceased, are desired to make Payment; and those who have any
Demands against said Estate, are desired to bring in their Accounts, that they may
be settled by JOHN HANLY, and ISAAC WEAVER, in Chester, Executors. N.B. The
said Executors have a lusty young Negroe Lad, about 17 Years of Age, to sell, belonging
to said Estate, who has been brought up to Farming, and is very handy at tending a
Ferry Boat.

April 21, 1763
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WHEREAS it has been published in this Paper, for some Times past, for all Persons
indebted to the Estate of William Smith, late of Christiana Bridge, deceased, to make
Payment, but few Persons have paid any Regard thereto; further Notice is here
given, and all Persons indebted are requested to discharge the same immediately; and
those having Demands, to bring in their Accounts. Likewise those who stand indebted to
the Administrators for Goods bought at the deceased Vendue, are requested to make
Payment, there being Demands against said Estate that must be paid off by GEORGE
ADAMS, DONALDSON YEATES, Executors. N.B. All Persons indebted to the
Subscriber above 6 Months, are here noticed to settle the same with him, otherwise
expect to be troubled. GEORGE ADAMS.

July 7, 1763
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO be sold, by Way of public Vendue, on Wednesday the third of August next, on the
Premises, two Lots of Ground, situate at Christiana Bridge, New Castle County; the first
Lot containing two Roods and thirteen Perches, in the Heart of the Town, whereon is
erected a large Frame Dwelling house, with Kitchen and Garden, being a long
accustomed Tavern, and known by the Name of the Crooked Billet Tavern [note: this was
later replaced by the brick structure known as the Shannon Inn”]; also a Bake house, with
Oven, Store, and all Conveniences necessary for carrying on said Business, now in the
Tenure of Mr. John McCarty, of said Place. The second Lot containing two Acres, two
Roods and nine Perches of Pasture Ground, bounded by Land of Mr. John
Montgomery, and others. The Sale to begin at Ten o'Clock on said Day, when the Terms
of sale will be made known, and an indisputable Title given, by JACOB and ISAAC
JANVIER. N.B. The Premises may be entered upon immediately.

May 3, 1764
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT or SOLD,
A Small Tract of land, containing 21 Acres, situated near Christiana Bridge, in New
Castle County, with a good two Story Brick House, four Rooms on a Floor, and a good
Cellar under the House; a Tan house and a Yard, in sufficient Order for carrying on the
Tanning Business; there are about 6 Acres cleared and inclosed, Part of which is
Meadow, the Remainder will timbered. Any Person inclining either to rent or
purchase, may know the Terms, by applying to the Subscriber, at Christiana Bridge.
WILLIAM McMECHEN.

July 12, 1764
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT, and entered upon immediately, for the Terms of Ten, Fifteen, or Twenty
one Years, A New Brick House, two Story high, three Rooms on a Floor, with about 20
Acres of clear Land, 5 whereof is Meadow, and 70 Acres of Woodland, adjoining two
Store Houses, and a convenient Wharff, at Whiteclay Creek Landing, suitable for
Store keeping, as well as the Flour Trade to Philadelphia; Also 250 Acres, Part of Musele
Cripple, bounded by Christiana, and Whiteclay Creeks, and esteemed as rich Land as any
in the Government, 100 Acres of which, will be in order for sowing Hemp, Grain, or
Grass Seed, by the latter End of August next; the whole surrounded by a new Bank;
Sluices and Dams, in good Order. For Terms apply to DAVID FINNEY, in New Castle.

January 24, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT, and may be entered on immediately, A Commodious new Brick House, in
Bridgetown, otherwise Christiana Bridge, New Castle County, well situated for any
publick Business, standing at the Corner of the Streets leading to Nottingham and Elk
River; the House contains four Rooms on the first Floor, and five on the second, with
Fireplaces in all except one, a large Garret with a Fireplace, a Cellar under the whole,
with a large Fireplace, and a Partition. Also sundry Grass Lots, both for Pasture and
mowing. Enquire of GEORGE HILLIS, of said Place.

January 31, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO be sold, a Neck or Land, on Duck Creek, New Castle County, bounded by Main Duck
Creek, and the North west Branch, about 7 Miles from the River Delaware, containing
1100 Acres, about 200 of which is cleared, divided into four small Tenements, on which
there are three new Log houses 20 Feet square, 600 Acres Woodland, consisting
principally of thriving White oaks, Beach, Maple and Poplar, 300 Acres of Marsh and
Cripple, commodiously situate along the Upland, near the Creek; so that each Plantation
may have an equal Share conveniently laid off; there is sufficient Depth of Water for Sea
Vessels to said Land, where Ship Building may be carried on to great Advantage, and a
Saw mill erected at a small Expence; 150 Acres of Cripple is included within a Bank of
48 Perches (which may be supported for 10 lb. per Annum) and will soon become
excellent Meadow, being chiefly Maple Cripple. The whole Neck may be secured with
about 250 Perches of Fence; there is a Road laid out to a Landing on the Premises (from
the main County Road to Kent County, and Maryland) where Vessels may load, and a
good Trade be introduced. The Title indisputable. The Purchaser paying one Half the
consideration Money, may be allowed 10 equal yearly Payments for the Residue, by
DAVID FINNEY, in New Castle, of whom may be leased for any Term, not exceeding
21 Years, a new Brick House, two Stories high, three Rooms on a Floor, Wharff and
Stores, at Whiteclay Creek Landing, and 20 Acres of clear Land, being a suitable Place
for Storekeeping, and convenient for the Four Trade, &c. to Philadelphia; together with
250 Acres, Part of Muscle Cripple (about three Quarters of a Mile from said Landing)
situate at the Confluence of Christiana and Whiteclay Creeks, Half of which is clear, and
will be fenced by the first Day of April next, deemed as fertile Land as any in the
Government, and suitable for raising Hemp, Barley or Tobacco; there is a deep Creek
running through said Cripple, which will render the Water rotting of Hemp (agreeable to
the late Act of Parliament) easy. The Premises to be entered on, as soon as the Bargain is
made. If the Cripple is not leased by the first Day of April, it will be divided into Lots.
February 14, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO be sold, 100 Acres of low and Upland, in New Castle County, about one Mile below
the Town, adjoining the River Delaware, about 80 of which is Meadow, now productive
of Timothy, English and White Clover Grass, equal to any Meadow in the County; the
Bottom is very rich, the Bank and Sluice is in good Order, and easily supported; there is
an ordinary Building on the Premises; the Situation is pleasant, and will admit of a fine
Improvement; the Prices of any product are little inferior at the Place to Philadelphia
Market; the whole to be sold together, or divided, to suit the adjacent Farms,
if Purchasers. The Title is indisputable. For Terms apply to JOHN YEATES, in New
Castle, or DONALDSON YEATES, at Christiana Bridge

April 11, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO be sold, on Thursday, the 18th Instant, by public Vendue, at the late Dwelling house
of John Montgomery, deceased, at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle County, sundry Sorts
of Shop Goods, and Houshold Furniture, viz. Feather beds, and Bed clothes, Tables,
Chairs, Chests of Drawers, a good eight Day Clock, and sundry other Furniture; also a
good Chaise, a Cart, Cows, Horses and three Negroe Boys. The Sale to begin at Ten
o'Clock, and to continue from Day to Day until all is sold. Six Months Credit will be
given for all above Ten Shillings Value, the Purchaser given Bond and Security.
Attendance will be given by THOMAS MONTGOMERY and THOMAS DUNN,
Administrators. N.B. Those that have any Accounts against said Estate may
apply to Thomas Dunn; for Payment; and those indebted are desired to pay. There is to
be sold by Thomas Dunn, at Christiana Bridge, and by Thomas Montgomery, and Son, at
their Store, in Front street, a Quantity of good FLAXSEED by the Bushel, or larger
Quantity.

May 9, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FIVE POUNDS Reward.
STOLEN out of a Yard at Christiana Bridge, on Tuesday, the 23d of April last, at Night,
a grey Horse, about 14 Years old, paces, trots and gallops; has a bob Tail, which he
carries well when rid; shaved pretty much with the Geers, and has a Lump on his near
Shoulder, pretty high up, occasioned by the Collar; shod before, and branded on the near
Buttock with a Pot hook. Whoever takes up said Horse and Thief, and secures them so
that the Transgressor be brought to Justice, and the Subscriber, (living in Little Britain
Township, near Peach bottom Ferry, Lancaster County) may have his Horse again,
shall have the above Reward, or Twenty Shillings for the Horse only, paid by JOSEPH
FRAIZER.

May 30, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO BE SOLD,
A Small Tract of Land, containing 21 Acres, whereof about 6 are cleared and inclosed,
and Part Meadow Ground; with a large Brick House, two Stories high, 4 Rooms on each
Floor, and a Cellar under the greatest Part of the House, a Garden well inclosed. There is
on said Land a Tan House and Yard, in good Repair for carrying on the Tanning
Business, where Bark may be had in Plenty at a moderate Rate. The Place is suitable for
carrying on the Store Keeping and Tanning Business (in which Use it is now occupied) as
it lies on the great Road leading from Christiana Bridge to Nottingham, Lancaster,
Charlestown, &c. and within Half a Mile of said Bridge. Any Person inclining to
purchase, may be informed of the Terms, by applying to James McMechen, near Newark,
or the Subscriber, at Christiana Bridge. WILLIAM MCMECHEN.

John Montgomery, late of Christiana Bridge. Notice given by Thomas Dunn and Thomas
Montgomery (Pennsylvania Gazette, 11 July 1765).

July 11, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
NOTICE is hereby given to all Persons indebted to John Montgomery, late of Christiana
Bridge, New Castle County, deceased, either on Bond, Note, or Book Accounts, that they
are earnestly desired to pay the same to the Subscribers, on or before the first Day of
November next, or they may expect to be sued for the same without further Notice; and
all Persons that have any Demands against said John Montgomery, deceased, are desired
to bring them in, that they may be settled and paid by THOMAS MONTGOMERY,
THOMAS DUNN, Administrators.

July 18, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
RUN away from the Subscriber, living in New Castle Hundred and County, near
Christiana Bridge, on Monday, the 24th of June last, a Servant Man, named Robert
McCully, aged about 25 Years, a thick set Fellow, has black Hair, and wears it tied;
he is about 5 Feet 7 Inches high; had on, when he went away, a red and white striped
Linsey Jacket, with the Stripes cross the Body, a Felt Hat, and short Town Trowsers
patched; he was lately bought out of New Castle Goal. Whoever takes up said Runaway,
and secures him in any of His Majesty Goals, so that his Master may have him again,
shall receive Four Dollars Reward, and reasonable Charges, paid by SAMUEL PORTER.

August 1, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ABSCONDED from the Subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, New Castle County, on
Sunday, the 21st of July last, an Apprentice Lad, named Andrew Kinkaid, about 19 Years
of Age, a tall slender young man, of a fair Complexion, with his Hair curled; had on, and
took with him, a brown coarse Frock, a spotted Flannel Jacket, Buckskin Breeches, two
Pair of Ozenbrigs Trowsers, two white Shirts, a Pair of ribbed Cotton Stockings, new
Shoes, and plated Buckles; also wears a black Neckcloth; he has served a Time to the
BlacksmithTrade, and bound himself with me about two Months ago, and says the
BlacksmithTrade did not agree with him, and that he left his Parents with their Consent,
who live in Carlisle. Whoever takes up said Apprentice, and secures him in any of His
MajestyGoals, so that his Master may have him again, shall have a Reward of Twenty
Shillings, and reasonable Charges, paid by DAVID SMITH, COOPER.

August 8, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, August 1, 1765.
ON or about the 12th of December last, was put on board the Subscriber Shallop, then
lying at Captain Mease Wharff, a Hogshead, containing Loaf Sugar, for which, as yet,
there has appeared no Owner; also a small Bundle of Steel. The Owner or Owners, are
desired to come, prove Property, and take them away. Any Person having a Shallop of
the following Dimensions, either upon the Stocks, that can be launched in 5 or 6 Weeks,
or already in the Water, and not more than two Years old, may, by applying to us, hear of
a Purchaser. The Length of the Keel 40 Feet, Breadth of the Beam 17 Feet, the Depth of
the Hold 5 Feet and a Half. WELCH and PARTRIDGE.

October 3, 1765
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WAS left at Christiana Bridge, about four Weeks ago, a brown Horse, with a Snip in his
Face, about 13 or 14 Hands high; he was brought there from the Head of Elk, and was to
be sent to the King Head, in New Castle, but was not accepted. If the Owner of said
Horse does not come in three Weeks from the Date hereof, and take him away, he will be
sold for his Keeping, by MARY MIDDLETON., September 21, 1765.

Mrs. Patterson, consort of Rev. Mr. Patterson, formerly of Wilmington, died 13 January
1786. Buried Christiana Church Burying Ground (Delaware Gazette 18 Jan 1766) [One
or the other date is wrong]

January 23, 1766
The Pennsylvania Gazette
RUN away, the 16th of November last, from John Fareis, a Servant Man, named Edward
Carlow, but has changed his Name to Collings, and may go by some other Name, a
Shoemaker by Trade; he is a spry Fellow, and wears his Hat on his Right Eye; has a
brown Wig, red Hair, white Eyebrows and Lashers, Freckles on the Backs of his Hands is
about 5 Feet 8 Inches high; wore a brown Coat, light Velvet Jacket, white Thread, or
black Silk Stockings; walks fast when he travels, speaks good English, pretends to have
two Uncles in New London, both Ministers, says he has a small Estate in Ireland, and is
well beloved among the Women. Whoever secures said Servant in any Goal in this
Province, so that his Master may have him again, shall have Three Pounds Reward, and if
out of the Province, Five Pounds, paid by JOHN FAREIS. N.B. He was advertised in
No. 1927 of this Gazette; was seen at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle County, about a
Month ago, and is supposed to gone towards Lancaster. All Masters of Vessels are forbid
to harbour or carry him off, as they may expect to be proceeded against as the Law
directs.

June 5, 1766
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, New Castle County, May 24, 1766.
STRAYED or stolen about the Middle of April last, a bright bay Horse, with a Blaze in
his Face, black Mane and Tail, paces, trots, and hand gallops very free, was trimmed
under the Bridle only, four Years old this Spring, 14 Hands high, and shod before. It is
supposed he was stolen by a certain Man, who called himself William Floyd, who came
from about Albany some Time ago, with his Wife and one Child. Said Floyd is about 5
Feet 11 Inches high, brown Hair, bad Countenance, and his Nose inclining to one Side;
his Cloaths not known; he also took with him another Horse, and two Saddles, at the
same Time. Whoever takes up and secures said Horse, so as the Subscriber may get him
again, shall receive Thirty Shillings Reward, if in Possession of said Floyd, for Horse
Thief, Five Pounds, paid by WILLIAM McMECHEN.


June 12, 1766
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FORTY SHILLINGS Reward.
RUN away, in the night of the 8th inst. June, from Mr. Isaac Janvier, at Christiana
Bridge, a certain John Heran, a bricklayer by trade, about 5 feet 9 inches high; had on a
white country made jacket, leather breeches, has a very remarkable red spot above his
right brow; he has been inlisted with the Royal Americans, and deserted, and was taken
up by them again, and put into Philadelphia goal, and taken out of the same by the
subscriber, his master of Baltimore, and come with him said master as far as Christiana
Bridge homewards, but went off with a pair of iron hand cuffs. Whoever takes up the said
servant, and puts him in any of his Majestygoals, or brings him to Mr. Isaac Janvier, or to
his said master, shall have the above reward, and reasonable charges, paid by CONRAD
SMITH.

March 5, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT, for a Term of Years, THE house where Thomas Montgomery, Merchant,
late of this city, used formerly to live, together with outhouses, and 160 acres of land,
now in the tenure of John Thomson, Esq; lying upon the great road from New Castle to
Newark, about half a mile from Christiana Bridge. For further particulars enquire of
JOHN WILDAY, in Philadelphia.

April 2, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
THE subscribers, having erected Stages for the transportation of passengers and goods
from Philadelphia to Baltimore Town, take this method of acquainting the public, that
they have two shallops which ply from Hollingsworth and Rudolphstore, in Philadelphia,
the south side of Mr. John Stamperwharff, below the drawbridge, every Wednesday and
Saturday, for Christiana Bridge, where goods, &c. will be received by George Adams,
and James Partridge, who have good and convenient stores for the purpose. From thence
Tobias Rudolph and Zebulon Hollingsworthwaggons immediately carry them to the Head
of Elk, where they have good stores for their reception. From thence Isaac Greiststage
vessel sets out for Baltimore town every Saturday; and as the cartage is as short a
distance, if not shorter, than any now made use of from Delaware to Chesapeak Bay, we
flatter ourselves we shall be able to give quick dispatch, and general satisfaction, to all
gentlemen that will please to favour us with their custom. HOLLINGSWORTH and
RUDOLPH, in Philadelphia; GEORGE ADAMS, and JAMES PARTRIDGE at
Christiana Bridge; TOBIAS RUDOLPH, and ZEBULON HOLLINGSWORTH at the
Head of Elk, ISAAC GRIEST, in Baltimore Town.
N.B. There are good houses of entertainment at Christian Bridge, and the Head of Elk.

April 30, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
April 22, 1767.
IF DANIEL SULLIVAN be living, who left Christiana Bridge about a year ago, and will
apply to the executors of his brother Jeremiah Sullivan, deceased, he will hear of
something to his advantage. All persons indebted to the estate of said Jeremiah Sullivan,
deceased, are desired to make immediate payment; and all those who have any demands
against said estate, to bring in their accounts, on or before the 8th of May, that they may
be adjusted and paid, by PHILEMON MCLAUGHLAN, and CON HOLLAHAN,
Executors.

July 9, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WAS left on board William Hendersonstage boat, at Christiana bridge, about September
last, a Trunk, covered with sealskin. The owner proving his property, and paying charges,
may have it again, by applying to ISSACHAR DAVIDS, in Water street, near the
Drawbridge or to the subscriber, on board said stage, at Capt. Measewharff. WILLIAM
HENDERSON.

July 30, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
BY virtue of an order of the Orphans Court, of the county of New Castle, upon Delaware,
will be sold at public vendue, on Saturday, 22d of August next, on the premises, at 3
osaid day, a commodious large brick house, and lot of ground thereunto belonging, with
stables, horse shed, and sundry good improvements therein, in good repair, situate at
Christiana Bridge, and county aforesaid; late the property of John McCarty, deceased, has
been for many years past a tavern of the best resort, and is well situate for that or any
other public business. The purchaser may have time for the payment of 300 l. of the
consideration money, on giving good security. Attendance will be given by THOMAS
DUNN, and SAMUEL PATTERSON, Administrators.

October 29, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT for a Term of Years, A CONVENIENT two story brick HOUSE, situate at
Christiana Bridge, in New Castle county, with 10 acres of meadow, and an apple orchard,
adjoining thereto. Also a convenient tanyard, with 14 tan vats, 6 handlers, beam house,
and water pool, with a constant stream of water running into the pool, and is conveyed to
every vatt in the yard, with bark mill and house, and currying shop, in good order, &c.
Likewise 40 cords of bark to be sold at said yard. Any person inclining to rent the same,
may have further information, by applying to Zachariah Van Leuvinigh, in New Castle,
or the subscriber, living in Nottingham, Chester county. JOHN LEWDEN.
N.B. The subscriber has for sale 300 acres of land, situate in York county, about 6 miles
from the river Sasquehanna, 70 acres where of have been cleared within four years, a log
house, with a good spring of water, near the door; the wood land well timbered. For terms
apply to JOHN LEWDEN.




December 24, 1767
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO BE LETT, A LARGE brick house, stables, sheds, garden, &c. at Christiana Bridge,
and county of New Castle, being the same that JOHN McCARTY, deceased, formerly
dwelt in, being well situate for a tavern, having been occupied as such for many years
past. Also to be sold, a plantation, near the Red Lion, in said county, containing upwards
of 170 acres, about one half cleared, the rest well timbered, about 15 acres of good
bottom meadow may be made. The title good. Also a good frame house and lot, at
Christiana Bridge aforesaid. The purchaser may have credit, giving good security, and
paying interest. For terms apply to the subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge. THOMAS
DUNN.

January 7, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, January 7.
In ASSEMBLY,
Tuesday, January 5, 1768, A.M.
Resolved, THAT this HOUSE will receive no Petitions for private Bills, after the
Twentieth of this Instant.
Extract from the Journals,
CHARLES MOORE, Clerk of Assembly.
Tuesday last two Gentlemen arrived here from Lewes Town, who came Passengers in the
Ship Hercules, Captain Hammet, from London, and inform, that they left Gravesend the
5th of October, and on the 13th spoke the Belfast Packet, Captain Robinson, from Belfast
for this Port, five Days out; also on the Passage spoke the Captain Miller, from New York
for London, 19 Days out; and about four Weeks ago spoke the Falmouth, Captain
Stevenson, from Virginia for Glasgow, out five Days.
Captain Simpson, from Antigua, is arrived at Lewes Town; and Captain Eastwick, from
St. Eustatia, is got into Cohansey Creek.
Sunday last the Ship Rainbow, Captain Correy, came up to Town from LaddCove, where
she had been caught in the Ice, as mentioned in our last, having received no Damage.
Since our last GEORGE CROGHAN, Esq; Deputy Superintendant of Indian Affairs for
the Northern District of America, arrived here in good Health from Detroit, by the Way
of Fort Pitt.
Thursday Morning last, a CooperShop was burnt at Kensington, occasioned by a Boy
having carelessly dropped some Fire he was carrying there.
The Commissioners for carrying into Execution the Articles of Agreement formerly
entered into between the Honourable the Proprietors of Pennsylvania and Maryland, for
ascertaining the Limits of this Province and the Lower Counties, and Maryland, met
lately, at Christiana Bridge, and confirmed the Lines that have been for many Years past
running out; which finishes their Business. The Lines are marked by Stones set up along
the same, every Mile, and the Western Line, which divides this Province from Maryland,
is extended some Miles beyond the Meridian of Pittsburgh, which is something short of
the five Degrees West from the River Delaware, granted to Pennsylvania.

February 25, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED or stolen, last October, out of Allan GillaspiePasture, at Christiana Bridge, a
likely BAY HORSE, about 13 Hands high, one of his fore Feet white, and one of his hind
Hoofs split up to the Hair; he paces, trots and gallops well, and carries his Head high.
Whoever takes up said Horse, and delivers him to said Allan Gillaspie, or to the Owner,
at French Town, shall have Two Dollars Reward, and reasonable Charges, paid by
THOMAS FRISBY HENDERSON. N.B. He was tied Head and Foot with a Rope, and
it is like he might get it loose from his Foot, and has it about his Neck.

March 17, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Newcastle, March 8, 1768.
ALL persons who have any demands against the estate of Thomas Jaquet, late of
Christiana Ferry, innholder, deceased, are desired to bring them in, that they may be
settled and adjusted; and those who stand indebted to said estate, are desired to make
speedy payment, to prevent further trouble, to DORCAS JAQUET, Administratrix.

April 7, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT, for a Term of Years, and may be entered on immediately, or in September
next, THE House, Store, and 160 Acres of Land, at Christiana Bridge, where Mr. Thomas
Montgomery, Merchant, late of this City, formerly lived. For further Particulars, enquire
of THOMAS BENNET, Esq; on the Premises, or of JOHN WILLDAY, in Philadelphia.

April 14, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO BE LETT, A COMMODIOUS brick house, and lot of ground thereunto belonging,
with a stable, horse shed, and salt stores, now in the tenure of Thomas Dunn, Esq; at
Christiana Bridge, in the county of New Castle, is very convenient for a store, and the
situation is much more healthy than any other in the place; for further particulars enquire
of Mr. DUNN, or of ROBERT MONTGOMERY, in Philadelphia. [This is apparently the
first mention of the existing building now called the Shannon Inn]
Who has for sale, at his store in Front street, a few chests of bohea tea, some packs of
beaver and raccoon skins, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 20, 24, and 30d. nails, 9 by 7, 10 by 8, 11 by
9, and 12 by 10 window glass, some crates of side glass, Cheshire, single and double
Gloucestershire cheeses, and a few crates of stone ware and wine glass, with sundry other
articles.
ROBERT MONTGOMERY once more desires all those that are indebted, either to the
estate of THOMAS MONTGOMERY, late of this city, merchant, deceased, or to the late
partnership of THOMAS MONTGOMERY and SON, to discharge the same
immediately, or he will be under the necessity of employing an attorney to recover the
same.

May 26, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be LETT, for a Term of Years, and may be entered on immediately, or in September
next, THE House, Store, and 160 Acres of Land, at Christiana Bridge, where Mr. Thomas
Montgomery, Merchant, late of this City, formerly lived. For further Particulars, enquire
of THOMAS BENNET, Esq; on the Premises, or of JOHN WILLDAY, in Philadelphia.


June 9, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Notice is hereby given to the PUBLIC, THAT the STAGES are continued plying as usual
between Philadelphia and Baltimore town, by the subscribers. WILLIAM
HENDERSONstage, to leave Christiana bridge on Tuesdays, and proceed to
Philadelphia, and attends at Mr. John Measewharff, below the Drawbridge, where there is
a good store house for the reception of goods. And, on Saturdays sets off from said
wharff to Christiana bridge, where ALLEN GILLESPIE attends to receive goods, and has
sufficient store houses for the reception of all such goods as he receives. MICHAEL
STITISwaggons attend at said place on Mondays (one of which is a proper stage waggon)
and transports goods and passengers from thence to Perch creek landing, on Elk river,
where NICHOLAS HOUSELBACKstageboat, commonly called the Dutch packet,
attends on Tuesdays, to receive goods and passengers for Baltimore, and sets off from
thence on Saturdays to Perch creek. Those who choose to favour us with their custom,
may depend on the greatest punctuality, dispatch and care, by WILLIAM PATTERSON,
and ALLEN GILESPIE, at Christiana Bridge. WILLIAM HENDERSON, at
Philadelphia. NICHOLAS HOUSSELBACK, at Baltimore Town. MICHAEL STITIS, at
Perch creek.
N.B. Allen Gillespie and company, have likewise a shallop for carrying on the flour
business, commanded by Solomon Maxwell, one of the company, who will transact the
flour trade with the greatest care and dispatch, and will ply constantly between Christiana
Bridge and Philadelphia.
Mr. Abraham Robinson, next door below Mr. John Mease, will receive orders and goods
in the absence of the stage.


July 7, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FRANCIS WADE, Takes this Method of informing his Friends and Customers, THAT he
has now began to brew SPRUCE BEER, and intends continuing it during the Summer
Season, having laid in a large Quantity of Spruce for that Purpose, and is determined to
brew it in the best Manner it possibly can be made in these Parts, and sell it on such
Terms as to be far more agreeable to such Families as use it, than to brew it themselves,
as well as to those that bottle it for retailing out by the Bottle, or Dozen; as this is the first
Undertaking of the Kind, in so extensive a Way as he intends carrying it on, he hopes to
meet with due Encouragement, when it shall be his constant Study to give Satisfaction to
his Customers; he might enlarge much on the Wholesomeness and Quality of this Beer,
but as People in general are already well acquainted with it, shall defer entering into
Particulars of that Kind. He continues to keep a constant Supply, as usual, of all Sorts of
Malt Beer, and flatters himself, from the Encouragement he has hitherto received, his
Beer has given a general Satisfaction; and as he has a considerable Stock of Malt, &c.
now by him, his Customers may depend on being constantly supplied with the best, it
being his determined Resolution to follow the Plan he first set out on, which has been
approved of by most, notwithstanding any Insinuations that may be dropt by the Envious
to the contrary; and as he intends beginning to malt as soon as the Weather will permit,
such as have Barley to dispose of, may depend on getting the highest Prices going, by
applying to him, at his Brewery, near the Drawbridge, Philadelphia, at Wade and
HemphillStore in Wilmington, or Thomas WadeStore at Christiana Bridge, all of whom
will take in Hops likewise. N.B. He has removed his remaining Stock of Dry Goods, into
the House where David Barnes formerly lived, next Door to Captain George
RankinGrocery Shop, and exactly opposite Mr. Joseph Stretch, in Second street, between
Market and Chestnut street, where they will be sold considerably under prime Cost, for
Cash only. He takes this Opportunity of once more, and for the last Time, to request those
that still remain so long indebted to him, to come and pay off their respective Balances;
which, if not settled by the Middle of August next, he will be under an absolute Necessity
of bringing them to a Settlement, by taking such Measures as will be very disagreeable to
him, and has hitherto endeavoured to avoid.
September 29, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, September 17, 1768.
WHEREAS, Robert Hamble, obtained seven bonds, of me the subscriber, to the amount
of 105 l. viz. One of Twenty Pounds, due in May, 1768; and five of Fifteen Pounds each,
to be paid in May, yearly, till all are paid; and one of Ten Pounds, due in May, 1774. The
above bonds were given for a tract of land, which said Robert Hamble was to have made
over to me, but he hath never complied with his bargain, nor given me up my bonds, and
has since sold the said tract of land to James Moore of Chesnut Level; therefore, I
forewarn all persons, not to take an assignment on them, or any one of them, as I will not
pay them.
WILLIAM HAMBLE.

November 3, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FRANCIS WADE, ONCE more, and for the last time, requests of all who stand indebted
to him by bond, note or book debt, for dry goods, or otherwise, to come and pay off their
respective ballances, otherwise he will be under the disagreeable necessity of taking other
methods to recover the same, without respect to persons, having hitherto given much
greater indulgence than they could have expected; and as he is now come to a resolution
of closing his affairs in the dry goods business, he proposes to sell off all his remaining
stock of dry goods by public vendue, consisting of a variety of plain silks, silk, cotton and
thread stockings, breeches patterns, callicoes, chints, stuffs, camblets, callimancoes, with
sundry other articles, too tedious to insert; the sale to begin on Monday, the 28th day of
November inst. at the house where said WADE formerly lived, next door to Captain
George Rankin, and opposite to Mr. Joseph Stretchin Second street, between Market and
Chestnut streets.
N.B. Said WADE gives, as usual, the highest price for good clean barley, delivered at his
brewery, near the Drawbridge, or at Wade and Hemphillstore in Wilmington, or Thomas
Wade, at Christiana Bridge, and has to sell, flour, middlings, ship stuff and bran.

November 17, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
CHRISTIANA BRIDGE. Just imported by JOHN WILDAY, in the Hetty, Captain
Osborne, from London, and the last Vessels from Bristol and Liverpool, and to be sold by
ROBERT BAIL, at Christiana Bridge, A GENERAL Assortment of European and East
India GOODS, suitable to the Season; which he will sell, Wholesale and Retail (for Cash,
or Country Produce, only) on such Terms as will make it the Interest or those to purchase
who want such Goods, and do not import themselves.
He also sells Loaf and Lump Sugar, on the same Terms they are sold by the Sugar Bakers
in Philadelphia.
Also, Rum, Melasses, Muscovado Sugars, French Indigo, Madeira Wine, and a Variety of
other Articles.
December 29, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette
MADE his escape from the constable of New London, on the 6th day of December inst.
one Timothy Hughes, a sly, cunning, artful insinuating fellow, polite in his planning his
stratagems, in order to deceive mankind, and artful in carrying them on when planned; it
has been his custom for many months past to run all he could in debt, by changing his
name to Carson, storekeeper at Christiana Bridge, and others; he is about 5 feet 8 or 9
inches high, of a round complexion, with long redish hair, wore a light coloured cloak,
and a new suit of light coloured broadcloth of 22s. per yard. Whoever takes up and
secures said Timothy Hughes, in any of his Majestygoals in America, or elsewhere, so
that the artful villain may be brought to justice, shall receive a reward of FIVE POUNDS,
paid by us GEORGE McCLEAVE, JOHN RANKIN.

January 19, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WHEREAS on Wednesday, the 14th of December last, I the subscriber, living in
Baltimore county, Maryland, gave my bond to a certain William Wilson, of New Castle
county, near Christiana bridge, for Twenty seven Pounds, Pennsylvania currency, to be
paid to said William Wilson, or his certain attorney, heirs or assigns, payable on the 13th
or 14th of December next, for a convict servant man, named Kane O Hara, and his wife
Mary, for 4 years; --- as it appears from good authority, and from Kane O Haraown
confession, that he was convicted into this country, and sold to one Samuel Hanson, Esq;
of Charles county, Maryland, from whom he ran way about two years ago, having served
but a small part of his time, and returned to Europe, from whence he was again convicted
to this county, and sold by said Wilson to the subscriber; --- therefore, until the matter be
determined, these are to forewarn all persons from taking an assignment of said bond, as
the subscriber will not pay it.
THOMAS ARCHER.
N.B. I tendered the indentures to said Wilson, that he might settle the matter with Samuel
Hanson, Esq; but he refused accepting of it.

January 26, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, January 16, 1769.
RAN away from the subscriber, the 15th instant, and indented servant man, named
William McDonald, about 30 years of age, 5 feet 5 inches high, well set, of a swarthy
complexion, talks very broad, his hair tied behind, and when in liquor (which he is
subject to) is very talkative; had on, and took with him, a drab cloth coloured jacket, blue
under ditto, check shirt, black wove breeches, a pair of marble ribbed worsted hose, and
very bad shoes. It is imagined he may intend listing into his Majestyservice. All masters
of vessels and others, are forbid to harbour or carry him off at their peril. Whoever takes
up and secures said servant, so that his master may have him again, shall receive Twenty
Shillings reward, if taken within the county, and thirty Shillings, if taken out of the
county, with reasonable charges paid by ROBERT BAIL, at the house formerly occupied
by Thomas Montgomery, Esq; near Christiana Bridge.

April 6, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Just imported in the Philadelphia Packet, Captain BUDDEN, from LONDON, and to be
sold by JOHN WILLDAY, At his store in Fourth street, near the south side of Market
street, and by ROBERT BALL, At Christiana Bridge, A GENERAL Assortment of dry
GOODS, suitable for the season, among which are a large assortment of 3 qr. mantuas,
and other silks, a few hogsheads of felt hats, which he will sell by the whole hogshead, as
low as can be imported; also choice Cheshire cheese, London porter in bottles, best
hyson, congo and bohea tea, pepper, grindstones, chalk, whiting, green copperas, sail
cloth No. 1 to 7; a few hogsheads London loaf sugar; a few chaldrons of smithcoals, sheet
lead, steel in half faggots, a few kegs of short pieces, gunpowder and shot.


April 20, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be SOLD, by way of public VENDUE, On Monday, the twenty second day of May
next, by the subscribers at Christiana Bridge, TWO SHALLOPS in good order, fitting for
the River of Bay service; each carry near or about three hundred barrels of flour: The sale
being intended to settle a partnership accounts, the buyer may have one Yearcredit if
required, giving security, and paying interest; the Vessels may be seen the following
stage days, at captain MeaseWharff, in Philadelphia, or at Christine; so that any persons
inclinable to purchase, may treat with the owners before the time of sale.
WILLIAM PATTERSON, and WILLIAM HENDERSON.
N. B. WILLIAM HENDERSON keeps on the stage business as usual, in company with
ALLEN GILLESPIE, and SOLOMON MAXWELL, and purposes keeping the same
stage days as usual, and said MAXWELL will carry on the flour business as usual.

July 6, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
CAME to the premises of the subscriber, at Christiana Bridge, New Castle county, the
21st of June last, two mares, the one a black, about 14 hands high, a natural trotter, 5
years old, with a small white spot on her forehead, neither brand nor ear mark. The other
a bay, 6 years old, 14 hands and a half high, shod before, paces and trots. The owner is
desired to come, prove his property, pay charges, and take them away.
MARY MIDDLETON.

July 20, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
BY Virtue of a Writ of Venditioni Exponas, to me directed, will be sold by public Sale, at
2 o'Clock, upon Thursday, the 17th Day of August next, at the Court House, in the Town
of New Castle, a certain Frame Messuage, and Lot of Ground, with the Appurtenances,
situate at Christiana Bridge, in White Clay Creek Hundred, on the North east Side of the
Main Street, convenient for a Store; taken in Execution, as the Estate of Thomas Wade,
by JOHN THOMPSON, Sheriff.

August 31, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
The New Castle County COMPACT. WE the Subscribers, Freeholders, and Freemen, of
the County of New Castle, upon Delaware, taking into Consideration that our Trade is
restricted, our Rights invaded, arbitrary Courts, wholly dependent upon Ministers, erected
over us, our Property taken from us without our Consent, and our personal Security
destroyed, by some late Acts of the British Parliament; and that a Plan is laid, and
Measures adopted in our Mother Country, which, if carried into Execution, must soon
deprive us of even the Shadow of Liberty, and of every Thing that is dear and valuable to
Englishmen: And being of Opinion, that it is not only lawful, but our indispensible Duty,
to use our utmost Influence to avert the Calamity, Misery and Slavery, impending over
us, and all our Brethren in North America; and apprehending that the Agreements of the
Merchants and Traders of these Colonies, not to import certain enumerated Articles from
any Part of Great Britain, until the said Acts of Parliament are repealed, are wise, just and
salutary, and will have a great Tendency to this End; DO hereby testify and declare our
Approbation thereof, and our Esteem for those Virtues, which have induced them to
prefer the future Welfare of their Country to their present private Emolument.
In order to contribute our Mite to this public and patriotic Work, and willing to cooperate,
as far as in us lies, with those Advocates and Friends of Liberty and their Country, do
hereby mutually promise, declare and agree, upon our Word, Honour, and the Faith of
Christians:
1st, That from and after this Date we will not import, or bring, into any Part of America,
any Goods, Wares or Merchandizes whatsoever, from Great Britain, contrary to the Spirit
and Intention of the Agreement of the Merchants of the City of Philadelphia, in the
Province of Pennsylvania.
2d, That we never will have any Dealings, Commerce or Intercourse whatsoever, with
any Man, residing in any Part of the British Dominions, who shall for Lucre, or any other
Purpose, import, or bring, into any Part of America, any Article or thing, contrary to the
said Agreement.
3d, That any one of us, who shall wilfully break this Compact, shall have his name
published in the public News Papers, as a Betrayer of the civil and religious Rights of
Americans, and be for ever after deemed infamous, and an Enemy to his Country.
Signed by Order, and in Behalf of the Grand Jury for the County, in August Sessions,
1769, by SAMUEL PATTERSON, Foreman.
We hear that a Number of the principal Freeholders of the said County, assembled at
Christiana Bridge, on Saturday last, in Pursuance of Notice given for that Purpose, when
the Occasion of their Meeting, the Grievances complained of by North Americans, and
the most probable Methods of obtaining Redress, were opened, and fully explained, and
the above Compact was read, approved, and signed by all present. It is said that it will
soon be signed by every Freeholder and Freeman in the County, and that the other
Counties in that Government will immediately follow the Example.
Some Resolutions were made, Nemine Contradicente, in Favour of Persons, not
Inhabitants of the County, who should be so weak as to import any Goods there contrary
to the Agreement; particularly, that they should be stored, effectually secured, and taken
Care of, until the obnoxious Acts of Parliament were repealed, except the same should be
prevented by the Imprudence of the Owners.

September 7, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FIVE POUNDS Reward.
RUN away, last night, from the Subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, an Irish servant
man, named Robert Jones, about 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high, a well set and stout fellow,
wears his short brown hair, inclining to curl, stoops much when he walks, his legs have
been lately sore, and are not quite well; had on, and took with him, a blue cloth coat,
white jacket, buckskin breeches, new long check trowsers, half worn shoes, and plain
silver buckles. Whoever takes up said servant, and secures him in any goal so that his
master may have him again, shall have the above reward, paid by
August 31, 1769. ALLEN GILLESPIE.
N.B. All masters of vessels, and others, are forbid to harbour or carry him off at their
peril. He was chiefly concerned in breaking a store, and taking out a great many goods.

November 23, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, November 11, 1769.
To be SOLD, or LETT, for a term of Years, A BAKE HOUSE, and other houses, suitable
for carrying on the baking business, all in good order, and commodiously situated at
Christiana Bridge, within ten rods of a landing, the situation remarkably good for the
business, as stuff can be always had as low as in Philadelphia, and the freight deducted,
wood, and all kinds of provisions, may be had very low. Any person inclining to
purchase, may have time to pay the purchase money, giving a bond, and good security;
may be entered on immediately. Any person inclining to purchase, or rent, may be further
informed, by applying to Allen Gillespie, at Christiana Bridge, who is impowered to rent
or sell the above described premises, by me
FRANCIS WATSON.

December 21, 1769
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Imported in the last Vessels before the Agreement for Non-importation, by JOHN
WILLDAY, And now selling at his Store at CHRISTIANA BRIDGE, A LARGE, and
almost general assortment of European, East and West India, and American goods; which
he will sell for cash, or country produce only, on such terms, as will make it the interest
of those to purchase of him, who want such Goods, and donimport themselves. He has
also for sale, at his store in Fourth street, near Market street, Philadelphia, Westonsnuff in
bottles, a few hogsheads felt hats, nests of English brass kettles, role brimstone, wool
cards, kegs of short pipes, madder, and an assortment of silks.
January 4, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Messieurs HALL and SELLERS,
GENTLEMEN, The following Piece waits the Favour of being introduced to the Public
by your Paper.
THE noble Inclination of Improvement that has appeared of late in this Province, and the
several Propositions offered thereon, with the Difference in Sentiment, have given
Occasion for a few Remarks, with the following Estimate.
A Canal from Delaware to Chesapeak Bay, undoubtedly would be a Thing of the first
Consequence, and the most beneficial Undertaking of any yet proposed; but it seems as if
there were many Difficulties in the Way, that will take considerable Time to get over, if
at all, which, with the Greatness of the Performance, Time and Expence, seems rather to
be the Work of a future Day.
The Province of Pennsylvania, lying in the Form of a long Square, the Metropolis
standing at one End, the large Rivers that collect in it, running into another Bay, which is
the Property of other adjoining Provinces, with the Situation of a Number of its
Inhabitants, living so much nearer to other Places of Trade, are all Circumstances worthy
the Attention of the Public. It is but a small Part of the Province, but what lies more
convenient to other markets than to Philadelphia, but by the Opulence and Superiority
which it has at present, with some timely and proper Encouragement to its Western
Inhabitants, the Trade and Interest of the greatest Part might be united, so as to be
perpetuated by very strong Connections for Ages to come.
This can in no Way be done, but be easing these Inhabitants from the prodigious Expence
and difficulties, their Situations subject them to, in transporting their Produce, and this
cannot be done by any Means so effectual, as by Way of the Sasquehanna; which River,
by its several Branches, extends over above two Thirds of the Province, and by the
Western Branch, affords a very easy and good Communication with the Inland Country,
and the Indian Trade; and it has been remarked, that there is not one Fall on either of the
considerable Branches, until it comes very near the South Bounds of this Province, but
what may be made navigable, at a small Expence, and without Locks; but the Channel by
which this Trade is to be conveyed from the Sasquehanna to Philadelphia, seems to be a
Matter differently treated of.
Many Propositions have been made in Favour of the Improvement of the Schuylkill, and
the Carrying place from Reading, to cross above Lancaster; there also has been
something offered, of late, in Favour of another, by Way of a Carrying place, from Peach
Bottom to Christiana, in which, I think they seem all to be united, as far down the
Sasquehanna as near the Mouth of a Stream called Chickesalungo; therefore, in order to
come to a full Determination in the Preference, I know of no better Way, than to compute
the Expence that will attend the Carriage from that Place to this City by both, and as
Grain is a Principal of our Produce, I shall fix on that Article, by Way of Elucidation. I
will then suppose s Boat Load of 500 Bushels of Grain to be at the above Place, the
Carriage of which to Reading, 40 Miles, at Eight Pence per Bushel, is Sixteen Pounds,
Thirteen Shillings and Four Pence; to Philadelphia, 80 Miles by Water, at Five Pence per
Bushel, is Ten Pounds, Eight Shillings and Four Pence; which, exclusive of any Storage,
amounts to Twenty seven Pounds, One Shilling and Eight Pence. The Other Way, from
Chickesalungo to Peach Bottom, when on board, say, a Halfpenny per Bushel, is One
Pound and Ten Pence; from Peach Bottom to Christiana, 27 Miles, say Five Pence, is Ten
Pounds, Eight Shillings and Four Pence; from Christiana to Philadelphia, Three
Halfpence per Bushel, is Three Pounds, Two Shillings and Six Pence; whole Amount,
Fourteen Pounds, Eleven Shillings and Eight Pence; which leaves a Saving, in Favour of
the latter, of Twelve Pounds, Ten Shillings, on every Boat Load of Goods; by which, if
we suppose that the whole Western Trade, and from all the Branches of that River, will
consist of no more than 500 Boat Loads annually, it will amount to a Saving of Six
Thousand Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds a Year, and will be clear of any Difficulty, by
obstructing Fish, the Scantiness of Water in dry Seasons, or the Expence of supporting
Locks or Dams. But it is also necessary to consider the Expence which may be required
for the improvement of each of these Ways, by which we may also be the better able to
judge. I shall first begin at the before mentioned Place, on the Sasquehanna, and proceed
by Way of Reading, and then from the same Place, by the Way of Christiana, to
Philadelphia. Therefore to build a public Warehouse, for the Reception of the Traffic to
be transported, say One Thousand Pounds; to make a good Road, in a hilly Country, 40
Miles, say Fifty Pounds per Mile, is Two Thousand Pounds; to build a Warehouse at
Reading, say One Thousand Pounds; to improve the Navigation of the Schuylkill, by
Locks or Dams, so as to make it passable during dry Seasons, that it may answer, in some
Sort, the End of such a Concourse of Trade, it has been supposed to require Thirty seven
Thousand Five Hundred Pounds; as also a farther Addition from Subscription, and a
Donation from the Public, which is not fixed; therefore I shall suppose it may be Twelve
Thousand Five Hundred Pounds; which will amount, in the whole, to Fifty four Thousand
Pounds, exclusive of any Fund for the keeping these Locks or Dams, Road and
Warehouses, in Repair. And now I shall take a View the other Way. If the Trade is
carried down the River to Peach Bottom, it is about 28 Miles, in which there are four
small Falls, or Rapidities, which are, and have been frequently passed with Craft, and
wants little more than a small Channel to collect the Water, of which there is always
Plenty, that would naturally fall in, for a compleat Navigation in the driest Seasons,
without either Locks or Dams; therefore I shall suppose the Sum of Two Thousand Five
Hundred Pounds will be sufficient to improve this, so as to need no more Expence or
Repairs. --- for a Warehouse at Peach Bottom, say One Thousand Pounds; 27 Miles of
Road, most of which may be made on level and good Ground for that Purpose, for One
Thousand Four Hundred Pounds; For a Warehouse on Christiana, say One Thousand
Pounds; and as the Navigation in that Creek is sufficient for a Vessel to carry 3000
Bushels as far up as is necessary for this Purpose, therefore the Expence of improving
this Way, seems to amount to the Sum of Five Thousand Nine Hundred Pounds, to make
it secure against any future Expence, except repairing the Road and Warehouses, which
leaves a Ballance against the other of Forty eight Thousand One Hundred Pounds. And if
we were to add the Principal of the Saving in the annual Transportation, being Six
Thousand Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds per Year, which is more than the whole
Expence of the latter, or one Half of what is proposed by Subscription, and to be given by
the Province, to the former, the Principal is One Hundred and Four Thousand, One
Hundred and Sixty six Pounds, Thirteen Shillings and Four Pence; which, added to the
other Saving in the improving Part, makes One Hundred and Fifty two Thousand, Two
Hundred and Sixty six Pounds, Thirteen Shillings and Four Pence; and is the Sum which
will be necessary for the Improvement of the Communication by the Schuylkill, more
than by that of Christiana, exclusive of the yearly Expence that must attend the keeping
Locks or Dams in Repair, the obstructing of Fish, or the Trade that must be lost by this
(or rather gained by the much more expeditious and cheap Communication of the other)
in favouring the Interest of such whose Situations will incline them to go to other Places
with their Produce, even altho'the Markets may not be so good for either selling or
buying, rather than encounter the Expences, Hardships and Difficulties, which have, and,
in a great Measure, do attend their present Mode of Communication with Philadelphia, as
also in carrying on the Western Indian Trade; ---- of which if a Computation was made,
the above Sum may be very justly doubled, before Art in the one can be rendered of equal
Advantage, with what Nature has so kindly done to the other ---- Not to give the
Preference where the natural Advantages are so evident, would be the Heighth of
Partiality, and to neglect an Improvement, so essential for the Increase and Continuance
of the Trade and Prosperity of this Province, when Circumstances may afford, is a Thing
foreign to the well known Wisdom of our Legislature. Therefore I shall conclude with the
following Queries, viz. whether it might not be necessary to send some Persons to
reconnoitre the principal Branches of the Sasquehanna, and from the Head of the
Western, to the Allegany River, in order to obtain more particular Knowledge of its
Utility? --- And also to give a Reward to such as shall be the first Adventurers in this
Inland Navigation. The whole is offered to the Consideration of the judicious Reader, by
ELUCIDATUS.

January 18, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To the Printers of the PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE.
GENTLEMEN, By giving the following Piece (in Vindication of a former Proposition) a
Place in your useful Paper, you will oblige
A FRIEND.
AMONGST the many Essays which have appeared of late in Favour of the Improvement
of Inland Navigation, I have seen none so extensive as Patrius. This Gentleman has not
only resumed, and enlarged on the political Advantages set forth by others, but he also
proposes a thorough Reformation of the manners of, as he says, an uncivilized, barbarian,
lazy, licentious and lawless People, who, for want of a better Intercourse, are become
seditious and dangerous; and if that be the Case, if this is their true Character, and the
best Method of Reformation, I think it will add much to the Expediency of such an
Improvement. Therefore, by granting the Points so generally agreed on, and so well
supported, as also that this Gentleman may be a Judge of the Characters of the back
Inhabitants, I shall pass over these Things, by introducing those Points wherein I am
better acquainted, and in which we seem to vary in Opinion, viz. The most proper and
necessary Improvement first to be made, and the best Channel of Conveyance between
the Sasquehanna and Philadelphia. The first I have always conceived to be, that which
would relieve the most distant Inhabitants, who labour under the greatest Difficulties;
preserve the Trade, that otherwise would be lost; extend a Trade, that cannot so well be
done any other Way, and with the least Expence, which may all be effected in improving
the navigation of the Sasquehanna, by Way of Christiana, to Philadelphia; as a further
demonstration of which, I shall give the following Reasons, viz.
The Navigation of the Sasquehanna, between this Gentlemanproposed Carrying place,
and that at Peach Bottom, is already better than the navigation of the Schuylkill ever can
be made; the Lowness of the whole Expence to Philadelphia; the Easiness of this
improvement, which may be compleated for less than Four Thousand Pounds --- when
compared with the Expence of improving and repairing; the Charges, Delays and
Difficulties, which will ever attend his Communication, will bear no reasonable
Proportion, and even after the Schuylkill Improvement is done, those wicked back
Inhabitants will be so injudicious as to pass by his safe Channel, except they are stopt by
Force, which will be very hard to do, when they become conversant with the Civilized,
and understand that by going one DayJourney lower down, they may save from Ten to
Fifteen Pounds, in the Expences of every Boat Load to and from Philadelphia. And
moreover, as the worst Falls are below Peach bottom, by stopping the Trade at the upper
Place, the Odds in the Expence to Philadelphia, more than to Baltimore Town, will be
about Seven pence per Bushel; that by coming to the lower Carrying place, it may be
reduced to One Penny, which the Influence of Philadelphia will ballance; and as it would
be reshipped on board of Shallops, too high up Christiana to be met by Sea Vessels after,
and it has ever been a Custom not to abate any Thing in the Freight on selling between
that Place and Philadelphia; also that the Wilmington Merchants do not ship one Quarter
Part that comes to their own Landing, but employ many Shallops in carrying from them
to this City; therefore I would query, which of the two Propositions is the most
practicable, or which the most dangerous to the Welfare of this Province, in losing its
Trade? And whether his Plan will not militate more in Favour of these Bugbears,
Maryland and Wilmington, than the other? ---- But as this Gentleman seems so tenacious
in collecting and carrying on the Trade by private Ways, I shall query, whether it will not
be too great a Risque to trust those Inhabitants, that live up Delaware, to come by
Trenton, Bordentown and Burlington, or if it might not be more safe to send them also
over to the Schuylkill, which, as he says, leads beyond the northern Bounds of this
Province; altho', I must confess, it is further than what I have been informed of before,
and shall venture to say, if so, it must lead a great Way under Ground; but as my Friend
seems to be offended at Pen and Ink Men, and lest I should provoke him to use his Types
again, I shall conclude by recommending a few Maxims, which I have thought the most
reasonable, to improve those Avenues, which Nature has marked out to be the easiest and
cheapest, and lead the Trader by his Interest, but not drive him; if this cannot be done, be
contented to barter, which is a Thing this Province, and in particular the Inhabitants of
Philadelphia, have always gained by. ---- By improving, the Delaware and Schuylkill
may be made very useful to about one Third of this Province; but when it is considered,
those are not the most burthened; that little or no Trade can be lost by delaying; that from
the Smallness of those Streams, and their Falls, the navigation would be uncertain in dry
Seasons, and the Expence in improving great, when compared with the Lowness of the
Expence, and the many superior Advantages that would be gained by improving the
Sasquehanna, by Way of Christiana, must determine it to be the most proper Object at
this Time. A FRIEND TO IMPROVEMENT.

February 22, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
SIX DOLLARS Reward.
RUN away the 16th Instant from the Subscriber in Germantown, a Dutch servant lad,
named Valentine Gilman, but commonly went by the name of Felty, about 19 or 20 years
of age, he is about 5 feet 4 or 5 inches high, well set, round shouldered, and of down
look, speaks tolerable English; wears his own hair, of a brown colour, had on, when he
went away, a blue great coat, a cloth coloured cloth jacket, with cuffs to the sleeves, one
light coloured ditto, without sleeves, lapelled, fustian breeches, one old check shirt, but it
is thought he has some others with him, grey yarn stockings, half worn, shoes, with large
carved metal buckles, and a felt hat, almost new; it is thought he will make toward
Reading, or Christiana, as he has a Father living near Reading, and a Brother near
Christiana Bridge. Whoever takes up and secures said servant, so that his master may
have him again, shall have the above reward, and reasonable charges, paid by
DANIEL LUCKEN.

March 1, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Messieurs HALL and SELLERS, Your inserting the following Answer to a Piece
published in your Gazette, No. 2147, will greatly oblige your constant Customer and
Friend, A. C.
THE Navigation being so far obstructed, that the above Gazette came too late, to
animadvert on a very extraordinary Essay, which appears in No. 2147, signed, A Lover of
Improvement, and a Pennsylvanian, I thought it therefore my Duty to embrace this
Opportunity. This Refiner in Improvements, for the Good of his Country, has proposed a
Scheme for the Amendment of old Roads, and making new Roads; in which Scheme, he
has been pleased to charge the Shallopmen, belonging to the "Landings on Christiana,
such as the Bridge, Newport, and Wilmington, in New Castle County, with being
unworthy of Trust; in one of which said Places, many of the Inhabitants of Pennsylvania
have suffered Loss, by entrusting said Shallopmen with the Produce of their Labour, to be
transported to Philadelphia, several of which, he is well satisfied, would not trust them
again,"if his Schemes took Effect. He also asserts, that when the Pennsylvania Farmers
bring the Produce of their Country down to said Landings, they sell it under Price, for
Fear of trusting it in the Hands of the Shallopmen to sell for them; and when that is done,
the Farmer must wait several Weeks, at Times, for a Return, and it must be in Money,
and when got, perhaps lay it out for Goods at second Hand." This Author has pursued a
very disingenuous Method of causing his scheme for the Public good to obtain, by
interspersing therein, a Number of groundless Falshoods, and severe Calumnies against a
Body of honest, useful and industrious Men in Society, which he stupidly imagines will
give Credit to the futile Measures he has devised among weak People, or Persons on a
Level with his own Understanding. It is well known to be an undoubted Truth, that the
said Shallopmen generally sell the Produce brought by the Backwaggons at least Three
Pence per Hundred more, than that which is carried to Philadelphia in such Waggons;
how then does the Farmer suffer, and how will Philadelphia be profited, by expending an
immense Sum of Money, on Account of said Roads; besides establishing a perpetual Tax,
by Way of Turnpike, on the Inhabitants, in their present distressed Situation? It is also
unquestionably true, that the Shallopmens Back freight for Goods purchased in
Philadelphia, agreeable to the FarmerOrders, is far less than what stands them in for
Goods they buy in Philadelphia to be carried in their Waggons. I now call on this Lover
of Improvement to point out these dishonest Shallopmen he squints at, and come from
behind his Ambush, and sign his Name to such Performance; he hath no Need to be
afraid of speaking the Truth, especially in his CountryCause, who hath Truth and Justice
for the Foundation of his Assertions. But it seems, there is not a Trustworthy Person
belonging to said Landings, according to our EssayistOpinion; which causes me to
believe, that he is a real Lover of Improvement, especially of Lies: I can assure him, the
Shallopmens Integrity is too well established, and their courage too invincible, to be
terrified with the Howlings of any dull heavy Politician, or gloomy Detractor.
Numberless are the Instances in History, of many pretended Patriots exhibiting specious
Schemes for the Good of the Common Wealth; when, by fatal Experience, their real
Motives have proved to arise from a View, either to their private Interests, to satisfy their
Ambition, gratify their Malice, or to carry some favourite Point. If it was worth the
Attention of the Public, I could very readily show, what an uncommon Composition of
Slander, Ignorance and Vanity, appear in this whole Essay. He has condescended at last,
to submit his Scheme, relative to the Roads, Slander and all, to wiser Heads to determine;
but I should entertain a very mean Opinion of the Wisdom or Virtue of those Heads, who
would busy themselves either with him, or his Schemes.
Newport, on Christiana, An Inhabitant of Newport, and Feb. 23, 1770. A Lover of Truth.

March 29, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FIFTY DOLLARS Reward.
RUN away last night, from the subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, in New Castle
county, a servant man, named William Watters, a shoemaker by trade, a likely well set
fellow, about 25 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches high, smooth face, very talkative, and
amorous with women; he has been in the country several years, and well acquainted in
Philadelphia, and several parts of the country; it is likely he will endeavour to get towards
New York, Boston, or some part to the northward. Whoever takes up the said servant,
and brings him to me, shall receive, if taken in this government, Six Dollars; if in the
province of Pennsylvania, Twelve Dollars; if in the Jerseys, Twenty Dollars; if in New
York, or Boston, Fifty Dollars, paid by me
March 20, 1770. ALLEN GILLESPIE.
N.B. He went off in company with another runaway man, named Thomas Littler, a lusty
likely man, 5 feet 8 inches high. --- As the above Watters has been guilty of every base
crime, excepting murder, I make no doubt but every good man will exert himself, in
detecting such a villain. I do forewarn all persons from harbouring or dealing with the
above Watters.
Allen Gillespie.

May 10, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
For LONDON, immediately, (Having three fourths of her cargoe ready to go on board)
The SHIP PHILADELPHIA PACKET, THOMAS MOORE, Master; A prime sailer, and
has good accommodations for passengers. For freight or passage apply to said master at
the London Coffee House, or to JOHN WILLDAY; who has for sale, at his store in
Fourth street, near Market street, opposite the Indian Queen, Persians, 3 qr. mantuas,
tobines, flowered sattin, and brocaded silks, cotton counterpanes, bed ticking, a small
assortment of hardware, 3d. nails, felt hats, sail cloth, No. 1 and 5, crocus bagging, wool
cards, cags of short pipes, nests of English brass kettles, roll brimstone, madder, chalk,
whiting, and grindstones, &c. --- And at his store at Christiana Bridge, almost a general
assortment of all kinds of good wanted in that part of the country.

August 16, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ON the 30th of July last, was stolen from William Patterson, near Christiana Bridge, New
Castle County, a middle sized, well made horse, of a dark bay colour, about 9 years old,
in very good order; he is a natural pacer, with a long switch tail, a hanging mane, shod
before, and some white hairs on his neck. It is fully believed that the said horse was
stolen by a servant lad, named ROBERT McDERMED, belonging to Mr. James Partrige,
living at the aforesaid place; he, said servant, being seen (in company with another man)
to have said horse in his custody. As a considerable quantity of clothes were stolen at the
time the aforesaid McDermed ran away, his apparel cannot fully be described, but was
seen to have on a bluish dark outside coat, with a striped jacket, bluish breeches, and blue
ribbed stockings. Who ever takes up and secures said horse, so that I may have him
again, shall receive Forty Shillings reward; also Forty Shillings for the thief, so that he
may be brought to justice, paid by WILLIAM PATTERSON.
N.B. It is supposed that the above McDermed intended to cross Sasquehannah, near
Peach Bottom.

October 11, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
New castle, October 1, 1770.
ALL Persons indebted to Frederick Otto, of the Town of Christiana Bridge, in Newcastle
County, Practitioner of Physick, by Bond, Bill, Note, Book debt, or otherwise, are desired
(to prevent Trouble) to pay their respective Debts unto the Subscriber, before the first
Day of November next, who is impowered to receive the same. And also all Persons,
indebted to the Subscriber, by Bond, Bill, Note, Book Account; or otherwise, above three
Months, are requested to make immediate Payment (to enable him to settle his Accounts
with his Creditors) otherwise he will be under the disagreeable Necessity of putting them
into an AttorneyHands to recover. ROBERT MACK.

October 18, 1770
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL Persons indebted to Frederick Otton, of the Town of Christiana Bridge, in
Newcastle County, Practitioner of Physick, by Bond, Bill, Note, Book debt, or otherwise,
are desired (to prevent trouble) to pay their respective Debts unto the Subscriber, before
the first Day of November next, who is impowered to receive the same. And also all
Persons indebted to the Subscriber, by Bond, Bill, Note, Book Account, or otherwise,
above three Months, are requested to make immediate Payment (to enable him to settle
his Accounts with his Creditors) otherwise he will be under the disagreeable Necessity of
putting them into an AttorneyHands to recover. ROBERT MACK.

January 3, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Philadelphia, January 3, 1771. A COMPLEAT CLERK, that can be well recommended,
and will give security for his sobriety and honesty, may meet with employ, by applying to
WILLDAY and MONTGOMERY.
Who have for sale, at their store, in Fourth street, near Market street, An assortment of
felt hats, pepper, Russia sheeting, boxes of tin plates, milled lead and shot, wool cards,
alloms, roll brimstone, and a small assortment of silks; also the time of an English servant
girl.
Said Willday and Montgomery have for sale, at their stores, at Christiana Bridge, and at
the Head of Elk, A large assortment of European and West India goods, which they will
sell, wholesale and retail, remarkable low for cash, or country produce.

February 14, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be SOLD by PUBLIC SALE, on Tuesday, the 5th day of March, at Christiana Bridge,
at twelve osaid day, SIX LOTS, lying in and about the Village aforesaid, belonging to the
estate of GEORGE HILLIS, senior, deceased. Two of said lots are valuable, having front
on Christiana creek; any of them is so large as to admit of very considerable buildings,
&c. as may be seen by the plan, on said day, or any other time, by us the subscribers. Six
months credit will be given, on the purchasers giving their bonds, and security, if
required, by us, SAMUEL PATTERSON, and GEORGE HILLIS, junior, Executors.
N.B. All persons indebted to the estate of said Hillis, deceased, by bond, bill, or book
debt, are desired to come immediately and discharge the same, to prevent trouble, to said
Patterson and Hillis.

February 21, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Caecil County, January 15, 1771.
COMMITTED to my custody, as a runaway, JOHN LAUGHLEY, about 30 years of age,
5 feet 6 or 7 inches high, black hair and beard; has on, an old felt hat, a short white jacket,
and an old pair of trowsers. His master, if any, is desired to pay charges, and take him
away.
RICHARD THOMAS, Sheriff.
N.B. He says he has worked about Christiana Bridge, and that Mr. Samuel Patterson
knows him.

March 7, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, February 13, 1771.
RUN away from the subscriber, last Sunday, a certain EDWARD McCOLGAN, born in
Ireland, aged 32 or 33 years, about 5 feet 6 inches high, fresh coloured, has long blackish
hair, a little marked with the smallpox, and rocks in his walking: Had on, when he went
away, a light grey napped duffil coat and waistcoat, bound and lined, tape the same
colour as the coat, the waistcoat wore a good deal below his breast, light coloured cloth
breeches, old blue yarn stockings, new shoes, one buckled with a broad brass buckle, the
other tied with a leather string. Whoever takes up and secures said servant, so that his
master may have him again, if within the county of New Castle, shall receive the sum of
Forty Shillings, or out of said county, Three Pounds, and reasonable charges, upon
delivering him to PATRICK McGONNEGAL.

March 28, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
A LIST of Numbers that came up PRIZES in the second Class of the NEW ARK LAND
and CASH LOTTERY, drawn at Christiana Bridge, March 23, 1771...
I Certify that the above is a just and true List of Prizes, drawn in the Second Class of the
Newark LAND and CASH LOTTERY, drawn at Christiana Bridge, March 23, 1771.
STEPHEN BAYARD, Check Clerk.
Compared with the Check, a true Copy, SAMUEL PATTERSON.

May 2, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
RUN away, on the 26th of last month, a certain MICHAEL CONNOR, by trade a Barber;
he has a very great stoppage in his speech; had on, when he went away, a Wilton coat,
without lining; a white dimity jacket, new shoes, with a pair of silver buckles; he is
supposed to be gone to New York; he stole several articles out of my house. Any person
taking up the said Michael, and securing him, so that I may have him again, shall have
Forty Shillings reward, paid by me JOSEPH RUTH, living at Christiana Bridge, New
Castle county.

May 16, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, May 16.
The List of the Numbers that came up Prizes in the New castle and Christiana
Presbyterian Church Lottery, is come to hand, but, for Want of Room, is obliged to be
deferred till next Week.

May 23, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
SUPPLEMENT to the PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE. No. 2213. A LIST of the
NUMBERS that came up PRIZES in the NEW CASTLE and CHRISTIANA BRIDGE
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH LOTTERY; the drawing of which began at New castle the
16th, and ended the 19th of April, 1771...
June 27, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Imported in the Pennsylvania Packet, Captain Osborne, and other vessels, late from
London, and the last vessels from Liverpool, and to be sold by
WILLDAY and MONTGOMERY, At their store in Fourth street, a little below Market
street, PRINTED linens and cottons; India calicoes and chints; 7- 8ths and yd. wide Irish
linens; 10 and 11 nail, 3 qr. 7- 8ths, yd. wide and yd. and 3-8ths cotton and linen checks;
striped hollands; drawboys; corded dimothies; super and superfine broadcloths; fine and
common shaloons; durants; tammies; callimancoes; camblets and camblettees; German
serges; red and white flannels; velvets and velverets; thicksets; mohair; shag; black
lasting; cotton gown patterns; damascus; Russia sheetings; hempen and flaxen ozenbrigs;
sail canvas; boys, youths and mens, felt and castor hats; bound felt caps; an assortment of
hatters trimmings; mens and womens black and white lamb gloves; womens black, white,
and cloth coloured silk mitts; mens black, white and coloured silk, mens and womens
thread, and boys and mens grey and black worsted hose; black and cloth coloured
breeches patterns; 6 qr. bed bunts; jeans and fustians; buckrams; basket buttons; silk and
hair twist; sewing silks; white and coloured threads; Holland tapes; Hanover and white
thread cap lace; silk laces and garters; gartering; bobbin; ribbons; needles; pins; writing
paper; womens callimancoe and damask shoes; black Barcelona, blue and white, and red
and white lawn, and 3 qr. 7-8ths and yard, check handkerchiefs; nonsopretties; wool,
cotton, and tow cards; London steel, A.C. No. 3, and T. Crowley, 3; nutmegs, cinnamon,
mace, cloves, pepper, chalk, whiting, &c. Also a neat assortment of silks, consisting of
brocades, mantuas, striped lutestrings, persians, taffaties, sattins, paduasoys, &c. all
which will be sold low, for cash.
N.B. they have for sale, at their stores, near Christiana Bridge, and at the Head of Elk, a
very large assortment of goods, suitable to any season, which will be sold cheap for cash,
or such produce as will answer.
June 20, 1771.

August 22, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, August 19, 1771.
RUN away from the subscriber, a native Irish servant Boy, named Patrick Ferrell, about
18 years of age, 5 feet 3 or 4 inches high, black hair and eyes, broad fore teeth, and has a
little of the brogue on his tongue: Had on, and took with him, when he went away (the
12th of this instant August) a blue coat, yellowish striped linsey jacket, the stripes of
which go across, or round his body, a pair long, and a pair short trowsers, and shoes full
of nails, much worn, the hind part of them ript, and sewed up with twine; three shirts, two
of which are coarse Irish brown linen, the other Russia sheeting. He left his hat behind,
but possibly may have procured one. He writes a tolerable hand, and may forge some
kind of pass. Whoever secures the above servant in any of his Majestygoals, and gives
me notice, shall receive Twenty Shillings, and if brought home, reasonable charges, paid
by JAMES PARTRIDG
October 24, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WILLDAY & MONTGOMERY, Have IMPORTED, in the Britannia, Captain Falconer,
from London, the Chalkley, Captain Montgomery, from Bristol, and other vessels from
England, A Large assortment of MERCHANDIZE, suitable to the season, which will be
disposed of on low terms, at their store, on the west side of Fourth street, a few doors
below Market street. ---- They have a compleat assortment of GOODS, at their stores,
near Christiana Bridge, and at the Head of Elk, which will be sold, wholesale and retail,
on the most reasonable terms, for cash or country produce.

November 7, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To the Honourable RICHARD PENN, Esq; Lieutenant Governor, and Commander in
Chief, of the Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex, on Delaware, and of the Province
of Pennsylvania, The humble ADDRESS of the Minister, Elders and Committee Men of
the ancient Presbyterian Church of New Castle and Christiana Bridge.
May it please your HONOUR,
WE improve this earliest Opportunity to congratulate your Honour, upon your safe
Arrival in this Government, and your Appointment to succeed your Honourable Brother,
our late worthy Governor, to whom we feel the warmest Gratitude for his mild, equitable
and just Administration, whilst amongst us.
We esteem ourselves still happy in having one of the same Family to preside over us; ---
a Family, to which this Colony is under many Obligations for peculiar Favours and
Privileges. We hope and pray, that your Administration may be attended with Ease and
Satisfaction to yourself, with Prosperity and Happiness to the People; and that, having
filled up your Station in this Life with Honour and Dignity, you may, at last, be rewarded
with immortal Glory.Signed by
JOSEPH MONTGOMERY, Minister.
W. PATTERSON,A. PORTER,
G. MONRO, Elders. T. McKEAN, Committee
T. MOORE,S. PATTERSON, Men.


J. THOMPSON
To which his HONOUR was pleased to return this ANSWER.
GENTLEMEN,
I RECEIVE with Pleasure your Congratulation upon my safe Arrival among you : The
Compliment you pay to the Administration of my Brother is highly grateful to me, and I
flatter myself, that by following his good Example, I may hereafter be entitled to the
same Marks of your Approbation; I consider it my Duty, and it shall ever be my Study, to
preserve inviolable, to every religious Society, all its just Rights and Privileges.
To the Honourable RICHARD PENN, Esq. Lieutenant Governor, and Commander in
Chief, of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex, on
Delaware.
May it please your HONOUR,
WE, the Minister, Elders and Deacons, of the Scotch Presbyterian Church of
Philadelphia, beg Leave to approach you, and unite our warmest Congratulations with
those of other Denominations of Christians in this City, upon the happy Occasion of your
Arrival, and Accession to the Government of this Province.
While we congratulate your Honour upon this joyful Event, we cannot help looking
around us, and felicitating one another, that we have the Prospect of living under your
Administration; and Administration from which we promise ourselves all that Happiness,
which eminent Abilities, and amiable Virtues, never fail of ensuring to a People.
This highly favoured Colony owes its Constitution, its present flourishing State, and the
many distinguishing Blessings, it enjoys, under God, to the Wisdom and Goodness of
your illustrious Ancestors. We now look forward with Pleasure, and anticipate a
Continuation of those, through the Channel of their Prosterity.
Permit us to assure your Honour, that it shall be our constant Endeavour, each in our little
Spheres, to do all that lies in our Power to render your Seat in Government easy and
comfortable : And while we continue to maintain and inculcate Loyalty to our King, and
Subordination to the higher Powers, we shall always hope for your Countenance and
Protection to our Infant Church.
We cannot leave your Presence without adding, that our Prayers shall never be wanting to
Almighty God, that every public and private Blessing may be showered down upon you;
that after a long --- an useful, and a happy Life, your Name may be enrolled in the
Records of Fame, and, through the Merits of our Lord Jesus Christ, you may receive a
Crown of Glory, which shall never fade away. Signed, by Order of the Kirk Session,
WILLIAM MARSHALL.
His HONOUR ANSWER.
GENTLEMEN,
I VERY heartily thank you for this your congratulatory Address upon my Arrival here,
and Appointment to the Government.
When you kindly attribute the flourishing State of this Colony, and the many
distinguishing Advantages which it enjoys, to the Wisdom and good Policy of my
Ancestors, you may rest assured, that, to the utmost of my Power and Ability, I shall
labour to cultivate and preserve its happy Constitution.
The Assurances which you offer, that your kind Endeavours shall be employed to
maintain the Peace of Government, very justly entitle you to all the Countenance and
Protection which I can give to your Infant Church.

November 14, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, November 14.
To the Honourable RICHARD PENN, Esq; Lieutenant Governor, and Commander in
Chief, of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex,
upon Delaware.
The humble ADDRESS of the Commissary, Pastors and Minister Extraordinary, of the
Swedish Lutheran Mission on Delaware, together with the Rector, Church wardens and
Vestrymen, of the United Incorporated Swedish Lutheran Churches of Wicacoa,
Kingsessing and Upper Merion, in the County of Philadelphia; and of the Rector, Church
wardens and Vestrymen, of the Swedish Lutheran Church at Christiana, in New Castle
County.
May it please your HONOUR,
WE beg Leave to improve the earliest Opportunity our distant Situation affords, of
joining the general Voice of other Societies, in offering up our most sincere and
affectionate Congratulations upon your safe Arrival among us, and happy Accession to
the Government of this Province, and Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex, &c.
Sensible of the kind Protection, religious as well as civil, our Ancestors met with at the
Time it pleased Providence to throw the Reins of Government into the Hands of your
worthy Grandfather, and calling to Remembrance many Instances of favouring
Countenance, our Society hath received from the Honourable Proprietary Family, permit
us, Sir, to flatter ourselves with the Prospect of the same promising Hopes, now glowing
in the Breasts of others; that every due Encouragement and kind Countenance will be
readily granted by your Honour unto a Church, whose Existence has been the most
antient within your Government.
We sincerely wish that the Beginning of your Administration may be moulded into
Prosperity, and that its firm Continuance may be crowned with never failing Satisfaction
to yourself, and undisturbed Happiness to the People whom you preside over.
JOHN WICKSELL, Commissary.
ANDREW GOERANSSON, Rector of Wicacoa, Kingsessing and Upper Merion
Churches.
LAWRENCE GERILIUS, Rector of the Church at Christiana.


The GOVERNOR ANSWER.
GENTLEMEN,
I RETURN you my hearty Thanks for this kind and obliging Address, and particularly for
your good Wishes towards me, and the very respectful Manner in which you speak of my
Family. You may be assured, that the antient Church, to which you belong, shall receive
from me, upon every Occasion, all the Encouragement in my Power to give it.
On the 5th Instant departed this Life, at Cohansey, the Rev. WILLIAM RAMSAY, M. A.
after a tedious Sickness of 8 Weeks, which he bore with Christian Patience and
Resignation. It may be truly affirmed of him, that he was a kind Husband, a tender
Parent, an affectionate Friend, a faithful evangelic Minister, and a SINCERE
CHRISTIAN. His animated Preaching, and exemplary Life, made him truly respectable,
and eminently useful. What he preached in the Pulpit, his Life preached out of it; being,
as it were, a practical Comment on that holy Religion which he so warmly recommended.
In sundry lucid Intervals of his tedious Sickness, he earnestly recommended a Life of
strict Piety to all around him, and repeatedly declared his steady Assurance, that, through
the Merits of Christ, breath natural would be his Birth to Life eternal. Thus cheerfully
resting his Soul on the Doctrines of Grace, which he invariably preached, he expired
without a Sigh or a Groan. - --- See with what Peace a Christian can die. Captain Lindsay,
from Liverpool, on the 19th of last Month, in Lat. 37 : 39, Long. 59 : 41, spoke the
Rainbow, Captain Powell, from Colerain for New York, 6 Weeks out, all well. On the
21st, in Lat. 37 : 47, Long. 63 : 30, he passed close by the Wreck of a large Sloop, New
England built; her Mast was carried away about six Feet above the Deck, and her
Bowsprit gone, no Body on board; she had a black Stern, and bright Sides, was full of
Water, and had Lumber swimming in the Hatchway; her Boat was gone, and every Thing
off her Deck, except some of her Rigging, and did not appear to have been long in that
Condition; a Gale of Wind coming on, prevented his going on board, to make any further
Discovery.
The Sloop Hannah, Captain May, which sailed about the 12th of September from St.
Eustatia for this Port, is put into North Carolina to refit, having on the Passage, on the
20th, met with a violent Gale of Wind, in which a Sea struck the Vessel with such Force,
that it unstepped the Mast, which in its Fall tore up Part of the Deck, laid her on her
Beam Ends, shifted the Hold, and carried away her Bowsprit; after getting clear of the
Mast, they trimmed the Hold, and she righted; and when the Gale abated they got up a
Jury mast, and arrived in Carolina 15 Days afterwards.
Captain Williams, arrived here from St. Eustatia, informs, that the Brig Peggy, Captain
Conyngham, from this Place, arrived at Antigua, after a tedious Passage, having lost his
Mainmast, disabled his Foremast, and damaged his Cargoe, in a Gale of Wind. And that
Captain Vickery, in a Brig from Virginia, is arrived at Montserrat, with the Loss of his
Masts; the Vessel and Cargoe a good Deal damaged.
Captain Carlisle was to sail from St. Christophers for this Port, about the 28th of last
Month.


ARRIVALS.
From Philadelphia. Captain Miller, at Dublin; Campbell, at Halifax; Caton, at St.
Christophers; and Captain Woods, at Dominica.
The Snow Dickinson, Captain Johnson, of this Port, is arrived at Dublin from Baltimore.
Captain Scovell, from New York, is arrived at St. Eustatia.
Captain McGowan, from Londonderry, is arrived at Halifax. Captain Smith is arrived at
Liverpool, and Captain Samson, at Bristol, both from Virginia. --- And Captain Pole,
from Maryland, at Milford.
Gravesend, Sept. 10. Arrived, the Ann, Lawrence, from New York; and Plassey, Hanzel,
from Piscataqua.
Deal, Sept. 10. Came down and sailed, the Hand-in-Hand, Berrien, for Philadelphia.


At a General Meeting of the Contributors to the Scheme for promoting the Culture of
Silk, the first Instant, the following Gentlemen were chosen Managers. Benjamin
Morgan, Dr. William Smith, Dr. Cadwalader Evans, Dr. Francis Alison, Edward
Penington, Thomas Clifford, Abel James, Dr. Charles Moore, Isaac Bartram, Joseph
Pemberton, Robert Strettell Jones, Samuel Miles.
Treasurer, William Smith.
*** Tomorrow, at Three o'Clock in the Afternoon, will be sold by public Vendue, at the
Filature, in Seventh street, a Quantity of Floss and Refuse Silk. Nov. 14, 1771.

November 21, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
New Castle, November 16, 1771.
STOLEN or STRAYED, from the door of James Reidtavern, at Christiana Bridge, on
Friday night, the 8th instant, a BAY MARE, nine or ten years old, shod before, blind of
the left eye, her forehead mixed with grey hairs, a natural pacer, the off hind foot white:
Had on, when taken away, a half worn saddle, with a hog skin seat and crupper, no saddle
cloth or girth. Whoever takes up said mare, and brings her to the subscriber, living in
New Castle, shall have TWENTY SHILLINGS reward, and reasonable charges, paid by
MATTHIAS VAN BEBBER.

November 21, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Philadelphia, November 16, 1771.
A CERTAIN servant man, named ROBERT MOORE, by trade a Weaver, who came
from Ireland in the brig Dolphin, last May, and, on the 28th of September, went from this
city towards Christiana Bridge, under pretence of finding a friend to release him, is
desired to return to Philadelphia, before the 30th of this instant; otherwise be will be
advertised as a runaway. The Subscriber has opened an EVENING SCHOOL (with a
well qualified assistant) at his School House, in Union Street, near Second Street; where
are taught writing, arithmetic, and book-keeping, geometry, trigonometry, algebra,
mensuration, gauging, surveying, navigation, geography, &c. &c.
ANDREW PORTER.


December 19, 1771
The Pennsylvania Gazette
LIST OF LETTERS remaining in the Post Office, at Lancaster….
M. George Moore, Carpenter, Whitecliffs, on the Mississippi. John McClay, New
Munster, Milford Hundred, near the Rev. Mr. GillespieMeeting house. John Magennis,
Schoolmaster. James McMaster, Lancaster county. George McChance, Strabane
township. York county. Jacob Martin, Pequea. William Moore, to the care of William
Pollock, Carlisle. Hugh Moore, Lancaster county. Alexander Magee, to the care of Mrs.
Hopkins, near Pequea. John McNutt, Cornwall. Thomas McCord, Paxton. James Moore,
junior, Forks of Brandywine. William McCleur, Hanover township. James McDill,
Pequea. John McKissack, Schoolmaster, York county. James McCausland, to the care of
John Montgomery, Christiana Bridge. James McCants, Chestnut Level. William McKay,
to the care of Samuel Lefever, Lancaster county. Daniel Manich, Leacock township.
James McCullough, Carlisle. Patt. Magee, to the care of Geo. Stakes, Little York.
Andrew McLean, to the care of Robert Thompson, Lancaster county. John McDivil,
Cumberland county. John Moore, ditto. James Miller, Pequea. Dr. McDonnell,
Cumberland county. James McCarrol, Strabane township, York county. James Moore,
Pequea, Leacock township. Jacob Means, Strabane, York county. Andrew McFarland,
Fort Pitt. John McMahon, Paxton. James McMonagle, Cumberland county. William
McHonney, Caecil county, near Christiana Bridge, Maryland. William Moore, to the care
of Francis Leech, Lancaster county. Robert McPherson, Esq; York county. James
McNapper, Little Britain, Lancaster county.
March 5, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
REMAINDER of the PIECE, relating to PUBLIC ROADS, begun No. 2252 of this
Paper. 3.
IN the next Place, let us endeavour to make some Estimate of the Expence of making our
Turnpike. To do this, it will be necessary to take an exact View of every Part of the
Country, through which it is to pass, and of the Kinds and Quantity of Materials which
this Country affords. It is proposed that the Road be improved from Philadelphia to
WrightFerry, on SASQUEHANNA; which, according to the present Track is 76 Miles,
but, on a straight Line, perhaps, may not exceed 7I0. The Expence of improving such a
Length of Road as this, to b sure, appears, at first Sight, insupportable. But, when we
consider the Via Appia of the ROMANS, which Leipsius tells us was 350 Miles long, 28
of which was carried through a dreadful Swamp; and the whole Road made of square
Freestone, so well laid, that tho'1800 Years have elapsed, since it was first made, it is, in
many Places, quite entire at this Day. When we consider the immense Canal, made at the
Expence of a single Subject of England, I mean the Duke of Bridgewater --- When we
consider the long Canals, made in Ireland, to open a Communication between the Lakes
in the North and the Bay of Newry --- we shall not surely distrust our Ability to effect
what is here proposed. I know it will be said that this is a new Country, and not yet able
to support such an Undertaking. We shall grant the premises, but not the Conclusion. It is
a new Country, to be sure; but not so new, nor, thank god, so poor, as not to be able to
support such an Undertaking as is proposed. I have often heard the Expence of this Road
computed, at Random, at L 100,000. But we hope it will appear that less than Half that
Sum will be sufficient to effect it. The Principles upon which the original Expence of
making Roads in England (paved or gravelled 12 or 14 Feet, as already described) are
these; Two Tons of Materials are allowed to every Yard forward, which will be 3520
Tons to a Mile. Each ton, upon an Average, costs 1 s. and 10 d. all Expences included,
when delivered into the Road, making in the while for Materials, L 322 13 4 a Mile; and
the Labour of forming, placing and banking, &c. is about 9 d. per Yard, which will be L
66 more, amounting in the whole, for Materials and Labour, to L 388 13 4 Sterling, for
every Mile of finished Road.
But when we are speaking of Roads in Pennsylvania, I know it will be thought by some,
that these Prices should, at least, be doubled, to make up the Difference between the
Expence of Labour here and in England. The Difference is undoubtedly very great; for
which Reason the Price of the Labour shall be trebled; and instead of 9 d. per Yard, we
will calculate at 2 s. and 3 d. per Yard. But with Regard to the Price of the Materials,
there should be no Allowance, in the present Case; because the natural Advantages
attending the Conestogoe Road, are so much greater than those that have perhaps
attended the same Extent of Road in any Part of England, that they will reduce the
Sterling Prices to Currency. That is, we shall have as much Materials for L 100 Currency
here, as they can have for L 100 Sterling in England. In many Parts of England the
necessary Materials are not to be obtained without considerable Difficulty and expence.
Stones, Gravel, &c. are often brought 5 and 6 Miles to the Road. Whereas the Country,
through which the Road, proposed here, is to pass, is so plentifully and conveniently
stored with those Articles, that near on Half of it may be made almost without any
Hawling; and the other half will not require much, as the greater Part of it passes through
Lime Stone Quarries, or a gravelly Soil. So that we may take it for granted, that the
Materials will not exceed L 322 13 4 Currency a Mile. The Labour, at 2 s. and 3 d. per
Yard (three Times the Price paid in England) will make L 198 more, which, added to the
materials, will be L 520 13 4 Currency for every Mile of finished Road. This Sum,
multiplied by 70 (the supposed Number of Miles from Philadelphia to WrightFerry, on a
straight Line) will make the whole Expence L 36,446 13 4.
It will appear evident that this Calculation makes a sufficient Allowance, when it is
considered, that it is founded upon a supposition that the Road is to be stoned or
gravelled the whole Way, in the Manner that has been already mentioned. But it will, by
no Means, be necessary to do this. The Road to the Ship, and that through the Radnor
Hills, will require no Improvements of this Kind. Nothing more will be necessary there,
than to form the Road to its proper Breadth, to open Curses on each Side for the Torrents,
occasioned by heavy Rains, to pass along, without touching the Road, and to cut away the
Trees, for some little Distance, so that the Sun and Wind may have their full Power in
drying. Stoning will be necessary only in wet, low and spungy Ground, which perhaps
may not amount to 30 Miles in the whole Distance; and should Stone, gravel, &c. prove
scarce in such Places, Wood may, very advantageously, be substituted in their Room. It is
well known that Wood, buried in moist Ground, and preserved from the Air, will last for
Ages*. Where other Materials therefore fail, we propose that logs of Wood, of 12 or 14
Feet long (the Breadth of the mended Path) be laid close together, and buried, at least 8
Inches below the Surface, and covered with the best Soil that the Place will admit of.
Such a Road will last beyond the present Generation, and we trust the next will be able to
repair it. Indeed, if the Road be well constructed in the Beginning, the whole of it may be
easily kept in Repair. This will be done by appointing Men of Capacity and Integrity as
Commissioners, with proper Powers and rewards to enable and encourage them to do
their Duty. The next Step should be the Establishment of Broad-wheeled Carriages, for
such as constantly use the Road, or that follow Waggoning as an Employment; with an
Indulgence for narrow Wheels to such Persons only, as live at some Distance from the
Road, who only come upon it occasionally and to whose Purposes of Farming, &c.
broad-wheeled Carriages might be inconvenient; provided that for such Indulgence, they
had their Carriages made with one of the Axle Trees a few inches longer than the other,
so that the fore and hind Wheels of each Side shall roll a Surface of considerable Breadth.
Some other Regulations, no Doubt, will be found necessary; but these will be the chief,
and if carefully attended to, the annual Repairs of the Road will b so inconsiderable, as,
perhaps, not to exceed L 20 a Mile.
It will be expected, no Doubt, that these Observations and Estimate should be
accompanied with some Mode or Plan of raising a Fund, for the Purposes mentioned.
This, however, is a Matter which comes not properly within the Design of such loose
Hints. The Wisdom and Prudence of the Legislature will readily point out Ways and
Means to effect this. I would only observe, that equitable Taxes are never to be accounted
Burthens, where they are to be immediately employed for attaining proportionate
Benefits to the Public. The securing, facilitating and extending Commerce, are, in the
present Situation of human Affairs, great Benefits to the Public.
Perhaps a due Regard to the several Circumstances mentioned here, might conduce to
bring about the End proposed. But, after what has been said, if it should still be thought
that the Country is too young to attempt what is called a Turnpike, it is to be hoped that it
will not be thought too young to attempt something else to secure the great Benefits that
have been enumerated. "While we are daily receiving Accounts from all Parts of the
World, of the unwearied Assiduity with which foreign Princes and States are promoting
the commercial Interest of their Dominions"and Countries, we cannot suppose that the
vigilant and public Spirit of PENNSYLVANIA will not drop asleep, and suffer a very
valuable part of her staple Commodity to be wrested out of her Hands. The Products of 3
of the Western Counties are, perhaps, already of more Value than those of all the other
Counties put together. Those Products will greatly increase, and become more valuable
every Day --- 9000 Bushels of Wheat, it is said, have been brought down this Fall from
the Settlements upon Juniata alone to HarrisFerry. The New Purchase is crouding with
Inhabitants, and will, in a very few Years, be a well settled, plentiful Country. Now, to
keep the Trade and Products of those Counties, and of that growing and flourishing
Country, from being carried off to enrich the Inhabitants of another Province; and to turn
them into their native and proper Channel, it is absolutely necessary that proper
Communications should be immediately opened between that Country and the Capital. A
Turnpike Road has already been proposed as Part of a Plan for doing this. If this Part
should not be adopted, let us not lose Sight of the other Parts. Let an Inland Navigation
be opened between Sasquehanna and Schuylkill, by Means of the Waters of Swatara and
Tulpehocken; which may be accomplished at a small Expence, according to the
Information of a gentleman who attended the Surveyor General, and other
Commissioners, who lately took a Level between the Heads of those Creeks, and
observes, in a Letter to a friend, that "Nature has pointed out the Design of joining those
Waters. The Ground is beautiful and level between; and the Heads of Quitiphihilla are so
nearly level with Tulpehocken, that there is but four Inches Difference." The Advantages
of this Communication must appear evident, at first Sight, to any Person who is
acquainted with Pennsylvania, or that will take the Trouble to examine the Map of it. Let
a Road be opened from Peach Bottom to Christiana Creek. Let the Conestogoe Road, at
least, be repaired, at an Expence of L 5000; and let the like Sum be laid out in opening
and clearing the new Road, leading through the Village of Strasburgh.
Two Roads will divide the Number of Travellers, and of Course be less liable to Decay.
They may also raise an Emulation in the Overseers and Tavern keepers of both, which
may be of Advantage to the Public. These are the grand Channels, through which the
very Health and Life of Philadelphia ought to flow, and if these are obstructed, she can
never thrive.
Much more might be said upon this Subject --- But, for my own Part, being sensible of
my Inability to treat it as it deserves, I set out only with a Design to select some Extracts
from Mr. Homer, and to offer a few scattered Hints of my own; in Hopes of exciting
those, who possess more Leisure and Experience, to impart their Knowledge and
Sentiments to the Public; by which Means the best Informations and Schemes may be
obtained, and the principal End, at last, accomplished. Whether any thing proposed here
may contribute to this important Purpose, I know not. But this I declare, that it has been
dictated by a Zeal for the Welfare of this flourishing Province. And that my Wishes are,
that Philadelphia may one Day be crowning City, whose Merchants shall be Princes,
whose Traffickers shall be the honourable of the Earth." And that Source of Improvement
to the Trade, Wealth and Prosperity of PENNSYLVANIA, by whatever Means
accomplished, may, together with its Liberty, be immortal."CLERICUS.
* Witness the Timber, dug out of the Bogs of Ireland, and other Countries, supposed to
have lain there since the Deluge, which is yet hard and found.

May 21, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, NEW CASTLE, and BALTIMORE STAGES, For the Conveyance of
Passengers and Goods, to either of said Places. NOTICE is hereby given, that a Stage
boat, completely fitted, for the reception of goods and passengers, and commanded by
Joseph Tatlow, is now ready to ply betwixt Philadelphia and New Castle, and will leave
the Crooked Billet wharff, in Philadelphia, every Sunday (except when the navigation is
obstructed by ice) and proceed to New castle, where a convenient Stage waggon kept by
Robert Furniss, will set off on Mondays, with the goods and passengers, for Frenchtown,
on Elk river, from whence a Stage boat, kept by Thomas Henderson, will, on Tuesdays,
convey the goods, &c. to Baltimore Town, in Maryland, and there will lay till Sundays, at
Mr. Benjamin Howard wharff, then return to French town, where Robert Furniss Waggon
will meet him on Mondays and set off immediately for New Castle, from whence Joseph
TatlowBoat will proceed with the goods and passengers to Philadelphia, where the
Bordentown and Burlington Stage boats will receive any goods or passengers bound for
New York.
This being the nearest way by land and water from the city of Philadelphia to Baltimore
Town, we hope it will induce Gentlemen and Ladies to try this Stage, in preference to any
other, as they may depend on the greatest care and punctuality by each of us, in the
performance of the Stages, and as they can go this way with a greater from delays on
their journey, than any other yet found out, and at the same rates as are paid by Christiana
Bridge, or Hamburgh Landing.
N.B. Goods will be received and delivered by Mr. Mark Alexander, in Baltimore Town,
in the absence of the Stageboat; by Mr. Thomas Frisby Henderson, at French town; by
Robert Furniss, at New Castle; and by Mrs. Terry, at the Crooked Billet, in Philadelphia.

July 9, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
THE Drawing of the Christiana Bridge Land and Cash LOTTERY, in New Castle
County, on Delaware, for disposing of Eight Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy six
Acres of Land, containing 44 valuable Plantations, situate in the Province of
Pennsylvania, will certainly begin at Christiana Bridge, the last Monday in October next,
great Part of the Tickets being already disposed of; and the Managers have the strongest
Assurances of speedily selling the Tickets remaining on Hand, as they are in the great
Demand, on Account of the several valuable Prizes in the said Lottery; and there being a
Law of the Government of the Lower Counties lately passed, to prevent other Lotteries
than those already begun, from being carried on, or set up, Lottery Tickets will, for the
future, be much more scarce than they hitherto have been.

July 16, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, July 16.
MARRIED, Mr. BENJAMIN CATTELL, of South Carolina, to Miss POLLY McCALL;
Mr. WILLIAM TURNER, of this City, Merchant, to Miss ABBY ANTHONY; and Mr.
THOMAS SCULLY, of Christiana Bridge, Merchant, to Miss POLLY ALDRIDGE, of
New Castle Hundred.

July 16, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FOUR DOLLARS Reward.
RUN away from the subscriber, living near Christiana Bridge, on the 21st day of June
last, a servant GIRL, named MARGERY DIAMOND, but may possibly change it to
ROANY; had on, when she went away, a linsey petticoat, a striped linen bed gown, no
shoes; black haired, much freckled, and looks a squint with both eyes, very much given to
drink and loose company, about 25 years of age, this country born. Whoever takes up
said girl, and secures her in any of his Magesty goals, or brings her home to the
subscriber, shall receive the above reward, and all reasonable charges, paid by HENRY
BRAKEN.
N. B. All masters of vessels, or others, are forbid to harbour or carry off said servant, of
their peril.

September 2, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FOUR DOLLARS Reward.
RUN AWAY, about the middle of June last, from the subscriberplantation, near New
Castle, an Irish servant LAD, named GEORGE HENRY, about 20 years of age, about 5
feet 3 inches high, of a yellowish complexion, has light brown curly hair, large nostrils,
and a small scar on his upper lip; had on, when he went away, a tow shirt and trowsers, a
felt hat, a dark grey kersey jacket, light coloured yarn stockings, and shoes, almost new.
Whoever apprehends the said servant, and delivers him to the subscriber, at New Castle,
shall receive the above reward, and reasonable charges, paid by August 24, 1772.
RICHARD McWILLIAM.
*** He is now supposed to be about Christiana Bridge.

October 21, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be SOLD, at PRIVATE SALE, A TRACT of good LAND, containing 250 acres,
lying and situate in West Nottingham township, Chester county, one mile from the brick
Meeting house, whereon are erected a large frame dwelling house and kitchen, an
extraordinary good merchant mill, upon a good stream of water, the mill lately rebuilt,
has one pair of Cologne stones, one pair of country ditto, two boulting chests, and
hoisting by water; the whole in good repair, and in a good wheat country, being about ten
miles from Sasquehanna; also one large stone dwelling house, 30 by 28, well finished,
and in good repair, having an extraordinary good cellar, two rooms upon the lower and
three upon the upper floor, and four fireplaces; adjoining said stone house is a frame
house, kitchen and store, the kitchen and store built of stone, with cellars under the
whole, the store is remarkably well situated, long accustomed to good business; upon said
tract also are two barns, two orchards, with near 300 bearing apple trees, 30 acres of good
improved meadow, more may at a small expence be easily made, the rest good up and
woodland, the whole well watered, and under good repair. Adjoining said tract, another
parcel of good land, containing 172 acres, well watered, and plenty of timber, whereon
much meadow may be made; there are two log dwelling houses erected on said tract, also
two bearing apple orchards. Also another tract of land, situate and lying in or near Fawn
township, York county, containing 200 acres of unimproved land, whereon may be built
an extraordinary good mill, upon a never failing stream of water, known by the name of
Muddy creek, the main branch thereof; 30 or 40 acres of meadow ground may be made
upon this tract, the body whereof is mostly good land, having 40 acres hazle bottom. The
whole of the above described lands will be sold together or separate, as may suit the
purchaser, the terms will be made known by JOHN LEWDEN, at Christiana Bridge, or
ESTHER BROWN, living upon the premises, in West Nottingham, who will shew the
lands to any person desirous of purchasing.

December 9, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
New Castle County, November 25, 1772.
The SUBSCRIBER takes this Method of informing his Friends, and the Public in general,
THAT he carries on the HATTERS BUSINESS, in all its various Branches, opposite
George Hillier Tavern, Christiana Bridge, where all those, who will please to favour him
with their custom, may depend on being served in the best Manner, and on as reasonable
Terms as in the City of Philadelphia, and their Favours gratefully acknowledged, by their
Friend,
JOEL LEWIS.
N.B. He gives the highest Price for Furs of all Sorts.

December 16, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TEN DOLLARS Reward.
STOLEN, our of the pasture of the subscriber, at Christiana Bridge, New Castle county,
on the 27th of November last, at night, a bright bay HORSE, 4 years old, 13 1/2 hands
high, with black mane and tail, shod before, neither brand nor earmark, his hind legs
somewhat crooked, a natural pacer. Whoever takes up said horse and thief, so that the
thief be brought to justice, shall have the above reward; or, for the horse only, FOUR
DOLLARS, and reasonable charges, if brought home, paid byGEORGE ADAMS.

December 23, 1772
The Pennsylvania Gazette
To be SOLD, by the SUBSCRIBER, ALL that valuable FARM whereon he dwells,
situated in the county of New Castle, and in view of the village of Christiana Bridge,
bounded near 3 miles on the navigable waters of Christiana creek, being in a beautiful
situation, containing 500 acres of land, 130 of which are cleared, about 25 acres of
embanked meadow, and a considerable quantity more may be made; also an orchard,
with above 100 bearing trees, the remainder very good woodland, the wood is easily
conveyed to Philadelphia market by water, which makes it very valuable; there are on
said farm two good brick dwelling houses, with a wharff and frame store thereon, 37 feet
by 21, compleatly finished, one of the brick houses was built for a shallop man, with the
stores, to carry on said business, for which it has been noted many years; the dwelling
house of brick, 45 feet by 20, with a good kitchen, all neatly finished, a writing office and
chair house of brick; also a Negroe house, granaries, smoke house, sheds for cattle, cart
house, and sheep house, with other out buildings. Likewise a large new frame barn, with
stables adjoining, 64 feet by 20, covered and weather boarded with cedar, all compleatly
finished; also a farm house and barn near the middle of the land, besides three other small
tenements, under rent, adjoining the dwelling house, two heat gardens, and a pump of
water very convenient, great part of the land is enclosed with post and rail fence, and
about 200 acres of woodland pasture taken in; one great advantage attending the above
described land, which is bounded all along the creek, is, a never failing quantity of the
best rich blue mud, for manure, which may be had with easy access, by which means it
may be made as rich as the owner pleases, or in fact into mowing ground. The title to the
whole indisputable; the purchaser may have a term of years for the payment, by giving
proper security, and paying interest. For further particulars, and viewing the premises,
apply to the subscriber, living on said estate, or his son, Samuel Patterson, at Christiana
mills,
WILLIAM PATTERSON.
N.B. When the above premises are disposed of, there will be sold, several houses, lots
and small tracts of land, lying in and near the said village of Christiana Bridge, on the
above terms of payment, by said William Patterson.

January 6, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WAS left with the subscriber, at Christiana Bridge, some time about the 23d of
September last, a DUN coloured HORSE, with a black list along his back, goes lame with
his near hind foot, shod before, about eight years old, Said horse was left by a stranger,
who wore light coloured clothes, said he was going to Philadelphia, and purposed being
back in a few days, and also said that the horse belonged to a gentleman in Annapolis.
The owner is desired to come, prove his property, pay cost, and take him away; or he will
be sold for the charges, by JAMES READ. Dec. 30, 1772.


April 7, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
LIST OF PREMIUMS for the year 1773, to be given by the Managers of the
Contributions for promoting the Culture of Silk in the Province of Pennsylvania, subject
to the following conditions on the part of the claimants, viz.
CONDITIONS.
THE Cocoons or Balls for which any Premium is to be demanded, must be found,
merchantable, and all single*, they must be all raised in the Province of Pennsylvania and
brought to the Filature in Philadelphia for sale, or to be reeled for the claimantown use,
on or before September 1, 1773. Satisfactory proof must be given to the Managers that
the Cocoons were all raised at one crop, within the claimantsingle family, and that over
and above the Cocoons brought to the Filature as above, one twentieth of the whole crop
has been reserved, out of which the claimant must engage to raise good eggs, for which,
if to be sold, the Managers will give a dollar per ounce.
PREMIUMS.
1. For the greatest quantity of Cocoons, not less than Sixty Thousand, FIFTEEN
POUNDS.
2. For the next greatest quantity, not less than Fifty Thousand, TEN POUNDS. 3. For the
next greatest quantity, not less than Forty Thousand, FIVE POUNDS. 4. For the next
greatest quantity, not less than Thirty Thousand, a SILK REEL, and COPPER KETTLE,
on the best construction.
5. To that person who shall produce to the Managers the best specimen or sample of Raw
Silk, of his or her own raising and reeling, not less than Thirty two Ounces, a SILK
REEL and COPPER KETTLE, as above.
6. For the second and third next best samples of Raw Silk, not less than Sixteen Ounces, a
Compleat SILK REEL each.
7. To that person who shall raise Twenty Thousand Cocoons, intirely on the Italian or
White Mulberry Tree, of the claimantown planting and cultivation, FIVE POUNDS.
8. Two more Premiums of THREE POUNDS each, to those two Persons who shall raise
no less than Fifteen Thousand Cocoons each, entirely on the Italian Mulberry Tree, as
aforesaid.
N.B. The Managers have some young Italian Mulberry Trees fit to be planted out, which
they will give to those who may speedily apply for them, and all persons desirous to
propagate Silk another year, are earnestly requested to preserve for themselves a
sufficient quantity of eggs, as the Managers have not been able to supply half the number
of persons, who have applied to them for eggs this season.
PRICES FOR THE YEAR 1773.
Besides the encouragement offered above, the Managers hereby agree to give the
following prices for Cocoons raised in either the provinces of Pennsylvania, New Jersey
or Maryland, or the Three Lower Counties on Delaware, viz.
For all merchantable Cocoons of the First Crop, brought to the Filature before the 15th of
July, THREE SHILLINGS per pound, from thence to the 25th of the same month,
THREE SHILLINGS and SIX PENCE, from thence to the 5th of August, FOUR
SHILLINGS, from thence to the 25th of the same month, FOUR SHILLINGS and SIX
PENCE, from thence to the end of the Season, FIVE SHILLINGS, or FIVE SHILLINGS
and SIX PENCE if extraordinary good, and thoroughly dried. For Cocoons of the Second
Crop, a price in proportion to their quality and dryness.
By order of the Board of Managers,
JOHN KAIGHN, Secretary.
*The double Balls ought all to be kept for feed.

To the PUBLIC.
I HAVE lately observed, in an anonymous Handbill, great Complaints of the Badness of
Lancaster Roads, by which, the Writer says, we are like totally to loose the Western
Trade; he also says, the Inhabitants of Lancaster, York and Cumberland, carry great Part
of their Produce to the Landings on Christiana Creek, Elk River, and to Baltimore.
Christiana Creek has always been a near and safe Way, to transport the Produce of the
Counties of Chester and Lancaster, to the Markets of the City of Philadelphia, and for
ever will be; and was early encouraged by some of the ablest and first Merchants in the
Province. The People who are most alert in keeping good Roads to the Christiana
landings, deserve the most hearthy Thanks of the Public, and of the Citizens in particular.
As for the Trade of the Western Side of Sasquehanna, it ever will go to Places, the least
expensive, and the Farmers return with the most Money in their Pockets, which will
induce every Individual to see that the Roads leading to those Markets are in good Order.
You will find that, by good Policy, there is but one main Road from those back Counties
to Baltimore, and thereby the Inhabitants are enabled to keep it in good Repair, besides
the Distance being but about Half, and not one Ferry to cross.
The Writer says, "To remedy these Inconveniences, &C. a new Road has been laid out,
by Order of the Governor in Council, and if properly cleared and opened, &c. would be
of great Advantage to the Inhabitants of those back Counties."
It is true, there has been a Road laid out, and erroneously laid out, by, or in Sight of, laid
out Roads, almost all the Distance through, by some Persons, whose Intent it is, to
impose on the Public, by improving their own Estates, at the Expence of their
Neighbours.
The abovesaid new Road is certainly laid out, not only erroneously, but on the worst,
lowest and swampiest Ground, of all the Roads leading from the City to the Ship. The
Writer being fully conscious thereof, as appears by his calling on the Inhabitants of
Philadelphia, exert their usual Benevolence, and public Spirit, &c. to make between 3 and
4 Miles of this Road through Blockley Township to Chester County, in the best Manner,
or, he says, it is much feared, for want of such an Example being set, it will fall entirely
through."
The present old Road runs through several of the Townships where the new Road is laid,
with Numbers of other Roads; besides, there must be Bridges built over the several
Creeks the new Road crosses, by which needless Expence the Burthen of repairing the
Roads will be very grievous, and greater than the Inhabitants can bear, and of
Consequence must be always in bad Repair.
Our Predecessors formerly judged very right, in laying out the public Roads to Lancaster;
they not only looked out the highest and best Ground for the main Road, but that it should
be as near central between the Inhabitants whose Interest it is to go to the landings
aforesaid, and the Little Conestogoe and Tulpehocken Settlements, which said old Road
heads most of the Creeks and swampy Grounds, the Brandywine excepted; and with a
small Alteration and Amendment, may be made two Miles shorter, which will be more
convenient than its likely the new Road can be made; for as the greatest Part of Lancaster
County lies to the Northward, it is absolutely necessary to continue the old Road;
therefore it cannot be denied, that one Road may be easier made good than two.
I shall now, in my Turn, request the Citizens and others to exert their impartial
Benevolence and public Spirit, in assisting to amend and repair the old Roads, which may
be done with the tenth Part of the Expence the new Road can be done as proposed, and
the Distance nearly the same. The amending and repairing Roads by Tax, is become
extremely burthensome, by Reason of their being so numerous, particularly in the County
of Chester, through which all the back Settlers from the Westward must pass, to the City
of Philadelphia. As the Surveyor General, and Mr. Wayne, Gentlemen of unquestionable
Characters, have resurveyed the new Road, I would recommend every impartial Person to
them, or one of them to be informed of the Situation, and Suitableness of the Ground the
new Road is laid through, all the Errors contained therein, the great Disadvantage it must
be to the Neighbours and Settlements, and the vast Expence it will be to put it in any
tolerable Order.
I am really at a Loss to find what this Writer would be at, other than to make 3 or 4 Miles
of this new Road in the best Manner, as far as Chester County, that is to John SellersMill;
or, he says it will entirely fall through, to the total Loss of the Trade; otherwise why did
he not call for Benevolence and public Spirit, to make the Road good throughout? For
what Advantage can it possibly be to the Public, to have this Road opened in the best
manner to Chester County only; other than for the Use of John SellersMill, which is at
the Place proposed; or has the Writer a greater Regard for the Inhabitants of Blockley
Township than he has for the People in the County of Chester? Or can he suppose, that
the People in the Townships of Chester County are in better Circumstances, than the
Inhabitants in the Township of Blockley, or less burthened with Roads; take it which
Way he pleases, it is obvious his Designs are very partial, notwithstanding the public
Gloss he may seem to cover them with.
A FRIEND TO LIBERTY.

July 7, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
RUN away, the 16th of April last, from the subscriber, near Christiana Bridge, in New
Castle County, on Delaware, a Negroe man, named JAMES, 25 years old, about 5 feet 6
inches high, a small fellow, is very black, and a little marked with the smallpox; he is
wide between his two foreteeth, is this country born, and can play on the fiddle; had on,
when he went away, a coarse whitish coloured cloth jacket and breeches, a flaxen under
jacket, a half worn hat, coarse blue stockings, all his apparel is half worn. Whoever takes
up and secures said Negroe, so as his master may have him again, shall receive THREE
POUNDS reward, paid by July 2, 1773.ROBERT McANTIER.

September 1, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
New Castle, August 24, 1773.
TWENTY DOLLARS Reward.
WAS STOLEN, on the 16th instant, out of the pasture of William Patterson, near
Christiana bridge, a bay HORSE, about 9 years old, near 14 hands high, a well made
horse, in very good order, paces and trots, a hanging mane, switch tail, has neither brand
nor ear mark, has a feather low down on the near side of his neck, and something like one
on the off side; a few white hairs in the foretop, a blackish spot on his withers, which was
hurt with the cart saddle; said horse has something of a cramp or lameness in the near
hind foot, which may be observed when he is first rode, was shod before. I have great
reason to believe the said horse was stolen, by a certain ROBERT JONES, a very great
villain and a noted horse thief, who broke out of Gloucester goal, about 3 years ago, and
was then servant to one Allen Gillaspie, of this County; the said Jones was on the
plantation the day the said horse was stole: He had on a brownish coat, white breeches,
brown worsted stockings; he is a lusty strong made fellow, about 35 years of age, about 5
feet 9 inches high, has short brown hair, was born in Ireland, speaks a little on the brogue.
Whoever takes up said horse and thief, shall be intitled to the above reward, and for the
horse only, ten dollars, paid byWILLIAM PATTERSON.
N.B. It is supposed the said Jones is gone by way of Carlisle, towards Virginia.

September 1, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO THE PUBLIC. NOTICE is hereby given, that the Advertisement in Messieurs HALL
and SELLERS'S Papers, for the Sale of the SINKING SPRING, and several other Tracts
of LAND, in Cumre Township, Berks County, is void, and that the Matter is settled, so
that Sale is not made or to be made, for any Part of the said Estate.
N.B. The Public may further be assured, that the Christiana Bridge Land and Cash
Lottery will positively begin drawing on Monday, the 4th Day of October next. August
23, 1773.

November 10, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO THE PUBLIC. ON the eighth of October instant, the Managers of the Christiana
Bridge LAND and CASH LOTTERY began drawing of the same, at Christiana Bridge,
in New Castle county, and drew one thousand numbers, three small land prizes, and
several small cash prizes, with a great number of blanks came up, by which reason the
lottery is enriched 885 l. and from the necessary business of some of the managers, which
called them away, and by reason that it was thought that some persons who had tickets to
sell, had not, though requested by advertisement to return the tickets which they had on
hand, and that some difficulties might arise from thence. The managers have thought
proper to adjourn the drawing of the remainder of the said lottery, to the sixth of
December next, at the place aforesaid, when the public may be assured the same will be
continued till the whole is drawn. Tickets may be had of GEORGE MONROW, Esq;;
JOHN THOMPSON, Esq; and Mr. SAMUEL PATTERSON, all in New Castle county;
and of Mr. THOMAS MAY, at the Head of Elk, Managers of the said lottery; and also of
several other persons in that county. Orders for tickets, left at the Sinking Spring, in
Berks county, will be forwarded. - All persons who have tickets on hand, unsold, in the
said lottery, are requested once more to return them to JONAS SEELY, at the last
mentioned place, on or before the first day of December next, or they will be considered
as chargeable for the same.
October 24, 1773.

December 1, 1773
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, November 23, 1773.
FIVE POUNDS Reward.
STOLEN out of the stable of the subscribers, on Sunday night, the 21st instant, a likely
brown HORSE, four years old spring, 14 1/2 instant, has a lofty carriage, his hind feet
white, short lock, shod all round, trots and paces, high courage, lengthy bodied, and short
neck; it is supposed the thief has stolen an old saddle, with a blue cloth and hogskin seat,
and a piece broke of the off side point of the saddle tree. Whoever takes up the said horse,
and secures him, so as the owner may have him again, and secures the thief in any of his
Majestygoals, shall have the above reward, or for the horse only, the sum of FORTY
SHILLINGS, if brought home, with reasonable charges, paid by JAMES READ.

June 1, 1774
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED or STOLEN, the first of May, 1774, from the subscriber, living at Christiana
Bridge, a young black MARE, four years old, near 15 hands high, hollow faced, with a
small star, a hanging mane to the right side, short tail, low in flesh, the hair rubbed off her
shoulder in two places with the saddle, the under part of the hair of her foretop cut short,
trimmed under the bridle, old shoes on her sore feet, natural pacer, but trots mostly when
out of hand. Whoever takes up the said mare, and secures her, so that the owner may have
her again, shall have SIX DOLLARS reward, paid by
JOHN READ.

August 10, 1774
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WHEREAS JAMES REED, Tavernkeeper, at Christiana Bridge, the 28th of July last,
obtained a NOTE, of the Subscriber, for THIRTEEN POUNDS, in a very fraudulent
Manner; this is to forewarn every Person not to purchase or buy said Note, for I never
will pay it. Given under my hand, this third Day of August, 1774.
GEORGE HENERY,


November 9, 1774
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FOUR POUNDS Reward.
STRAYED or STOLEN from the subscriber, out of Thomas Blackpasture, within half a
mile of Christiana Bridge, on the 8th of October last, A dark brown HORSE, 3 years old,
about 14 1/2 hands high, a natural pacer shod, before, a small switch tail, a little hollow
backed, with a small star and snip in his face, and is a short, thick, well made horse.
Whoever takes up said horse and thief, so that the owner gets his horse again, and the
thief on conviction brought to justice, shall have Three Pounds reward, or Twenty
Shillings for the horse only, with all reasonable charges, paid by said Thomas Black, or
the subscriber, in East Nottingham, Chester county. SAMUEL HUTCHISON.
N. B. Any person keeping or concealing said horse, without a legal advertisement, will be
prosecuted as the thief.
November 16, 1774
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, Eleventh Month 7, 1774.
THREE POUNDS Reward.
ABSCONDED, last night, from his bail, a certain THOMAS VINER, who is an
Englishman, about 36 years of age, well set, about 5 feet 9 inches high, dark complexion
and short black hair, and is a Tanner by trade; had on, and took with him, a new suit of
blue broadcloth clothes, two pair new calfskin shoes, two pair new milled yarn stockings,
one pair blue-grey, the other a redish or flesh colour, a half-worn lightish coloured
homespun cloth coat, lined with lightish coloured homespun worsted, brown wooden
buttons, a pair of dirty leather breeches, a new beaver hat, and an old ditto. Whoever
secures said Thomas Viner in any of his Majestygoals, shall have the above reward, and,
if brought to New Castle goal, all reasonable charges, paid by JOHN LEWDEN.

February 8, 1775
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FOUR DOLLARS Reward.
STRAYED or STOLEN from Chesterfield, Queen Anncounty, Maryland, a small well set
sorrel HORSE, with a short switch tail, large limbed, no natural marks, his brand, if any,
unknown, trots and hand gallops very well. As he was borrowed from Mr. Eaken, near
Christiana bridge, it is supposed (if not stolen) that he may have made homewards.
Whoever will secure the said horse, so that the owner may have him again, shall have the
above reward, and Five Pounds for the thief, paid upon his conviction, by WILLIAM
CHARLES NEILL, at Newark Academy, or WILLIAM HANSON, tavern keeper, at
Hoppermill.

April 26, 1775
The Pennsylvania Gazette
New Castle, April 19, 1775.
On the 11th day of May next will be exposed to sale, at PUBLIC VENDUE, TWO lots or
pieces of land, at Christiana Bridge, on the south side of Christiana Creek, one of which
is now in the tenure of Hannah Lewden, and James Read.
And on the 12th day of the same month will be sold by public vendue, a piece or parcel
of cripple, situate in New castle Hundred, about one mile from the town of New Castle,
adjoining the lands of Mrs. Ann Clay, and others, containing 20 acres, being part of the
real estate of John Eves, deceased. Attendance will be given at the house of James Read,
at Christiana Bridge, and Robert Bail, in New Castle, on said day, by John Lewden,
Administrator of said deceased, or his Attorney.
By order of the Orphans Court,
RICHARD McWILLIAM, Clerk.
N.B. The land at Christiana Bridge may be divided into several lots, suitable for landing
places, store houses, &c.

July 19, 1775
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, July 19.
To our FRIENDS and BRETHREN of the several MEETINGS in PENNSYLVANIA and
NEW JERSEY;
DEAR FRIENDS,
THE afflictions and distresses attending the inhabitants of the Massachusetts, and other
parts of New England, have often engaged our pity and commiseration, with a desire to
be instrumental for their relief, as favourable opportunities should offer: And having
received more particular information, since the yearly meeting held last month at Rhode
Island, than we before had of the situation of our brethren, and others, in those parts;
since which the desolations of war have greatly increased. We are incited by a spirit of
sympathy and christian tenderness, to recommend to your serious and benevolent
consideration, the sorrowful calamities now prevailing among those people; earnestly
desiring that we may encourage each other freely to contribute to the relief of the
necessitous of every religious denomination; to promote which, we have agreed upon,
and herewith send you, printed subscription papers, requesting that some suitable, active
friends, may be appointed in each of your monthly and preparative meetings, to apply for
the donations of friends for this charitable purpose, and that the money subscribed may
be collected, and with all convenient speed paid into the hands of JOHN REYNELL, of
Philadelphia, or SAMUEL SMITH, of Burlington, Treasurers of our yearly meeting.
The yearly meeting at Rhode Island, beforementioned, have appointed a Committee of
twenty-six friends from the several quarterly meetings in New England, who are to meet
together at least once a month, in order to assist each other in inspecting and considering
the state of those who are distressed; And they appear to us the most suitable persons to
receive our contributions for their relief. With this Committee we propose to keep up a
correspondence, and to unite our endeavours with theirs, that the benefactions raised may
be distributed in the most seasonable and effectual manner, for the benefit of those who
are or may be reduced to necessitous circumstances, in this time of public calamity.
We therefore desire that friends may be liberal, according to their circumstances, and
speedy in their contributions: And are your loving friends. Signed in and on behalf of our
meeting for sufferings, held in Philadelphia, for Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the 6th
day of the 7th month, 1775.
"Our place has rather the appearance of a garrison town than a mart for trade; one
company keeps guard all day, and two every night; in our situation we cannot be too
watchful, and may require much strength, for our Negroes have all high notions of their
liberty, and we lately learnt by intercepted letters and otherways, that there have been
endeavours to set the Indians on us. Mr. Stewart, the superintendant of Indian affairs, is
accused of being the person who has forwarded this wicked design, and he is fled for
safety.
"The Tories in Georgia are now no more, the province is almost universally on the right
side, and are about to choose Delegates to send to the Congress."
We have certain Intelligence from New Castle County, that the several Regiments of
Militia of that County are to be reviewed at the following Times and Places, to wit. The
First, or Col. McKinlyRegiment, on Monday, the 31st Day of this inst. July, in the
borough of Wilmington: The Second, or Col. CouchRegiment, on Wednesday, the 2d
Day of August next, near Christiana Bridge: And the Third, or Col. CantwellRegiment,
on Friday, the 4th Day of the same Month, near Apoquinimink Bridge; and that they are
to meet so as to be drawn up in their several Battalions at Ten o'Clock.


On Wednesday last was married JAMES PEMBERTON, Esq; to Mrs. PHOEBE
MORTON, both of this city.


Philadelphia, July 17, 1775
The Committee of Safety do hereby recommend to the good Women of this City and
Province, that they voluntarily supply the Surgeons or Doctors, who have usually
attended their respective Families, with as much scraped Lint and old Linen for Bandages
as they can conveniently furnish, that the same may be ready for the Service of those that
shall happen to be wounded in the Defence of their Country. Signed, by Order of the
committee,
WILLIAM GOVETT, Clerk C. S.
At a meeting of the Officers of the military association for the city and liberties of
Philadelphia, held at Carpenterhall, July 12, 1775.
RESOLVED, That this Body invite the Committees of the city and liberties and county of
Philadelphia, and the Officers of the several Battalions in the said county, to meet
together with this Body at the College hall in this city, on next Saturday week, the 22d
inst. at 9 oin the morning, to take under consideration the late Resolves of the Honorable
House of Assembly of this province, relative to the appointment of Minute Men: And that
the Secretary be directed to publish this Resolve in the English and German Newspapers.
Published by Order,
RICHARD PETERS, Secretary.


Philadelphia, July 14.
WHEREAS I have, some time since, frequently made use of rash and imprudent
expressions with respect to the conduct of my worthy Fellow Citizens, who are now
engaged in a noble and patriotic struggle against the arbitrary measures of the British
ministry, which conduct has justly raised their resentments against me. I now confess that
I have acted extremely wrong in so doing, for which I am exceedingly sorry, and humbly
ask pardon and forgiveness of the Public; and I do solemnly promise that, for the future, I
will conduct myself in such a manner, as to avoid giving any offence: And at the same
time, in justice to myself, must declare, that I am not unfriendly to the present Measures
pursued by the Friends to American Liberty, but do heartily approve of them, and as far
as is in my power will endeavour to promote them.
AMOS WICKERSHAM.


Philadelphia, July 17, 1775.
TO THE PUBLIC.
WHEREAS I have spoken disrespectfully of the general Congress, as well as of those
Military Gentlemen who have associated for the defence of the liberties of America, I
now take this opportunity of declaring, that my conduct proceeded from the most
contracted notions of the British constitution, and of the right of human nature. I am sorry
for my guilt, and am ashamed of my folly. I now believe all Assemblies to be legal and
constitutional, which are formed by the united suffrages of a free people; and am
convinced that no soldiers are so respectable, as those citizens who take up arms in
defence of liberty. I believe that Kings are no longer to be feared or obeyed, than while
they execute just laws; and that a corrupted British Ministry, with a venal Parliament at
their heels, are now attempting to reduce the American colonies to the lowest degree of
slavery. I most sincerely wish that the counsels of the Congress may always be directed
with wisdom, and that the arms of America may always be crowned with success. And I
pray that every man in America, who behaves as I have formerly done, may not meet
with the lenity which I have experienced, but may be obliged to expiate his crimes in a
more ignominious manner. MORDECAI LEVY.

August 23, 1775
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, Eighth Month 13, 1775.
THREE POUNDS Reward.
RUN away, last night, from the subscriber, an Irish servant man, named Charles O'Neal,
a lusty well set fellow, 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high, brownish bushy hair, about 20 years of
age; had on and took away, two pair of shoes, one whereof dogskin, one pair of white
thread stockings, two pair of old blue and white trowsers, coarse white shirts, one pair of
almost new leather breeches, a darkish coloured fine jean vest, lately made out of an old
coat, which will appear by part of the button holes being sewed up, a short skirted old
lightish coloured cloth coat, a new felt hat; also took with him several things tied up in a
bundle. Whoever takes up said servant, and confines him in any of his Majestygoals,
shall have the above reward, and reasonable charges, paid by JOHN LEWDEN.

October 4, 1775
The Pennsylvania Gazette
SIX DOLLARS REWARD.
RUN away, on the night of the 24th of September last, from the subscriber, at Christiana
Bridge, New Castle county, an English servant man, named James Blight Collins, by
trade a Rope maker, 5 feet 6 inches high, 23 years old, fresh full, smooth face, brown
complexion, wears his own hair, a good scholar; had on a blue coat, swanskin spotted
jacket, tow trowsers, black stockings, and an old hat; it is likely he will apply to be a
school master, or a clerk. Whoever secures said servant, so that I can get him again, shall
have the above reward, and reasonable charges, paid by ROBERT SHIELDS.

February 7, 1776
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, February 7,
Monday next the GENERAL ASSEMBLY of this Province meets here.
Extract of a Letter from New York, dated Feb. 5.
"Yesterday about the same time Generals Lee and Clinton arrived. The Committee of
Safety met immediately, and we expected something like a commencement of hostilities
today. The Mayor went on board, and the Governor and General both assured him not a
man was to be landed here. A 20 gun ship, said to be the Mercury, and a transport, came
into the harbour yesterday. Clinton came in the frigate, and is going to the southward, I
believe to Virginia. A Dr. Gilson has been taken into custody at Newport, and sent to
head quarters, for treasonable practices at Rhode Island. Lee says he will send word on
board the men of war, that if they set a house on fire, in consequence of his coming, he
will chain one hundred of their friends together by the neck, and make the house their
funeral pile."


By advice from Christiana Bridge, in the county of New Castle, upon Delaware, we are
informed, that on the 16th of last month Mrs. MARY DUNN, the widow of THOMAS
DUNN, Esq; of that county, was removed by death from the troubles and trials of this
mortal state, in the 44th year of her age. - She filled her different stations in life without
noise, but with great prudence and dignity; she was religious without show or ostentation,
was a loving wife, a tender parent, affectionate to her relatives, indulgent to her servants,
charitable.... She was esteemed in life, and died lamented. Her sorrowful friends may
comfort themselves with the firm persuasions that she is now among the spirits of the
just, that are made perfect with their Redeemer.

March 6, 1776
The Pennsylvania Gazette
ALL persons indebted to the estate of George Adams, late of Christiana bridge, New
Castle county, by bond, note, or book account, are desired to make speedy payment; and
all persons having any demands against said estate, are requested to bring them in,
properly proven, that they may be settled by ELIZABETH ADAMS, Executrix; JOHN
CLARK, and JACOB HOLLINGSWORTH, Executors.
For sale, a Negroe wench, 23 years of age, hath had the smallpox and measles, well
acquainted with all kind of houshold work. Also, eleven years of a lease, of 72 acres of
well improved marsh, in White clay creek. Enquire as above.


March 20, 1776
The Pennsylvania Gazette
East Nottingham, March 12, 1776.
LIBERTY, THAT noble young HORSE, 15 hands high, three quarters blooded, a bright
bay, only 5 years old this grass, will be lett to MARES this season, at Mr. George Legget,
at the sign of the Cross keys, near the brick Meeting house, and at Mr. Richard Dowdle,
at Christiana bridge. --- The time to commence as follows, the first week in April at Mr.
Dowdle, the second week at Mr. Legget, and so on, during the season. The said Horse
LIBERTY is to cover as follows, Thirty Shillings, the season, or Twelve shillings the
single leap. The Horse will fully recommend himself to any spectator, without giving a
long preamble of his pedigree. - -- He may be seen at Mr. LEGGET'S, where good
pasture may be had for mares, at Two Shillings and Sixpence per week, and good
attendance will be given by JONATHAN DUNN.

April 17, 1776
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Kennet, Fourth Month 9, 1776.
WAS stolen out of the subscriberstable, in Kennet, Chester county, the 26th of last
month, at night, a black MARE, with white in her face, which extends to one side of her
nose; she is 6 years old this grass, about 14 hands high, paces and trots, but carries low, is
low in flesh and very dull to ride, except with a spur; it is not remembered whether she
hath any brand or other mark, the present owner having had her out a short time. There
was a Mare left in her place, which had been stole from Thomas Woodward about a week
before; and as there hath been several things stolen lately in the neighbourhood,
particularly a quantity of cheese, which (it is thought) was sold at Christiana Bridge; and
from several circumstances, there is reason to suspect a man who sometimes calls himself
John Dobbins, or Robbins; and as he is known in several parts of the country, and in
Philadelphia, it is particularly desired by many in the neighbourhoods, that if the said
man be at any time found with any horse or other goods in possession, which may appear
suspicious, he may be secured, and public notice thereof given. Any person securing the
abovementioned Mare, so as the owner may have her again, shall have Thirty Shillings
reward, or Fifty Shillings for the mare and thief, if prosecuted to conviction, paid by
THOMAS MILHOUS.

July 3, 1776
The Pennsylvania Gazette
A LIST of LETTERS remaining in the Post Office at Wilmington. JONATHAN COATS,
Charlestown, Chester County; Richard Croxall, at the Academy, Wilmington,
D. Jonathan Dunn, to the Care of Mr. Richard Dowdles, and James Dunn, Christiana
Bridge. H. William Henderson, Christiana Bridge; Charles Hughes, Merchant in
Wilmington, on Delaware. J. Adam Johnston, to the Care of Mrs. Ann Montgomery;
William Johnston, in Mill town, to the care of David Finney, Esq; in New Castle. L.
Matthew Lewnton or Conrad Gray, Newport; Dr. Thomas Love, Wilmington. M. Robert
McCartney, Miller, Brandywine; John McCarter, Schoolmaster, Christiana Hundred;
John Macclenachan, Fogs Manor; William Man, to the Care of James Glenn, Merchant,
Christiana Bridge. P. Robert Porter, New Castle County, to the Care of Mr. Richard
Dennis, Ship Carpenter; Samuel Patterson, jun. Esq; and Colonel Samuel Patterson,
Christiana Bridge. Q. John Quin (2) to the Care of Mr. John Dodds, Newark. R. Thomas
Rutland, jun. Newark School. S. Henderson Standin. T. Peter Turner, New Castle
County; Margaret Thompson, to the Care of Robert Coughran. W. David Wilkin,
Whiteclay Creek; Philip Warde, New Garden, Chester County; Jacob West, to the Care of
Mr. Humphry Carson, Merchant, Christiana Bridge.

December 18, 1776
The Pennsylvania Packet
Christiana Bridge, Newcastle county, 10th month 18, 1776.
TO BE SOLD, By the SUBSCRIBER, A PLANTATION pleasantly situated on the great
road leading from Christiana to Peach Bottom and several other ferries on Susquehanna,
about one mile from the Brick Meeting house, containing 132 acres of Land, whereon is
erected a stone dwelling house two stories high, 28 by 34 feet, well finished, with three
rooms on a floor, cellared under the whole, a large frame ditto two stories high, three
rooms on a floor and cellared, with a stone kitchen adjoining. Also a stone store, cellared,
and frame ditto with garners, &c. which has been well accustomed for vending goods
near 40 years, and lately in the tenure of Mifflin and Irwine, merchants, of Philadelphia,
who can give an information thereof. Also one other tract thereto adjoining, containing
about 100 acres, whereon is erected a water cornmill. With divers other tracts advertised
in the Packet of the 19th of the 2d month last; reference thereunto had may more fully
appear. JOHN LEWDEN.

May 28, 1777
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WAS LOST, the 23d inst. on the road between Philadelphia and Christiana bridge, two
Mortgage deeds; one is wrote on parchment, for a tract of land in New castle county, and
the other on paper, for a track of land in Chester county. Whoever has found the same, is
desired to apply to the Printers of this paper, who will inform to whom said deeds belong;
and the owner, on their being delivered to him, will give a reward of FORTY
SHILLINGS.


June 25, 1777
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED away, on the 25th of May last, from the plantation of THOMAS CLAYTON,
in Chester county, near Newlintavern, about 6 miles from Wilmington, a strawberry roan
mare, with a star in her forehead, her tail not docked, about 14 hands high, 4 years old,
and a natural trotter. Whoever takes up the said mare, and brings her to the subscriber, or
to Morton Morton, at Christiana Ferry, shall receive FOUR DOLLARS, paid
byTHOMAS CLAYTON.

August 27, 1777
The Pennsylvania Gazette
A List of Letters remaining in the Post Office, Wilmington.
JOHN AITKEN, near Christiana Bridge (2) Isaac Attwood, near Wilmington.
B. John Barclay, Christiana Bridge (4) Thomas Black, near Christiana Bridge.
C. Elizabeth Carr, to the Care of Isaac Attwood.
D. James Dunn, Christiana Bridge (2) Col. Thomas Duff, Newport.
J. Francis Johnson, Esq; near Christiana.
L. Samson Levy, New Castle (3)
M. John Malcolm, Esq; near Christiana (2) George Mason, near Wilmington (2) Solomon
Maxwell, Christiana; Thomas McKean, Esq;
P. Richard Poole, Wilmington.
W. James Wilson, John Welsh, Christiana Bridge; Robert White, Brandywine.

January 21, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
Christiana Bridge, January 3, 1778.
CAME to the stable of the subscriber, on the night of the 24th ult. a strawberry roan
GELDING, rising six years, with a small star in his forehead, about fourteen hands high,
is a natural trotter. Any person proving property and paying charges, may have him again
by applying to
JOHN BARCLAY.

February 4, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
WAS LOST, On the 4th of September last, between Wilmington and Christiana Bridge,
A LARGE black leather TRUNK, together with three new CAMP STOOLS. The trunk
had on its top a piece of paper with "John Cropper, junior, Accomack County,
Virginia,"wrote thereon; it contained a number of valuable cloaths, among which were
several regimental coats, brown faced with scarlet; also books and papers that might shew
the ownername. The camp stools had I.C. engraved on their legs. Any person giving
information thereof to the Adjutant General, to the Printer hereof, or to the subscriber, of
the 7th Virginia regiment, so that they may be had again, shall be handsomely rewarded.
JOHN CROPPER, Lieut. Col. from Virginia.


July 16, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
THIS is to inform the Public, That the subscriber, living at the Head of Elk, in Caecil
County, Maryland, has erected a STAGE WAGGON, to go twice a week from thence to
Philadelphia, leaving the Head of Elk on Mondays and Fridays, and the sign of the Indian
Queen, in Fourth street, Philadelphia, on Tuesdays and Saturdays, returning by way of
Christiana Bridge, Newport, Wilmington and Chester: He will carry passengers and light
goods at as reasonable rates as he can afford. Post riders from the different parts of the
country below the Head of Elk may be supplied with the Philadelphia public papers, the
Tuesdays paper on Wednesday, and the Saturdays paper on Sunday; and all commands
that he may be favoured with he will endeavour to fulfil with care and fidelity. - As this
business must be of particular advantage to the Public, he is in hopes of meeting with
proper encouragement; and he will make it his study to give all the satisfaction in his
business that he is capable of.
HENRY ROBINSON.

August 25, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
Pencader Hundred, Newcastle County, July 20.
WAS put into the subscriberwaggon, at Christiana Bridge, in August last, two small
Chests of Wearing Apparel: By papers found in said chests the owner is supposed to be
Obadiah Woodson, Lieutenant of a company in the fourth battalion of Virginia forces; if
so, by applying to the subscriber, proving his property and paying charges, he may have
them again.
SAMUEL FEARIS.

August 27, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
To be SOLD by Public Vendue, On Third day the 8th of next month, on the premises, the
sale to begin at two oin the afternoon, A CONVENIENT Brick House with four rooms on
a floor, tanyard and lot of ground, together with several tenements and outhouses thereto
appertaining; late belonging to and occupied by Benjamin Swett, of the town of
Newcastle, deceased. The situation is very pleasant upon the bank of the river. The price
of the above premises is one thousand pounds, and the payments may be accommodated
to the purchasers convenience, he giving security and interest upon his bond for the
principal. Any person inclining to purchase at private sale may know the terms by
applying to the Printer, to John Lowden at Christiana Bridge, Joseph Warner, in
Wilmington, John Howell, merchant, in Philadelphia, or
BENJAMIN SWETT.
Eighth Month, 25th, 1778.

September 1, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
ONE HUNDRED REWARD.
RAN AWAY from the subscriber, of the city of Philadelphia, and went to the British
army, three Negro Men, viz. TOM, by trade a silversmith, about 36 years of age, about
five feet eight inches high, thick and well set, round full face, thick lips, affects to speak
in good English, is slow and fair of speech, limps a little in his walk, occasioned by his
ancle being hurt: He was on board the Delaware frigate, Capt. Watt, `til February last,
when he left her, and has been at Christiana Bridge the beginning of last May. It is
supposed he is to the southward, and will call at the silversmiths shops. TONEY, a
farmer, about 30 years of age, five feet seven inches high, well set, round, full, smooth
and black face, thick lips, speaks fair and good English, and is a smart likely fellow: He
was protected from his master by a Capt. Averne of the British grenadiers, on whom he
waited last winter, and since by Capt. Cannon, of the 57th grenadiers. JACOB, a
labourer, 40 years of age, about five feet seven inches high, thick and well set, marked
with the small pox, speaks indifferent English, can thresh, cut wood and has some time
worked with a carpenter. It is thought the said Negroes have or will leave the British
army and strole about for work as freemen. Whoever apprehends either of said Negroes
and secures them in any gaol, so that I may have them again, shall receive forty Dollars
for Tom, Forty Dollars for Toney, and Twenty dollars for Jacob, paid by WILLIAM
BALL.
N.B. Masters of vessels and others are requested not to harbour or take any of them off at
their peril.

September 8, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
TWENTY DOLLARS REWARD.
STRAYED or STOLEN out of the subscriberpasture, a bright bay MARE, four years old,
fourteen and a half hands high, shod before, has a short switch tail, a long star in her
forehead, branded on the near buttock W S. trots and canters. Whoever delivers said
Mare to the subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge, Newcastle county, shall have the
above reward, paid bySOLOMAN MAXWELL.

September 22, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
White Clay Creek Hundred, Newcastle County, Delaware State, Sept. 22, 1778.
ACCORDING to the last Will and Testament of William Wilson, late of the hundred and
county aforesaid, deceased, will be sold by public vendue, for ready money, on Monday
the twenty eighth instant, all his real and personal Estate, viz. The mansion place,
adjoining the village of Christiana Bridge, containing about seventy acres, on which are a
new dwelling house, still house with the still and implements thereunto belonging, two
wooden tenements convenient for tradesmen, two orchards, and some acres of meadow;
the whole well watered. Four good dwelling houses and lots adjoining, at the village of
Christiana Bridge, aforesaid. A lease of twenty three acres of improved meadow in
Musele Cripple Marsh, nine years unexpired. The leases of two houses, at the village of
Christiana Bridge aforesaid, five years of each yet unexpired. The above lands and
houses are in a good situation for public business, though which there is a great trade
from Philadelphia to Baltimore, &c. Also a piece of land in Nottingham, bounding on
Little Elk, containing about forty acres, with a dwelling house and other improvements.
Likewise sundry houshold goods, such as beds and bedding, tables, chairs, an eight day
clock, kitchen furniture, &c. also plantation utensils, draught horses, a yoke of oxen with
a cart, milk cows, swine, sheep, twenty head of beef cattle, a large quantity of hay;
sundry Negroes, &c. &c. &c. The vendue to begin at Ten on said day, and continue from
day to day until the whole is sold. Attendance will be given by JAMES WILSON,
Executor.
All persons indebted to the estate of William Wilson aforesaid, are requested to make
immediate payment; and those who have any just demands against said estate are desired
to bring them in proved to the subscriber, at the Prothonotaries Office in Philadelphia, or
to William McClay, Merchant, and John Reynolds, at Christiana Bridge aforesaid, who
are impowered to settle the same.
JAMES WILSON, Executor.


October 1, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
To be SOLD by Public Vendue, On Tuesday the 20th day of October next, THAT
valuable Estate whereon the subscriber dwells, situate in Newcastle county, scarce half a
mile below Christiana Bridge, and is bounded on the navigable water about two miles,
and contains about five hundred acres of land, including thirty acres of meadow, chiefly
under good bank, and a considerable quantity more may be made both of marsh and
upland, above three hundred acres of very good woodland well stored with white and
black oak, a considerable quantity of which will answer for ship building, all lying near
and bounded on the navigable water, also all along the front of said creek joining the
land, s never failing quantity of the very best blue mud for manure, which lies contiguous
and handy to almost all the plantation: There is also a very convenient landing on said
place, which has been occupied for a number of years past by the subscriber in the
shalloping business; there is a frame store 27 feet by 20, covered with cedar, standing on
the wharf. About one hundred and fifty acres of the upland cleared on said tract; the chief
part of all the woodland is under fence, mostly post and rail in two divisions, which make
very convenient pasture; the land when cleared is exceeding good for grazing; good
clover can be mowed from any part of the clear land, as has been experienced by making
use of the aforesaid manure; an orchard of about two acres, containing ninety apple trees,
chiefly old. The buildings as follows, viz. the mansion house of brick, two stories high,
48 feet by 20, an addition of a brick shed 40 feet by 16, which makes a kitchen and a
good lodging room, also a place for servants; likewise another small brick house, 28 feet
by 20, convenient rooms in both houses, a neat office built with brick and a chair house,
with a cellar under said office; a good granary made of sawed logs, a shop and smoke
house, a barn 56 feet by 20, covered and boarded with cedar, and is made very
convenient, a cart house and two stables, with some other small outhouses: On the middle
of said estate is a farm house and barn, and on the back of said lands are two small
tenements, and on the lower end another tenement with a small orchard; all those places
are under leases nearly expired. There are also to be sold at the same time, sundry lots of
woodland joining the village of Christiana Bridge, some of which have houses on them;
two houses and lots, one in part of said village, and the other joining it: The whole is
under a good title. The terms will be made known at the time of sale, by
WILLIAM PATTERSON.
N.B. The least brick house, with some small privileges, may be required for a few years. -
Should the weather prove rainy, the vendue will be continued the day following. - The
vendue will begin at Ten oat the subscriberhouse.

September 22, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
TWENTY DOLLARS REWARD.
STRAYED or STOLEN from the subscriber, at Christiana Bridge, on the 17th of August
last, a bay MARE, about fourteen hands high, has a very small star, a short switch tail,
and was hurted on the off side. Whoever takes up said Mare and brings her to the
subscriber, shall receive the above reward and reasonable charges, from JOHN LYON.

October 1, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
Christiana Bridge, Newcastle county, 9th Month 25th.
To be SOLD by Public Vendue, On Second day the 26th of next month, if not sold at
private sale before, TWO well improved tracts of land, one containing 132 acres, on
which is a stone dwelling house 28 by 32 feet, well finished, with an entry and two rooms
on the lower floor and three rooms on the upper floor; joining thereto is a frame house
two stories high, also a stone kitchen, and store house, with several other conveniences
for carrying on public business, for which it is a good stand, and has been well
accustomed for vending merchandize these thirty years, a large frame barn, stabling, hay
house and two apple orchards; about 20 acres cleared, 20 of which are meadow, and the
most part of it can be watered. Also another tract adjoining the above mentioned,
containing abut sixty acres, whereon is a large frame dwelling house and kitchen, cellared
under the whole, a frame barn and stabling lately new roofed and I good order, a water
corn mill, the house about 55 by 22 feet, two pair of stones, the boulting fan and hoisting
go by water; now in the tenure of Peter Wilson, and may be entered on next spring. Also
at said time and place will be sold, a tract of land situate in Faun township, York county,
containing 200 acres unimproved, well watered by Little Muddy Creek running through
it, and affords an excellent mill seat thereon, and water sufficient in the driest seasons.
The sale to begin at Ten noon said day, at the premises, where attendance will be given
by JOHN LEWDEN.

October 15, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
A PURSE of THREE HUNDRED DOLLARS to be run for on Wednesday the fourth day
of November next, on the course near Christiana Bridge, Newcastle county, free for any
horse, mare or gelding carrying weight for age and blood agreeable to the rules of racing,
the three mile heats; the horse winning two clear heats to be entitled to the purse.
And on Thursday the fifth day of November, a purse of Fifty Pounds, free for any horse,
mare or gelding, agreeable to the rules, &c. aforesaid, the winning horse the preceding
day only excepted.
And on Friday, the entrance money, free for scrubs only the heats, once round the poles
for the heat.
Three reputed horses to start for the purses, or no race. Horses to be entered with JAMES
GLENN, two days before the race, paying for the first purse Six Pounds, and for the
second Three Pounds, or double at the post. - Proper persons to be appointed to settle all
disputes that may arise. Vouchers for the blood and age of the horses to be produced if
required.
October 8, 1778.


November 17, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
Christiana Bridge, New Castle County, Delaware State, November 14th, 1778. ALL
persons indebted to the estate of WILLIAM WILSON, late of Christiana Bridge
aforesaid, deceased, either by bond, note, book account, or for goods bought at vendue of
said deceasedestate, are requested to make immediate payment to the subscriber, at the
Prothonotaryoffice in Philadelphia, or to William McClay, merchant, and James Couper
at Christiana Bridge aforesaid, who are impowered to receive the same, and in whose
care the books, &c. of the said deceased are left for settling: And all persons having any
just demands against said estate, are desired to bring them in, properly proven, that the
estate may be settled.
JAMES WILSON, Executor.
Also, all persons indebted to the estate of GEORGE ANDERSON, of said County,
blacksmith, deceased, are desired to make speedy payment (to prevent further trouble) to
JAMES COUPER, and
JOHN HAWTHORN, Administrators.

December 15, 1778
The Pennsylvania Packet
Christiana Bridge, December 5.
WHEREAS the subscriber, having lost several account books, amongst which were two
ledgers covered with leather, a waste book and cash book covered with marble paper;
likewise the first volume of Henry on the Bible, together with a number of title deeds,
bonds, bills, and a great many other valuable papers: It is supposed the above books and
papers were left in Philadelphia some time in September, 1777: Therefore, any person or
persons who may have found, or has in possession, any of the above books, deeds and
papers belonging to the subscriber, or any belonging to his son, Samuel Patterson, or any
records and other public writings belonging to the county of Newcastle, are requested to
deliver the same to, or leave a list with Colonel William Bradford, and they shall be
handsomely rewarded.
WILLIAM PATTERSON.

October 27, 1779
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, October 20, 1779.
One Hundred Dollars Reward.
STRAYED or STOLEN, but supposed the latter, from the subscriber, at Christiana
Bridge, New Castle county, on or about the 10th instant, A BROWN GELDING, 14
hands and an half high, seven years old, long mane, switch tail, two white feet, branded
on the near buttock, W A, though scarce discernable, a small star in his forehead, paces
trots and canters well, lofty carriage, but throws his nose rather too much out, shod all
round. Whoever takes up and secures said horse, shall receive Fifty Dollars reward, and
for thief and horse the above reward, and all reasonable charges, paid by LEVY
HOLLINGSWORTH, in Philadelphia, or
SOLOMON MAXWELL.

April 18, 1781
The Pennsylvania Gazette
SIR, Philadelphia, April 11, 1781.
YOUR mode of procedure towards me, obliges me to address you through this public
channel.
Permit me (if you please) to inform the people in general, that on the 24th of February
last I bought of you 31 barrels of superfine flour at 32 s. per cent money of the State of
Maryland.
I paid you the full amount. Yet you have uniformly declined a delivery of the flour; and
not only so, but have falsely reputed that I gave you the money at 75 for one. How came
it to pass, man, that Mr. James Henry, by your own order, made out the account of sale,
particularly mentioning the currency equal to forty for one. In this way you received it,
nor did I attempt to pass it to you for more. Be assured of my strenuous efforts to obtain
redress, and rely on it, that al the exertions of your petty and prejudiced advisers shall
prove insufficient to divert me from this purpose.
Your humble servant, J. DARAH.
MR. Wm. Welsh, Christiana Bridge.

October 17, 1781
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Twenty Silver Dollars Reward.
STOLEN out of the stable, at Christiana Bridge (State of Delaware) on the night of the
6th instant, a dark sorrel horse, about 14 hands three inches high, 5 years old last Spring,
trots and canters well, has no visible marks of white about him, shod all round. Whoever
takes up said HORSE, and will deliver him to Lieutenant Colonel Robinson, in
Philadelphia, shall be intitled to the above reward, and all reasonable charges.

November 21, 1781
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED out of a pasture at Christiana Bridge, the 10th of October last, a black
HORSE, about ten years old, a natural pacer, near 15 hands high, low carriage, bushy
mane and tail, shod before. Whoever secures said horse, so that the owner gets him again,
shall have FIVE SILVER DOLLARS reward, and reasonable charges, if brought to the
subscriber, living in Charles Town, Caecil county. GEORGE JAMES.


November 21, 1781
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Philadelphia, October 14, 1781.
WHEREAS the subscriber has rode post from Philadelphia to Nottingham, Christiana,
Newport, Head of Elk, &c. &c. and his employers have not been so kind as to comply
with their promises, in paying him for the trouble and expence he has been at in serving
them. He therefore requests all persons indebted to him will please to discharge his
demands on them, by complying with the terms of their agreement. And he takes this
method to inform all those gentlemen who may please to employ him, that the following
are his terms from the 7th of next month, viz. One Dollar a quarter for each paper, the
half of which to be paid at beginning, and the remainder at the expiration of one half of
the last quarter.
DAVID MORGAN.


February 27, 1782
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STATE OF DELAWARE.
In the HOUSE of ASSEMBLY, at Dover, January 19, 1782.
ORDERED, THAT Mr. Vandyke, Mr. Molliston and Mr. Latimer be a Committee to wait
upon the President of this State, and inform him, that the House having met, desire to
know, whether his Excellency hath any public business to lay before them.
The Committee being returned, reported the delivery, of the message committed to them,
and that they were informed by his Excellency, that he had business of importance which
he would communicate to the House in a message by the Secretary.
The Secretary presented to the chair a message from the President, accompanied with
divers papers; which said message was read as follows, to wit,
Gentlemen of the General Assembly, THE Secretary will lay before your several acts of
Congress, dated October the 30th, November the 2d, 12th and 23d, December the 4th,
10th, 11th and 17th, and January the 2d, with letters from the President of that honourable
body and the Financier, relative to the subjects of those acts.
Some of these are of so important a nature, that our utmost exertions to comply with the
requisitions founded upon them will be the best measures we can possibly pursue, to
attain and secure the blessings for which we are contending.
The successes of the last campaign, obtained, under the favour of Divine Providence, by
the distinguished abilities of the Commander in Chief, the generous aid of the Monarch
who does honour to the exalted station he holds, the gallantry and good conduct of his
troops, and of the American officers and soldiers in every scene of action --- the
unparalleled harmony between the combined forces, promising all the fruits of a perfect
and permanent amity --- the militia rivaling veterans in bravery and discipline --- our
recovery from the distresses of a depreciated currency --- the resources opened to our
view --- the vigorous oeconomical administration taking place in the finances --- the
enterprising and public spirit of the mercantile part of the community giving motion to so
many springs in the system of government --- the unanimity of the people in asserting
and defending their independence --- are circumstances of such moment, as to present a
prospect of the most prosperous events, if the opportunities they offer are seized with
decision, and improved with wisdom.
They are, however, but steps in our progress to political happiness; and by looking back
too earnestly upon them, we may yet forfeit the inestimable prize we wish to crown our
labours at the conclusion of the course.
In a contest so deeply interesting to us and our posterity, we ought to think nothing done,
while any thing remains to be done. Our conduct should be regulated by the temper,
ability, and even the errors of our enemies. Confiding in their wealth and strength,
animated by the remembrance of former victories, and irritated by a resistance subverting
the foundations laid by their wise ancestors for more than Roman grandeur, they discover
a fixed resolution to persist, in defiance of every difficulty and danger, in their attempts
to recover their immense losses --- losses, aggravated as they must be by a consciousness
of their own imprudence. Thus stimulated, they dare a complication of wars, face their
foes on every side, and combat in every quarter of the globe; demonstrating the
prodigious supplies of hostility accumulated by a great and long established commercial
power, and exhibiting a memorable instance of the destructive diligence, and obdurate
perseverance, excited by the rage of ambition.
If all this profusion of blood and treasure cannot attain the principally desired and
dreadful end of subjugating these States, we should remember, it has been declared in a
Manifesto published by the Commissioners appointed under the great seal of Britain, and
of which no disapprobation could be obtained from either House of Parliament, that a
secondary end may be answered --- that of , by the EXTREMES of war and desolation,
our connection with France of AS LITTLE AVAIL to her AS POSSIBLE."
How far this avowed principle has hitherto influenced the military operations on this
continent, it is needless to say. How far it is to influence the future, let the past determine.
But whatever our sufferings have been, it is worthy of consideration, whether part of
them not be imputed to our own mistakes.
We, knowing that a vast majority of the inhabitants of these States will at every hazard
maintain their independence, now indispensably necessary for supporting their honor and
happiness, and desire no peace but upon this ground, and that not one in an hundred
would risque life or property for any other terms, have relied too much on this solid mass
of opposition. Relaxation ensued, and has been followed by its natural consequences.
Happily for us, indeed! virtue has frequently paid the arrears of prudence.
On the other hands, our enemies, viewing the same object through the deceiving
mediums of passion and prejudice, believe that the thinness of our battalions, and the
dilatoriness of our supplies, are in a great degree occasioned by the disaffection of large
numbers to our cause. This error produces another, and leads them to expect a dissolution
of public credit from dissatisfaction at the burthens imposed, and a flattering comparison
between their funds, supposed by them to be almost inexhaustible, and the scantiness of
our revenues.
Inattentive to the smallness of the debt we have contracted during the war, and the heavy
load it has laid upon them, they seem not to advert to the difference of effects such
national incumbrances must produce in a country prospering by manufactures, and
another that little depends on such employments --- and while an increase of our burthens
only adds to the odium against the original unprovoked authors of them, they will not
duly estimate the calm and steady resentment of injured and insulted innocence, and
never reflect how much of their property they chearfully spare, who ready to part with the
whole for preserving their freedom.
Another error of our enemies, if they really believe it, or an artful insinuation, if they do
not, deserves notice, as their disguised emissaries endeavour to disseminate it among us.
They suppose, or surmise, that such a cordial friendship can never be formed between us
and the subjects of our Ally, as with themselves, because of the dissimilarity of
governments, laws, manners, customs, religion and language. There was a time, when
hereditary habits of thinking would easily have admitted this doctrine. It is past. The hard
hearted policy of Great Britain, and the just and wise magnanimity of France, have
restored to us the impartial exercise of our judgements; and stating the case of a
connection between us and each of those kingdoms, the very circumstances of
dissimilarity that have been mentioned will remove apprehensions with respect to the
latter, that must exist as reasonable for want of them, and, on account of the late
separation, as peculiarly forceable against the former. Mutual interests, liberal sentiments,
and fair dealing, are better promoters of concord between nations, than resemblances that
may prompt and cause deceptions, and which we feel to have given edge and extension to
the fury of those, who now with preposterous ingenuity urge them as sources of affection.
If America now rises to full display of her temper and ability, correspondent to the
desires and efforts of our illustrious and faithful ally, she will dispel the errors that have
been so fertile of evil; and may in a short time realize the proposed rewards of her toils,
not otherwise perhaps to be obtained but by a tedious struggle, greater expence, and
renewed losses.
When such a measure is recommended by the Council that presides over the common
interests of the union, and whose comprehensive survey of affairs must certainly have
suggested to them cogent reasons for recommending it in the manner they have done, I
am perfectly convinced, from my knowledge of your zeal, that every possible exertion
will be made on your part. Permit me only to add, that I cannot but ardently wish this
State may have the merit of being distinguished by the earliest punctuality of compliance.


Gentlemen,
The Secretary will also present to you two letters from the Commander in Chief, to me,
dated the 3d and 15th of December, concerning the establishment of a temporary hospital
at Wilmington, for sick soldiers returning from Virginia, with several papers relative to
that business.
Humanity, and a just respect for his Excellency sentiments, induced me to pursue every
measure within my power, that appeared likely to save the lives and alleviate the
distresses of the brave and good men, whose relief was intended. I am informed that these
measures have been of use, and hope they will meet your approbation.
I have directed a letter from General Greene of October the 24th, one from the Secretary
for foreign affairs of November the 12th, and another from the Board of War of the 19th
of the same month, to be delivered to you, as they contain matters that will require your
consideration.
Immediately after my going to Philadelphia, as I was well acquainted with your
sollicitude to have the execution of your late resolutions respecting the cloathing of our
troops expedited, I applied to the Secretary of War. His letters of the 3d and 4th of
December are now sent. By the information I received from him, and afterwards from the
Financier, I thought it improper that any further steps should be taken, until your pleasure
could be known on the new circumstances that have occurred. But there are deficiencies
as to the clothing of the officers, that deserve, and therefore I am assured will engage,
your early and effectual attention. I have desired the clothier to lay his accounts before
you.
The Legislature has not yet acted upon a resolution of Congress, dated the 13th of last
June, respecting the officers of the hospital and medical department.
The recruiting service has been begun, and promises the happiest success. The gentleman
appointed to superintend it will soon report his proceedings.
On the 20th of November I wrote to all the Receivers of supplies, desiring them to make
returns of the supplies delivered, mentioning the articles, quantities, condition and
distances from landings. I have had no answer but from the Receiver for New Castle
county; and that, you will observe, is imperfect.
As we shall be charged with an interest on the deficiencies of those supplies, the
collection of them should be inforced, or else they should be changed into taxes in
Specie; and I should be glad, if the Legislature would consider whether this is not the
most eligible mode. There are other deficiencies of taxes that require a like adjustment.
I have the pleasure of informing you that our quota of the Continental bills, except a very
inconsiderable ballance, is transmitted to the Treasurer of the United States.
The supplies that you so prudently ordered to be provided at the post of Christiana bridge,
for the army on its return from York, have been furnished at a less expence than was
expected, as appears by the account of the Commissioners. It is with particular
satisfaction I can say, that this service has been performed in a manner very acceptable to
the troops, and reputable to the State.


Gentlemen,
As Delegates in Congress are now to be appointed, and a representation cannot consist of
less than two, an addition to the usual number appears to be necessary. Many questions of
the first magnitude will very shortly be agitated in that Assembly. The interest and
dignity of the State are concerned in its regular representation. It is to be observed, that
this is a very proper time to give instructions to those who may be appointed, to use their
strictest diligence in procuring the claims of boundaries to be immediately settled upon
just principles.
I esteemed it my duty to obtain all the information I could on this momentous business;
and the Secretary will deliver some important documents and papers on that head, as also
on the right to the islands in the Delaware.
The militia laws should be explained, amended and reduced into one act. The public
welfare requires, that this mode of defence should be put upon a more respectable
footing.
I beg leave also to recommend the passing of laws, for more effectually preventing
insults to the State by taking vessels out of its harbours --- for establishing a Court of
Admiralty, and defining its jurisdiction --- for establishing a Naval Office --- for
regulating trade and navigation --- for enabling one Judge of the Supreme Court and of
Oyer and Terminer, when he alone attends, to do any judicial act except the trying of
causes, and for the award of Tales de Circumstantibus, in such manner that the
administration of justice may not be delayed --- for the revival of proceedings in the
Court of Oyer and Terminer for Sussex county --- and, for better securing and escorting
prisoners of war and deserters; upon which occasions, a contract for the rations that may
be necessary appears to be the cheapest method of providing them.
Dover, Jan. 19, 1782.JOHN DICKINSON.
Extract from the minutes,
JAMES BOOTH, Clerk of Assembly.

September 18, 1782
The Pennsylvania Gazette
EIGHT DOLLARS Reward.
RUN, the 20th of August last, from the subscriber, living near the head of Northeast
River in Caecil county, Maryland, a Negroe MAN, named Simon, but may perhaps
change his name to Johnson, this country born, is about 27 years of age, nearly 6 feet
high, coarse featured, a little pitted with the smallpox; had on, when he went away, a light
coloured cloth coat, short made, tow shirt and trowsers, and a cloth cap the same colour
of his coat; he was seen at Christiana Bridge in company with some straggling troops
belonging to the French army, on his way, as is supposed, to New York. Whoever takes
up and secures said Negroe, so that his master may have him again, shall have the above
reward, and reasonable charges, paid by Sept. 12, 1782.SAMUEL MAFFITT.
January 1, 1783
The Pennsylvania Gazette
SIXTEEN DOLLARS Reward.
RUN AWAY, the 24th of November last, A likely Negroe Man, named SAUL, of a
yellowish complexion, 21 years of age, about 5 feet 11 inches high; had on a country
cloth coat of lightish colour, striped jacket, with the stripes across, a pair of long
trowsers, striped blue, green and white, a pair of buckskin breeches, one pair of fine
woollen stockings of a blue grey, an old fur hat, a home made check shirt, with very pale
stripes. Any person apprehending said Negroe, and securing him so that his master may
have him again, shall be paid, with reasonable charges, the above reward, by the
subscriber, living at Christiana Bridge. MORTON WELSH.
Dec. 23, 1782.

September 3, 1783
The Pennsylvania Gazette
EIGHT DOLLARS Reward,
RUN AWAY from the subscriber, a Negroe man named JERRY, about 20 years of age, 5
feet 9 or 10 inches high, has a large windgall on the back of his hand or wrist, had on
when he went away, a half worn felt hat, tow shirt and trowsers; on the 15th and 16th
inst. he was at the house of Daniel Turner in the neighbourhood of Christiana bridge, had
then an old hat, a short white jacket, the half of one of the sleeves torn off, tow shirt and
trowsers, said his name was James, and that he belonged to Samuel Bayard, and had a
pass signed Samuel Bayard. Whoever takes up said Negroe, and secures him in any goal,
so that his master may have him again, shall have the above reward, and reasonable
charges if brought to the subscriber, living in Bohemia manor, Caecil county.
August 5, 1783.JOHN MONTGOMERY.

January 21, 1784
The Pennsylvania Gazette

TO BE LETT,
And may be entered on the 25th day of May next,
THAT commodious TAVERN, PLANTATION and FERRY, situate on the south side of
the river Christiana, in New Castle county, Delaware state, on the great road leading from
Annapolis to Philadelphia, about five miles from New Castle, and one half mile from
Wilmington. The situation of the place being so public, tenders it needless to be more
explicit than to inform, that there are about 30 acres of excellent marsh meadow, and
about 20 acres of arable land, with stabling, out houses, &c. compleat. For terms, apply to
the subscriber, at his store, in Market street, Wilmington. January 19, 1784. PETER
JAQUET, jun.

February 25, 1784
The Pennsylvania Gazette
CAME to Christiana Ferry, in the borough of Wilmington, about the 4th day of
November last, a dark bay HORSE, about 13 hands high, has a star in his forehead, a
switch tail, paces and trots, the said horse was called several times in the market of said
borough, the subscriber also gave a man the copy of an advertisement, and the money to
put it in the public Papers, but no owner has appeared to claim said horse. Now this is to
inform the owner, if any, that if he does not come in three weeks time after the publishing
of this, he will be sold, according to law, for the damages, &c. by Feb. 20, 1784. ISAAC
LAWRENCE.

March 31, 1784
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO BE SOLD,
A VALUABLE PLANTATION, situate within one quarter of a mile of the town of New
Castle, bounded by the river Delaware, containing 200 acres, about 40 whereof excellent
meadow ground, well secured from the tide by a stone wall, 25 acres of which now well
improved, and produces white clover and blue grass in abundance, about 90 acres
plowable, and the remainder woodland; the land is very fertile, much inclined to grass,
the woodland is well timbered; there are on the premises a commodious brick dwelling-
house, a good frame barn and stables, two apple orchards, with a number of other fruit
trees.
        Also to be sold, a woodland lot, containing 5 acres, situate in White-clay creek
hundred, near Christiana bridge, bounded on the front by the great road leading from
Christiana bridge aforesaid to Nottingham. The title to the plantation and lot is
indisputable. For terms, apply to the subscribed, living on the plantation aforesaid.
ROBERT THOMPSON.
December 22, 1784
The Pennsylvania Gazette
FOR SALE,
Three valuable PLANTATIONS, in the state of Delaware, and in the county of New
Castle, viz.
        NO. 1. CONTAINING 300 acres, about two thirds of it cleared, and the rest well
timbered, with about 20 acres of meadow made, and as much more may be made and
watered with two fine streams running through the farm, with fall sufficient to build any
kind of water-works, and a number of fine springs on the place, with a very comfortable
dwelling-house, spring-house, smoke-house, barn, stable, a very good old orchard, and a
fine thriving young orchard, with different kinds of fruit in a pleasantly healthy situation,
near to several places of worship, and mills convenient, within 9 miles of Wilmington,
where there is a ready market for every kind of produce, 5 miles from the village of
Christiana bridge, and about the same distance from several places of navigation.
        No. 2. Adjoining the first farm, containing 140 acres, with a good log house, barn,
stables, and a fine spring of water near the house, with an orchard of excellent fruit of
different kinds, about one third of this tract timber, about six acres of meadow, and more
may be made and watered to a great advantage.
        No. 3. Adjoining the last, and one mile nearer market than the first, containing
220 acres. This farm has about 150 acres cleared, and the rest good woodland; there are
about 8 acres of meadow made, and as much more may be made and watered at a small
expence; the dwelling-house is convenient and comfortable; there are a good barn, hay-
house, and stables sufficient for a large stock, with two orchards on it of good fruit, such
as apples, peaches, cherries and plumbs. This farm is very pleasantly situated, with plenty
of good springs of water on it.
        These farms will be sold together or separate, as may best suit the purchasers, and
a good and sufficient title given. If not sold before the first of February next, they will be
let on good terms to persons well acquainted with farming.
        For terms and further particulars, enquire of the subscriber, living at White Clay
Creek Landing, six miles below Wilmington, and two from Christiana bridge, in New
Castle county, who will shew the farms to such as are disposed to purchase. JOSEPH
BURN, Attorney in Fact to Blair McClenachan, Esquire. Hampden, Dec. 16, 1784.

January 26, 1785
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO BE SOLD,
By virtue of an Order of Orphan's Court, at public Auction, on Monday, the 7th day of
February next, on the premises, THAT valuable PLANTATION or TRACT of LAND,
being the real estate of John Taylor, late of New castle county, deceased, adjoining to the
village of St. George's, containing 160 acres, the arable land being beautifully divided in
four 30 acre fields; this plantation is deemed to be one of the best in that neighbourhood,
and produces all sorts of grain in abundance; the situation is delightful and healthy; there
is on the premises, a good dwelling-house, with two rooms on a floor, kitchen, barn,
stables, granary, with several other out-houses, a good well of water at the door, a large
apple orchard, with a great variety of other fruit trees of different qualities. Also about 4
acres of good timothy meadow, and a sufficient quantity more may be made at a small
expence.
        Attendance and conditions of sale, will be made know on said day, by ROBERT
PORTER, Executor. Christiana Bridge, January 18, 1785.

March 30, 1785
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO be RENTED, And possession given immediately,
        THAT well known STAND for public business, situated at the corner of the Main
street and Back street, in the village of Christiana Bridge; the dwelling-house, store-
house, stables and garden, with an excellent pump of water at the door, all in good repair.
And to be sold, A twelve acre LOT of WOODLAND, within one mile of the above
village; the lot is well timbered with all sorts of timber. For terms, and further particulars,
enquire of the subscriber, living on the premises. March 29, 1785. ROBERT PORTER.

May 25, 1785
The Pennsylvania Gazette
STRAYED or STOLEN last Tuesday night, out of the field of the subscriber, at
Christiana Ferry, a sorrel coloured horse, with a blaze in his face, and two white feet,
shod before, a natural trotter, but has a hobbling pace before he gets into his trot, 14
hands high, and about 7 years old. Whoever takes up said horse and secures him, so as
the owner may get him again, shall have Six Dollars Reward, and reasonable charges;
and if stolen, for horse and thief, Ten Dollars, and reasonable charges, paid by ISAAC
LAWRENCE. Wilmington, May 21, 1785.

August 31, 1785
The Pennsylvania Gazette
SIXTEEN DOLLARS Reward.
        RUN away, last night, from the subscriber, living at Christiana ferry, New Castle
county, on Delaware, an Irish servant woman, named SARAH TIVY, about 25 years of
age, lusty made, full face, down look, looks and speaks as if almost crying, dark brown
hair; had on and took with her a black, silk bonnet, with white lining, a short gown and
petticoat of lincey, brown and white striped, nearly alike, but not quite, two short gowns,
blue and white striped linen, a white corded petticoat, one and a half yard of yellow
flowered callicoe, black silk handkerchief, two white linen ditto, with red borders, one of
them split in two, two coarse shifts, two pair thread stockings, one much darned, a pair
of red shoes, with white heels, a pair of mens shoes patched, and the shoe part of a pair
boots. The above girl was taken away by a certain Daniel Lafferty, an Irishman, late a
soldier in the third Pennsylvania regiment, about 5 feet 6 inches high, well set, full face
somewhat rough and lately hurt, short sandy hair, small round hat, with a band and
buckle, blue sailor jacket much faded, and patched under the arm, and old jean trowsers.
They stole and took away one pair boots almost new, made of thin leather, with a slope
top and stitched round, all the straps off, except what fastens to the buttons of the knees, a
shirt ruffled at the bosom, and marked P I, fine shift marked C I, and other things
supposed to be taken not yet missed. Whoever takes up said man and woman, with the
goods, and secures them, so that they are brought to justice, shall be entitled to the above
reward; for the man, on conviction. Ten Dollars; for the woman Four Dollars; for the
articles Two Dollars, and reasonable charges for the servant, if brought home, paid by
PETER JAQUET, jun. August 26, 1785.

November 9, 1785
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TO BE LETT, And may be entered upon immediately,
        A PLANTATION, Dwelling-house, Store-house and Wharff, situate about half a
mile below the bridge, on Christiana creek, in the county of Newcastle and state of
Delaware. The plantation contains about 180 acres of land, a proportionable part whereof
is cleared; there are about 10 acres of meadow, most of which can be sufficiently watered
from a constant running spring, and lies very convenient to the dwelling; there are also on
the premises, a log barn, a large frame hay-house, and good stable. The dwelling is a
large two story brick house, with a large kitchen, and other convenient appendages
capable of accommodating a numerous family. The store-houses and wharff are very
roomy and convenient, and have peculiar advantages of navigation, which arise from
their being situated below the worst shallow in the creek, and from whence a shallop that
will carry 400 barrels of flour can proceed with a common tide for Philadelphia. This
place has been long known and occupied as a landing, from whence shallops have been
employed in an extensive carrying trade, which its situation must always command, being
but 11 miles distant from the Head of Elk, and about 20 from Charlestown, in Maryland,
from both which places there is good navigation, and constant intercourse with the town
of Baltimore, and other parts of Chesapeake Bay. A person qualified to carry on the
shalloping business, will find at this place every convenience for the purpose, and by
exercising a moderate share of industry and attention, may make that a profitable
business; which, added to the advantages to be derived from the farm, cannot fail to
render it a desirable situation.
        Any person that may be inclined to rent the above described place, may know the
terms from Mr. John Read, at the town of Newcastle (who will shew the premises) or
from the subscriber, in Vine street, near Third street. Philad. Nov. 1, 1785. JAMES
READ.

February 27, 1788
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Christiana Bridge, February 13, 1788.
TEN DOLLARS Reward.
        WAS stolen out of the stable of the subscriber, on the night of the 12th instant, a
grey HORSE, about 16 years old, about 15 hands high, a natural trotter, has lately been
trimmed, branded with O. on one side of his buttocks, supposed the near one, shod all
round. Any person securing said horse, so that the owner gets him again, shall receive
SIX DOLLARS for the horse, and FOUR DOLLARS for the thief, with reasonable
charges, of brought home. JAMES CALDWELL.

October 8, 1788
The Pennsylvania Gazette
TWENTY DOLLARS Reward.
         MADE his escape from the Constable of Chester, last night, a certain Thomas
McCloud, an Irishman, about 6 feet high, appears to be about 30 years of age, brown
complexion, straight brown hair; had on an old surtout coat, with cross pockets, his other
cloaths but mean, but it is expected will change them. Said McCloud had a scar on his
upper lip, and has a wife living about a mile and a half from Christiana bridge. He was
committed for stealing horses, which were found in his custody. Whoever secures said
thief in the gaol of Chester county, shall have the above reward, paid by EDWARD
MINSHALL, Constable. October 2, 1788.


Charles Divin of Christiana Bridge, married Mrs Justis of Swanwick, New Castle County
on April 6, 1789 (Delaware Gazette, 11 April 1789).

John Hall, of Christiana Bridge, married Miss Lucretia Reece, of the same on November
25, 1789 (Delaware Gazette, 28 Nov 1789).


May 4, 1791
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, May 4.
Hillary Baker, John Baker and Joseph Swift, Esquires, are appointed sitting Aldermen for
the Aldermen's Court for the ensuing three months.We have the satisfaction to assure the
public, that the recruiting service proceeds with vigour --- already upwards of five
hundred men are on their march for Fort Pitt, from the respective rendezvouses in this
State, Jersey and Delaware. Lieut. Platt marched from Christiana bridge on the 27th,
with a fine company, inlisted for three years. Capt. Armstrong marched from this city the
27th, with a chosen company, inlisted for the same period. On the same day Capt.
Snowden marched with a detachment of one hundred levies from Trenton.
And about two hundred and fifty were ordered to march yesterday from Carlisle, in this
State. Besides which a company under the command of Capt. Montfort, inlisted for three
years, are on their march from North Carolina to the Great Kenhawa, by which they will
descend to Fort Washington. The recruits from the Eastern States will rendezvous at
New Brunswick, in New Jersey, and thence march to Fort Pitt. We have authentic
information that a loan for two millions and a half of florins, which was opened at
Amsterdam on the 15th of Feb. last, on account of the United States, upon terms better
than any European power, except the Emperor, now borrows in Holland, and upon equal
terms with the Emperor, was subscribed, or filled in two hours.* And it must afford
pleasing reflections to every good American to know, that this success is attributed
essentially to the high confidence inspired by the new constitution of the United States,
and its present administration.
* A rapidity which is said to have been hitherto without example, with regard to loans for
foreign powers in that country.
Capt. King, of the schooner Three Sisters, who arrived on Thursday last, informs, that a
fleet of four ships of the line, ten frigates, four corvets and three gabarres, commanded by
Mr. Girard, having on board 5000 troops, under command of Mr. Biague, who takes the
place of Mr. Damas, arrived at Martinique.
There also came out in the fleet four commissioners to settle the disturbances in the
islands. One of the commissioners has orders to draw on the United States. They are
expected to remain at least a year, as they are to proceed from island to island to secure
complete the execution of some recent National Decree.
EXTRACT from MR. PAINE'S celebrated Answer to Mr. BURKE'S
Attack on the FRENCH REVOLUTION.
On Hereditary Succession
.In whatever light hereditary succession, as growing out of the will and testament of some
former generation, presents itself, it is an absurdity. A cannot make a will to take from B
the property of B, and give it to C; yet this is the manner in which (what is called)
hereditary succession by law operates. A certain former generation made a will to take
away the rights of the commencing generation and all future ones, and convey those
rights to a third person, who afterwards comes forward, and tells them in Mr. Burke's
language, that they have no rights, that their rights are already bequeathed to him, and
that he will govern "in contempt" of the, From such principles, and such ignorance, Good
Lord deliver the world!
But, after all, what is this metaphor called a crown, or rather, what is monarchy? Is it a
thing, or is it a name, or is it a fraud? Is it "a contrivance of human wisdom," or of human
craft, to obtain money from a nation under specious pretence? Is it a thing necessary to a
nation? If it is, in what does that necessity consist, what services does it perform, what is
its business, and what are its merits? Doth the virtue consist in the metaphor, or in the
man? Doth the goldsmith that makes the crown, make the virtue also? Doth it operate like
Fortunantus's wishing cap, or Harlequin's wooden sword? Doth it make a man a conjurer?
In fine, what is it? It appears to be a something going much out of fashion, falling into
ridicule, and rejected in some countries, both as unnecessary and expensive. In America it
is considered as an absurdity, and in France it has so far declined, that the goodness of the
man, and the respect for his personal character, are the only things that preserve the
appearance of its existence.
If government be what Mr. Burke describes it, "a contrivance of human wisdom," I might
ask him, if wisdom was at such a low ebb in England, that it was become necessary to
import it from Holland and from Hanover? But I will do the country the justice to say,
that was not the case; and even if it was, it mistook the cargo. The wisdom of every
country, when properly exerted, is sufficient for all its purposes; and there could exist no
more real occasion in England to have sent for a Dutch Stadtholder, or a German Elector,
than there was in America to have done a similar thing. If a country does not understand
its own affairs, how is a foreigner to understand them, who knows neither its laws, its
manners, nor its language? If there existed a man so transcendently wise above all others,
that his wisdom was necessary to instruct a nation, some reason might be offered for
monarchy; but when we cast our eyes about a country, and observe how every part
understands its own affairs; and when we look around the world, and see that of all men
in it, the race of kings are the most insignificant in capacity, our reason cannot fail to ask
us - What are those men kept for?"
Capt. Osborne, on the 14th ult. in lat. 38. long. 71. spoke the brig Amsterdam, Baker,
from Charleston to Amsterdam, out 6 days.
Capt. Lawrence, on the 5th ult. lat. 28 1-2. long. 68 30. spoke ship Friendship, of
Baltimore, from London to Charleston, out 48 days, and a brig from Virginia to Jamaica,
out 8 days. On the 2d ult. spoke brig Birmingham, from New York to Bristol, lat. 39 1-2.
long. 71. out 3 days.
Capt. King, on the 21st ult. spoke the sloop Edwards, of Bermuda, lat. 21. 47. long. 71.
from Virginia to Grenada, out 8 days; -- and Capt. Davis, of Philadelphia, for Cadiz.
Capt. Broklebank, on the 24th ult. on lat. 39, 12, lon. 69, spoke the ship Caesar, Capt.
Harris, of London, bound from Virginia to Cork, out 5 days. The ship Flora, Capt. Lash,
from Philadelphia, arrived at Cork 4 days before the Caesar sailed, 32 days passage.
By a perusal of the late India papers received, it appears that Tippoo has constantly
avoided a general engagement; but has always retied behind the GHAUTS (a ridge of
steep mountains inaccessible, only by a few narrow passes) at the approach of any
considerable British force. He has, by rapidly descending from those mountains with his
cavalry, made some fortunate attacks upon small detachments of the enemy; but has
always retired, rather than oppose any considerable body of troops.
Such of the towns, forts and places as belonged to Tippoo, to the southward of the
Ghauts, have generally submitted to the British arms, without much resistance.
The main body of Tippoo's troops appears to remain altogether upon the defensive. This
Prince's plan seems to be, to defend every pass of the Ghauts, so as to make it difficult for
his enemy to penetrate into the Mysore, a beautiful and fertile country, which lies behind
them, from which he draws provisions of the best quality in the greatest plenty. Tippoo
has in his army a number of French officers, principally engineers, who will be great
assistance to him in defending the passes of the Ghauts, which are well fortified, and
almost impregnable by nature.
Extract of a letter from one of the Senators of this state, and a
member of the Society for promoting Improvement in Roads,
and Inland Navigation, to a member of the said
Society in this City, April 26.
"In a tour through part of Dauphin county, last week, I went up to Middletown on the
Susquehanna, and thence up the Swatara some miles, much pleased with the gentle, level
and copious stream, very inviting to navigation. We thence directed our course towards
Quittapahilla, near the mouth thereof, and followed the same nearly, or rather followed
the direct road, which runs up the creek, crossing it several times, to the town of
Lebanon, which is within a mile of the head; and I confess it is the most beautiful stream,
suitable in size, free from mountainous ground, rocky shores, falls, great windings, or any
other natural impediment, that I could have expected to be cut out by nature for the use of
lock navigation, -- add to all these good qualities, another, that being principally fed by
large springs, it will not be subject to freeze, unless in very severe cold weather. We
found the gentlemen sent to examine the premises, &c. levelling the middle ground, and
though they report the greatest height to be 49 feet, yet the ascent was so gradual that the
eye could not discern it in many places. They had discovered a small creek issuing from
the neighbouring hill, which had sufficient height to flow into this middle ground, but had
in levelling the same crossed several vales of 20 to 30 feet. We left them endeavouring to
trace higher ground round these hollows, which seemed probable to be obtained. If this
last discovery is made, as I expect, there needs no further delay, but to fall too, and lay
the plan of operation, except indeed some legal mode to ascertain private rights, and
compensations for damages. I believe there are some mills, of very small value to the
owners, that must be vacated: several of them erected on dams of 4 or 5 feet; two or three
of which falls might be drawn to one lock. The Tulpehocken I have not seen, but all say it
is very practicable, issuing large at its fountain, only three miles from the head of
Quintapahilla, and running directly opposite into Schuylkill, with every flattering
circumstance for the general measure.
"We conversed with some simple landholders, who were alarmed at the ruin will fall on
their property, by cutting up their meadow ground, however their comfort appeared
greatest when they declared the scheme futile, and in this hope they remain quiet. What
pity 'tis not my lot to have my property so cut up."
At an election held on Monday last, at the Library, for ten Directors and a Treasurer, of
the Library Company of Philadelphia, for the ensuing year, the following Gentlemen
were duly elected, viz.
DIRECTORS.
Joseph Paschall, Benjamin Gibbs,
Mordecai Lewis, John Kaighn,
Josiah Hewes, Thomas Morris,
Thomas Parke, Benjamin Poultney,
Richard Wells, Richard Wistar.
Treasurer, Samuel Coates.
Tredyffrin, April 26, 1791.
Last Sunday having compleated the term of a quarter in Mr. Prichard's singing school,
yesterday he was pleased to give a concert at St. Peter's church, at which, a number of
anthems, together with sundry other pieces of sacred harmony, were performed by the
scholars, much to the satisfaction of a respectable number of ladies and gentlemen. For,
notwithstanding most of the members were little acquainted with the rudiments of music
when the quarter commenced, yet they acquitted themselves with such propriety and
skill, as not only does honor to their teacher, but would have been highly ornamental to
the most harmonious choir.

March 7, 1792
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA.
Legislature of Pennsylvania.
The committee on roads to whom were referred sundry petitions and memorials, beg
leave to report,
That, in their opinion, the wealth and population of the state will in a great measure, bear
a proportion to the goodness of the roads; and that it is encumbent on the legislature to
make every reasonable exertion, within the abilities of the commonwealth to invite
foreigners, and accommodate our own citizens, by easy and safe communications
between the different parts of the state; they therefore submit the following resolution:
Resolved that a committee be appointed to bring in a bill for the purposes of making the
following grants:
1. For an addition to the sum granted last year for the road from Bedford
to Pittsburgh L.500
2. For the improvement of the road over the mountains, near Shippensburg,
called Skinner's road 200
3. For the road on the east side of Sideling hill on the road to Bedford 300
4. For the road from Mount Rock near Carlisle to Rankin's Ferry on the
Susquehanna 150
5. For a road leading from Hugh's encampment to the west side of Allegheny mountains
in addition to the grant last year 200
6. For a road from the east side of Laurel hill, at or near Jones' mill upon the
north fork of Yohiageny to the west side of Chesnut ridge, at or near Connal's ferry, on
Yohiageny, the 400l. which were appropriated last year for the road from Bedford to the
west foot of Laurel hill 400
7. For a road leading from the top of Laurel hill to Cherry's mill 200
8. For a road called Campbell's road near the Conemaugh river 150
9. For a road over the south mountain through Shippensburg gap towards York 200
10. For a road from Loyal Sock Creek on the west branch of Susquehanna to the
Tawanislo branch of Tioga, and to extend up to the 109 mile stone - to be
run out & marked by commissioners 100
11. For a road from Lewis Town to Huntington, to be appropriated in Mifflin county 120
And in Huntington county in addition to the sum granted last year. 80
12. For a road from Wilksbarre on the west side of Susquehanna to Wyalusing, and
thence crossing the river, and running a northerly course to the north bounds
of the state - to be run and marked by commissioners 100
13. For a road across the blue mountain at Smith's gap, between the wind gap and
the Leheigh water gap 200 14. For a road from Lehigh water gap across
the Matshun mountain, until the road intersects the Nescopeck road made by
Evan Owen 200
14. For a road along the east side of Susquehanna, beyond Peter's mountain,
and to extend to Sunsbury, in addition to the grant last year for the road by
the end of Peter's mountain 150
15. For the road from Pocono towards the northern boundary of the state 500
16. For a road from Stockport on the Delaware extending across the Pocono road, & over
the east branch of Susquehanna, near Moshoppen Creek, and thence to the forks
of Loyal Sock, and from thence to the Nittany mountains near the Nest, to be
run and marked by commissioners 200
17. For a road from Fort Penn, at Col. Strouds, extending up the east side of the east
branch of Broadhead's creek, crossing the head waters of Bushkill, Sheholy and
Blooming Grove creeks; then on the most eligible route to the Great Falls of
Lackawaxen, thence northerly on the most suitable ground between the waters of
Lackawaxen and Delaware rivers, until the route intersects the portage between the
Delaware and Shehoking creek - to be effected by the sum of 400l. granted last
year to a road intended to have gone in this direction, but was improperly
described 400
Your committee further report,
For a road from Peach Bottom Ferry and Nelson's Ferry on the Susquehanna, towards the
waters of Christiana at Newport and Christiana, the sum of 600l. - This last appropriation
to be the sum allowed on the bill which your committee are desired to bring in 600


March 14, 1792
The Pennsylvania Gazette
From the American Daily Advertiser.
MR. DUNLAP,
I PERCEIVE in your paper of the 8th inst. some strictures on the proposed canal for
opening the Brandywine from the source down to the line of the Delaware state, and as
this subject has been brought before the legislature by a respectable number of the
citizens of Pennsylvania, both within the city and in the counties which are mostly
affected by it, a proper explanation of its advantages I think is justly due to the public.
We are all sensible of the numerous plans which are proposed form every quarter for thus
facilitating the communication between different parts of the state; and it is of the utmost
importance, that while the spirit of the public seems devoted to this general object, and
the means in its power to carry on such designs as really appear useful, a just idea ought
to be formed of all, and those adopted which are proved to be of real use, and practicable
in their execution.
An idea seems started, in the piece I allude to, which I think has arisen totally from the
want of a proper knowledge of the proposed canal, and the manner in which Philadelphia
will be affected by it.
It is suggested, that this is an attempt of a sister state to draw the produce of Pennsylvania
to its own sea ports. Every one who has the least knowledge of the trade of the Delaware
state, or the manner in which the produce of the southeastern counties of Pennsylvania is
brought to Philadelphia, will see the frailty of this objection. Almost the whole of the
produce of the counties of Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster, is already brought o market
through the Delaware state, and must for ever be so from their natural situation. It may
also be safely affirmed, that seven-eighths of the whole produce of that state already
centers in Philadelphia; and at least two thirds of all the four and other valuable articles of
country produce, brought to this market, are received from the towns of Wilmington,
New port, and Christiana, which, so far from exporting themselves, are only so many
depositaries to receive them from the interior parts of Pennsylvania, and forward them to
this city. - Wilmington is the only port in that state which can ever command any foreign
trade at all, and this must always be extremely limited, from its situation, which will not
admit vessels of large burthen. At present there are 8 or 10 ships and brigs belonging to
that port, and it has not only the Brandywine mills, but the towns of Newport and
Christiana, with all the neighbouring counties of Pennsylvania, and the lower parts of its
own state, to supply it - yet with all these advantages, its foreign trade is inconsiderable,
and entirely centers in Philadelphia. - It is a fact, that may be easily attested, that the
vessels belonging to it do in most instances land their cargoes at Philadelphia, or send
them to it by river craft, - that they are very often loaded here, and that even the flour
manufactured at Brandywine, has been sent up by the millers, purchased again here by
the Wilmington merchants, and carried down to load their own vessels. Nothing therefore
can be more idle that the idea of its becoming the rival of Philadelphia, or in the smallest
degree injuring its trade; on the contrary, nature has placed it in such a situation, that it
must forever be dependant on it, and form one of the greatest sources of its wealth.
The canal alluded to is intended to commence near the source of the western branch of
the Brandywine, and be continued immediately to the line of the Delaware state, from
whence, it is expected, that state will continue it into Wilmington. The whole of the
country which will be commanded by it, is that only which either already sends its
produce to that place, or immediately to Philadelphia by a very long and expensive land
carriage, and its object is more to ease the present burthensome conveyance, by affording
a water passage in lieu of one by land, than to drain other sources from which
Philadelphia derives its supply.
It will be clearly discovered, by a slight inspection of a map of Pennsylvania, that this
canal can in no degree influence the one already sanctioned by the legislature for opening
the communication from Susquehanna to Schuylkill, as it does not approach so nigh in
any part, as to command the district of country whose produce that is intended to convey
- the latter can only be considered as affording to the southern parts of the state the same
ease in arriving at the market, which the former is intended to do for its upper or northern
parts - With respect to the late projected turnpike road, although it will in some degree
affect it yet advantages will be gained far superior to the inconvenience. The head of this
canal will strike that road something further from Philadelphia than a mean distance
between the city and Lancaster; that part of the road from thence to Lancaster will
undoubtedly receive great advantages from it, as it will insure a carriage to a greater
extent, and draw produce from the present roads which leads into the southern parts of
Lancaster and Chester counties as far as Peach-bottom and the Maryland line, by
affording a water carriage so much nearer than any of the ports to which their produce is
now carried. The remaining part of the road, from the canal to Philadelphia, will, it is
true, be affected in a small degree, until it comes within such a distance of the city, that
the carriage by land is more convenient or less expensive than by the canal; which will
not be more than seven or eight miles at the extent - besides this, in all probability a
considerable town will be formed at the juncture of the canal and road; where the land
and water carriage uniting, depositaries will be formed in the heart of the country, for
wheat and other produce, for the supply of the neighbouring mills and manufactories. I
would wish to call the attention of the public to one important argument; if the
inhabitants of Chester and Lancaster counties can by these means be eased from the
expensive and burthensome mode of carrying their produce to market, and if by pursuing
the routes which nature has pointed out, their commodities brought hither upon cheaper
terms, is it a matter of any moment whether it be done by turnpike roads or by canals?
Whether through the medium of a sister state or our own? Or is the aggrandizements of
Philadelphia to be consulted, at the expence of the rest of the state, even if the present
means would at all affect it? Ought not a liberal Assembly, chosen from amongst all the
citizens of the state, and for its common good, equally to survey the advantages of every
part, and extend, with a generous hand, the aid of its power, to relieve the burthens and
promote the interests of all the people, as well in the remotest parts of its inland counties,
as in its public metropolis.
A CITIZEN.

April 25, 1792
The Pennsylvania Gazette
GENERAL POLASKIE
WILL cover Mares this season, at Mr. Vansciver's, at the sign of the Black Horse, in the
county of Burlington, state of New Jersey, at Five Dollars the season, cash, or Six
Dollars, if credit till the first of August next --- Three Dollars the single leap, POLASKIE
is 15 hands and one inch high, a bright sorrel; he was got by Whynot, out of the Quaker
Lass, bred by Jacob Hiltzheimer, of the city of Philadelphia; when four years old he won
the ladies' purse of 50l. running the best of two mile heats; after the race Mr. Jehu Wood,
of New Jersey, gave 115l. for said mare. Whynot is a beautiful bright bay, full 15 hands
high, with a star and snip, black legs, mane and tail, and allowed by competent judges to
be one of the handsomest horses on the continent; he was got by Fearnought, a son of Old
Regulus, his sire the Godolphin Arabian; Whynot's dam was got by Othello, his grand-
dam by Spark, and his great grand-dam was the noted Old Field mare: he won the
following purses, in 1774 100l. at Nottingham; in 1775 50l. at Baltimore, 50l. at
Newtown, Chester, and 50l. in Virginia in 1778 he run a match of three miles at
Christiana bridge, for 1000l. which he won with great ease.
GENERAL POLASKIE is a very sure foal getter; his colts have been sold from 200 to
300l. when four years old. The season to commence the 24th of April, at the said
Vanseiver's, and the horse to be shifted alternately to Robert Sharp's, at the Little Bridge
on Timber creek, until the first of August next. JAMES TALMAN. April 23d, 1792.

August 22, 1792
The Pennsylvania Gazette
PHILADELPHIA, August 22.
AT a meeting of the President and Managers of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike
Road, August 7, 1782.
The Bye-Laws of the Corporation, and the forms of Powers of Attorney to transfer
Shares, and to receive Dividends, and Letters of Proxy to vote, are ordered to be
published for the information of the Stockholders.
WM. MOORE SMITH, Sec.
AT a meeting of the subscribers to the fund for making an artificial road from the city of
Philadelphia to the borough of Lancaster, at the house of Hunt Downing, on Tuesday, the
24th day of July, 1792, and by the adjournment on Wednesday the 25th, pursuant to
notice duly given
The honorable Jasper Yeates, Esquire, Chairman,
The following rules, orders, regulations and bye-laws were agreed to, for the purpose of
organizing the corporation and carrying the same into effect, agreeably to an act of
Assembly, entitled "an act to enable the Governor of this commonwealth to incorporate a
company for making an artificial road from the city of Philadelphia to the borough of
Lancaster."
1st. There shall be stated meetings of the president and managers, chosen by virtue of the
said act, on the first Tuesday in every month; the first meeting to be held at the state-
house, in the city of Philadelphia, and each succeeding meeting at such place as shall be
agreed upon at the preceding stated meeting: but the president may also call special
meetings of the board of managers when he may think the same necessary, or whenever
he shall be required so to do by an application in writing signed by two or more
managers, and in the absence of the president any two managers may call a meeting. If
the president shall deem it necessary, any special meeting may be held at such place as he
may direct, which place shall be specified in the notice.
2d. That the treasurer shall keep the accounts of the company in suitable books, and in
such manner and form as he shall be directed from time to time by a board of managers,
and shall deposit the cash and stock of the company in the bank of North America or the
United States, in the name and for the use of this corporation, agreeably to such
directions as may from time to time be given him touching the same, and shall pay the
same on draughts of the president or chairman of the board, signed by their order and
attested by the secretary at any legal meeting, whether the same be stated or special.
3d. That the treasurer, before he enters on the duties of his office, shall give bond to the
president, managers and company, with two sufficient sureties; in the sum of ten
thousand dollars, conditioned for the faithful performance of his duties: He shall produce
a monthly statement of the cash under his care, belonging to the company, and it shall be
the duty of the managers to compare the same with the bank account of the said money.
4th. The secretary shall keep a regular account of all sums drawn for by the board in such
a manner, that it may serve as a check on the accounts of the treasurers.
5th. The board of managers are hereby authorized and impowered to form and establish
all other rules and regulations, touching the duties of their officers, the forms and manner
of granting certificates for shares and transferring the same, and for the general internal
management of their trust and execution of their duty, provided the same be not
inconsistent with the laws of this commonwealth, or the regulation hereby adopted, which
rules and regulations shall be in force until the next legal meeting of the company, for the
election of a new board.
6th. That the president and managers shall be authorized to receive good notes bearing
interest, with such security as shall be deemed sufficient, either by deposit of shares or
otherwise, for such parts of the first payment as shall not be wanted immediately, which
notes shall not have more than sixty days to run.
7th. That the annual meetings of the company, on the second Monday in January in each
year, or any special meeting, shall, until otherwise directed by a general meeting, be held
at the state-house, in the city of Philadelphia, and that the secretary shall give at least
thirty days notice of the same previous to the said meeting, in three of the public papers
(one of which shall be German) at Philadelphia, and in the public paper printed at
Lancaster.
L. YEATES, Chairman

Form of Power of Attorney to Transfer Shares.
Know all Men by these presents, That of do hereby constitute and appoint of true and
lawful attorney for and name and behalf to sell, assign and transfer unto any person or
persons share number unto
Belonging in the capital stock of the President, Managers and Company of the
Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road, and for that purpose to make and execute all
necessary acts of assignment and transfer, and further, one or more persons under to
substitute with like full power.
In witness whereof have hereunto set hand and seal this day of in the year one thousand
seven hundred and ninety-
Sealed and delivered
In the presence of (L.S.)
(To be legally acknowledged.)

Form of Power of Attorney to receive Dividends.
Know all Men by these Presents, That of do hereby constitute and appoint lawful
Attorney, for and in name and behalf to receive and give receipts for all dividends now
due, or which may grow die on share to belonging in the capital stock of the President,
Managers and Company of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road. In witness
whereof have hereunto set hand and seal this day of in the year one thousand seven
hundred and ninety-
Sealed and delivered
In the presence of (L.S.)
(To be legally acknowledged.)
Form of Proxies.
Know all men by these presents, That do hereby appoint to be substitute and proxy for
and in name and behalf to vote at any elections of a President, Managers, or other officers
of the Company of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road, as might or could do,
were personally present.
Witness hand this day of in the year of one thousand seven hundred and ninety-

We have good authority to assure the public, that the Board of Managers have displayed
the most exemplary and laudable zeal in forwarding the very important business
committed to their charge. The 7th of this instant was the first meeting; since which time,
besides making the proper arrangements for procuring necessary tools, instruments,
artificers and labourers, they have personally viewed and carefully examined the different
road from Philadelphia to Lancaster, as well as the grounds between and on each side of
the present roads, and have made several discoveries of importance.--Since their return,
in order to ascertain and determine with accuracy the full extent of all the advantages to
the expected from those discoveries, they have appointed skillful superintendants and
surveyors for the following purposes:
1. To survey the road leading from Philadelphia to Lancaster, in the direction of the
Waggon and Rising Sun, so as to descend into the great valley to the north and south of
Burgoin's Gap, as may be the most practicable; and from thence to continue the route
over East and West Brandywine, to the mouth of the passage through the mountain,
where Buck Run issues, and to continue the same over the best grounds, so as to descend
the mountain north of the Gap tavern, and then to proceed over the best and shortest track
to Witmer's bridge.
2. To survey the road leading from Philadelphia to Lancaster, on the direction of the
Buck, Spread Eagle, and Warren taverns, into the Great Valley, and from thence over
East Brandywine, and to continue the same so at to ascend the mountain near or to the
north of the Wheat Sheaf, and then proceed over West Brandywine, in the direction of
Whitakers, so as to descend the mountain near the Compass, and from thence over the
most eligible Witmer's bridge.

The following, we are informed, are the Instructions given by the Board of
Superintendants.
SIR,
THE Board of Managers of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, having in
pursuance of the objects of their appointment, engaged a surveyor and specified the track
he is to pursue, request that you would accompany him, in order to superintend and
controul his proceedings, as well as to procure a variety of essential information,
connected with their views of a speedy decision of the most eligible route, and of a
subsequent continuation of the Turnpike, with economy and dispatch.
For these purposes, it will be necessary to procure exact information of the streams of
water that the road, in its projected track, will pass over, and the probable size of the
bridges, to connect the adjacent grounds on each side of them.
The number of hills on the road must be accurately marked, their length from their first
rise to their summits, as well as their respective angles of elevation and depression, their
average sum of ascents and descents, in intervals of given distance; all of which must be
exhibited on a profile of the road, to be delineated by the surveyor.
If, from the appearance of the surrounding country, a deviation from the track marked out
as a direction to the surveyors, be deemed adviseable, from a certainty of procuring more
level and advantageous ground, or of evidently shortening the distance, you will instruct
the surveyors to that effect; and on the map of the surveyed route, which is to be prepared
for the information of the Board, you will have connected therewith, the lines of
departure, adducing your reasons therefor.
It is of the highest importance that the Board should be possessed of the precise state of
the sources of supply, for the materials that are necessary in the construction of a
Turnpike, during a whole progress of your route, renewing and accurately stating the
same, in your courses at every advance of three miles. It will not be sufficient to draw
you inferences from the information of the inhabitants in the vicinity; we are desirous that
your report should be founded on a personal inspection, and that it should designate their
contiguousness to or remoteness from the road, at the various stages of the route; whether
they lay on the surface or in quarries; the nature and quality of the stone or gravel, their
scarcity or abundance.
We can only be enables to form a proper opinion of the relative advantage of any
proposals that may be made to furnish requisite materials, from a knowledge previously
obtained of these essential points to direct our judgments.
In short, the Board expect that you will pursue and acquire every species of intelligence,
that may be connected with the interests, or converted to the benefit of the company; for
which purpose, you will invite information, from all quarters; but, they desire that you
will nothing, that has not been maturely considered, critically examined, and founded on
your own personal knowledge.
You will be careful to report the local situation of the country in neighbourhood of the
projected routes, designating the intermediate hills, as it relates to the facility of the cross
roads entering the Turnpike, so as to secure as effectually as possible, the general
accommodation of the country, in transporting their produce to a market, and at the same
time securing a certain advantage to the company.

The President and Managers of the Schuylkill and Susquehannah Navigation, have
unanimously, on the 17th instant, agreed to and adopted the following report of their
Committee, viz.
PLAN
For conducting the Operations of the Work, according to the Resolution of the 13th inst.
I.
Of the Tract of the Canal along the Crown Level.


It is necessary to determine the route of the canal before the ground can be purchased.
From the several views which have been taken of the middle ground by the Board and by
the several Committees and Commissioners, your Committee are inclined to give the
preference generally to the most northerly course, as lain down and reported by the
Committee in July last.
The following reasons weigh in favor of this determination:
1st. The distance between the locks on each side will be increased to about 3 12 miles, all
which may be dug immediately, without waiting for an engineer, leaving the more
difficult parts at either end till greater experience be obtained.
2d. The locks at each side being near to each other, may be always attended at less
expence.
3d. The Crown Level being so long, will contain a greater quantity of water, which being
supplied in the night or on days when it shall be less used, will be reserved for the greater
supply of the locks.
4th. By being on the higher ground the canal will be more secure from freshes.
5th. The committee who laid it out inform that the appearance of the ground is favorable
to digging and free from stone.
6th. The trunks or channels for conducting the water to the Canal from the different
streams will be shortened very considerably and much expence thereby saved.
In order therefore to ascertain precisely the tract of the Canal, and to lay out the same and
stake it off on the principles aforesaid.
Your committee propose that Mr. Matlack, Colonel Thomas Bull and Mr. Brindley be
appointed, with full power to perform the business.
II.
Of the Purchase of the Ground.
That Colonel Bull ascertain in whom the title to the land is vested along said tract,
protracting the same, together with a draft of the tract as laid out; and that he be directed
to obtain from the different owners the terms on which they will dispose of the land
within the tract aforesaid, and report the same to the Board.
III.
Of the Breadth and Depth of the Canal.
1st. The Committee conceive it will be proper that the Canal shall be thirty feet wide at
the bottom.
2d. That it shall be four feet deep of water throughout.
IV.
Of the carrying on the Work
Your committee are of opinion it will be best to have the canal dug by contract, as far as
possible.
And that the Agent be directed to advertise, inviting proposals to particular parts, by the
perch or otherwise, as experience may from time to time suggest.
V.
Of the ground necessary for a Towing Path, and for the earth removed from the Canal.


1st. That 10 feet shall be the width of the Towing Path.
2d. That 200 feet in width shall be purchased for the use of the Canal and the other
objects herein mentioned.
From the St. Christopher's Gazette.
BASSETERRE, July 19.
CAPTURE of SERINGAPATAM,
AND
PEACE with TIPPOO SULTAN.
A vessel bound from England to Dominica, fell in with a ship dispatched by Lord
Cornwallis from the East-Indies, with the glorious news of the defeat of Tippoo, and the
surrender of his capital. The Capt. of the Indiaman hailed the above vessel, and desired
her commander to come on board, which he did, and found there Lord Cornwallis's Aid
de Camp, who wrote a short letter to Governor Orde, and enclosed him the Madras
Gazette with the particulars. A gentlemen whose veracity may be depended on, has
arrived here from Dominica.--He saw the Gazette, which mentions, "That Lord
Cornwallis pushed on the siege with the greatest vigor.--The alacrity of the army in
general, and the alertness with which the approaches were carried on by Gen. Meadows,
was such, that notwithstanding every inch of ground was bravely and vigorously
defended by Tippoo, who commanded in person every post of danger, the enemy were
drove from all their outworks, and the Sultan and garrison were confined to the citadel,
from whence he offered to acceded to any terms of peace Lord Cornwallis might dictate.
Seringapatam surrendered by capitulation. Tippoo gave up half his dominions, and
upwards of three millions of pounds sterling.--The day after the treaty was signed, the
Sultan, with his two sons, one of 11 years old, and the other 7, marched through the
British army, which was drawn up to receive him--he had a melancholy but soldierly
look---he went up to Lord Cornwallis, and delivering his two sons to his Lordship as
hostages for the performances of the treaty, said he hoped his Lordship would be a father
to them. In the general order of the day after the treaty, his Lordship, after the usual
thanks to the army, mentions Tippoo's gallantry in defending his capital in very
honourable terms.---A day or two after the surrender of Seringapatam, Lord Cornwallis
visited the two Indian Princes, and presented one of them with an elegant fusee, and the
other with a case of pistols, with which they seemed highly pleased.---Seringapatam, with
all the Mysore country, is to be restored to Tippoo; but all the extensive and luxuriant
country between the Ghauts and the British settlements, remain with the English---The
allies are to have the provinces bordering on their dominions. All the petty princes are
restored to their former rights."
Capt. Boys, of the ship Perseverence, arrived here on Sunday afternoon from Havre de
Grace, which place he left on the 19th of June, brings intelligence, on the whole,
agreeable.
The report of the success of General Fayette's army, which we gave some days since, and
which was so much doubted, it not confirmed by accounts now received, at least proves
to have been not without foundation; witness the following extract of a letter from an
American house in Havre to their correspondent in this city.
With respect to out markets, but little alterations have taken place since out last; but our
exchanges with all foreign places have taken considerable favour; that on London has
risen from 14 to 19, and is still on the rise.
News is just (the letter is dated the 17th) received in town by private letters, and by the
day's paper, that on the 12th instant, a general engagement took place, between the
Austrians and the French army, under General la Fayette, in which the Austrians were
beaten with a loss of two thousand men left on the field of battle, besides some prisoners
taken by the French, with eighteen pieces of cannon.
This intelligence is confirmed in a Paris paper of the 14th. The engagement happened not
far from Namur, near which place the enemy were in great force, as a false march
towards it was made to mislead them.
About the 10th or 11th of June, the Minister of War, Contributions and of the Interior,
were displaced. M. Dumourier, former Minister of foreign affairs, has been placed at the
head of the war department; M. Iaillae is made Minister of foreign affairs, and M. Mould
is placed at the head of the interior.
About the same time M. Gouvion was killed in a skirmish, by a rebounding cannon ball.
The Prince of Leige is dead.
M. Custines replaces Rochambeau. The Polish army effectually opposed an attempt of
the Russians to cross the Dniester, the latter were obliged to turn back to their
encampment.
The inhabitants of Pountrui have shewn a design to assert their independence.
Capt. Stites of the Schooner Industry, in 17 days from Aux Cayes to this port, informs
that a week before he sailed, the people of colour had laid down their arms, and joined
the whites, agreeable to the decree of the National Assembly, and that an expedition was
sent out against the negroes.
There is no country in the world in which there is a greater field for agricultural societies
are established; a mutual intercourse and communication of observations, experiments
and discoveries, will be highly conducive to the promoting this one of the first of all
human concerns.

"Chester County, August 13.
"I THANK you for the information given me, relative to the Susquehanna and Schuylkill
canal, and that the company had opened the work on the middle ground. You tell me, it
only wants resolution and firmness to accomplish it; and that the great and mighty
difficulties will be surmounted much easier than some men, whose contracted minds can
persuade themselves to imagine, which indeed gives me real pleasure; as I know it will
you, when I inform you, that there is great zeal and unanimity prevailing amongst us in
this neighbourhood, for opening the canal along the margin of Brandywine, to
communicate with the tide water at Wilmington, agreeable to out petition last spring.
"On the 6th instant a large number of respectable citizens of this county met at the
Centre-house, in the forks of the Brandywine, when a committee of seven were chosen to
attend on the commissioners appointed by Assembly of Delaware, the 27th day of this
month, at Wilmington, in order to examine and level the ground on the side of
Brandywine to the line of this state; if it suits your convenience to go with them, your
curiosity will be gratified in exploring the hills which this delightful water meanders
through, affording an agreeable murmur, so enchanting to poetical fancy: I shall be happy
to see you there; as I was in seeing some worthy characters from Wilmington, who
attended our meeting, and assured us, that our zeal did not exceed that of the people of
Delaware state, for promoting a work so highly interesting.
"The knowledge and experience of those men in opening mill-races through the rocks,
and over very rugged places, enables them to remove any objections raised, in regard to
the roughness of the ground, which is most considerable in that state. Out committee will
certainly invite the commissioners to continue their examination up the west branch of
the creek, to where the turnpike road may cross it: by this enquiry they will be better
enabled to report to the Assembly of Delaware. I am sensible that I need not to say any
thing to convince you of the utility of the Canal navigation, nor of the practicability of
opening one along the Brandywine; yet, as I have more knowledge of the ground, and
finding it to corroborate with the opinion of many others, confirms me in a belief, that the
Canal will be much easier effected, and at a proportionable less expence, than that from
Susquehanna to Schuylkill, or from Schuylkill to Delaware, and open a direct safe and
secure avenue, to carry the abundance of produce which now passes in a circuitous route
by way of Christiana-bridge and Newport, to your city."

William Dickson, dec’d, late of Christiana Bridge, notice given by Deborah Dickson and
James McCallmont, adm’rs (Delaware and Shore Advertiser 15 July 1795).
August 16, 1797
The Pennsylvania Gazette
WILMINGTON,
August 9.Since Thursday morning last, we have experienced the most heavy and
incessant rains that ever were known in the memory of the oldest inhabitant of this place.
The wind at N.W. alternately shifting to the N.E. brought such a torrent, as, in the space
of 30 hours, completely to inundate all the low grounds in this vicinity, and for miles
distant. Accounts from the country have verified the destruction of many valuable
bridges, houses and meadows. Two bridges at Derby, (one of which was built of stone)
have been entirely subverted. The bridges at Newport and Whiteclay creek have shared
the same fate. A store house at Christiana, the property of Mr. S. Welsh, has been floated
across the creek by the impetuosity of the torrent, and deposited near 200 yards from its
former station. The roads in several places are rendered impervious, and the country in
general exhibits a direful prospect of its ruinous effects.


Francis Janvier married Miss Sally Meriss at Christiana Bridge, January 11 1798, by Rev.
Mr. Barr (Delaware and Shore Advertiser 15 Jan 1798).

Samuel Higgins, of St. Georges Hundred, died on March 10 1798 at Christiana Bridge
(Delaware and Shore Advertiser 12 Mar 1798).

March 14, 1798
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Twenty Dollars Reward.
STOLEN from the subscriber, living in Little Britain township, Lancaster county, a black
HORSE, with a bald face, the off hind foot white, and a small white spot on the other,
seven years old this spring, about 15 hands high, very lofty carriage before, trots and
canters well, and paces a slow gait; also a new snaffle bridle, a half worn saddle, and old
saddle-bags. He was stolen by a certain Benjamin King, who said he had worked at
Wilmington, Newport and Christiana bridge; he is about 5 feet 10 or 11 inches high, stout
made, with short black curly hair, loves strong drink, and a great talker about horses;
wore a blue broad cloth coat, with plain plated buttons, brown velvet breeches, with large
silver knee buckles, black stockings, new shoes with plated buckles, and a new castor hat.
Whoever secures said horse and thief, so that he be brought to justice, and the owner get
his horse, shall have the above reward, and reasonable charges, paid by STEPHEN
LONG.
Feb. 28, 1798.


Joseph Israel, dec’d, late of New Castle County, sale of property in the village of
Christiana by Susanna Israel and John Hall, exec’rs (Museum of Delaware 23 Jan 1808).

Amos Freeman married Miss Hannah Clinton, at Christiana Bridge, on November 23,
1809, by the Rev. Mr. Pryce of Wilmington (Delaware Gazette 25 Nov 1809).
John Hall, of Christiana, married Miss Orpha Ogden, of Derby, PA at Marcus Hook, PA,
December 27, 1821, by J. Walker, Esq. (Delaware Gazette, 8 Jan 1822).

Andrew Thompson, married Miss Sarah Silver, daughter of Rev. William Silver, all of
Christiana, 22 Jan 1822, by the Rev. L. Lawrenson (Delaware Gazette 29 Jan 1822).

William Foster, of Queen Anne’s Co., MD, to Miss Mary Emeline of New Castle
County, at the residence of Mrs. Mary Simmons, near Christiana, November 9, 1824, by
the Rev. Mr. Holdick of New Castle (Delaware Gazette 12 Nov 1824).

William Taylor, married Miss Eliza Boothe, both of Christiana, married there 28 July
1825, by the Rev. Robert Murray (Delaware Gazette 5 Aug 1825).

Mrs. Amey Lewis, relict of Joel Lewis, in Christiana, where she had lived for nearly 50
years, 5 Oct 1826, aged 73 years (Delaware Gazette 10 Oct 1826).

Samuel Simpson, of Philadelphia, married Miss Hannah Maria Ogle, of Christiana, DE, 8
July 1827, in New Ark, by the Rev. A. K. Russell (Delaware Gazette 13 July 1827).

Meeting of the Commissioners of the Elkton and Wilmington Rail Road Company at
Christiana (Delaware Advertiser, 11 Apr 1828).

Public Sale will be at the late residence of Alexander Briscoe, dec’d., in the Village of
Christiana. Signed John J. Briscoe, Adm’r. (Delaware Advertiser, 2 Oct 1828).

Solomon Sharpe, M.D., of Christiana, married Miss Catherine Marion Haris, of Cecil
County, MD, in Philadelphia, 22 November 1828, by the Rev. Thomas Dunn (Delaware
Gazette, 9 Dec 1828).

Henry L. Peckard, married Miss Mary Cann, both of Christiana Bridge, in Wilmington on
29 January 1829, by the Rev. E. W. Gilbert (Delaware Gazette, 3 Feb 1829).

James Munro Penington, at the residence of his father, Mr. Fredus Penington, near
Christiana Bridge, DE., of whooping cough and measles, 4 May 1829, aged 3 years 9
months (Delaware Gazette 22 May 1829).

William Penington, died at the residence of his father, Mr. Fredus Penington, near
Christiana Bridge, DE, of whooping cough and measles, 3 May 1829, aged 17 mths
(Delaware Gazette 22 May 1829).

Caroline Penington, died at the residence of her father, Mr. Fredus Penington, near
Christiana Bridge, DE, of whooping cough and measles, 13 May 1829, aged 6 years
(Delaware Gazette 22 May 1829).
John Milles, Esq., counsellor-at-law in Philadelphia, to Miss Hannah Wager Smith,
daughter of William T. Smith, Esq., of Christiana, DE in Philadelphia, 30 Jun 1829, by
the Rev. P. F. Mayer, D. D. (Delaware Gazette 3 Jul 1829).

Married, At Christiana Bridge, on the 19th Nov. by the Rev. Wm. Rider, Mr. Thomas
Laws, to Miss Mary Hopewell, both of St. Georges, Del (Delaware Advertiser, 10 Dec
1829).

Thomas Laws married Miss Mary Howell, both of St. Georges, at Christiana Bridge,
November 19, 1829, by the Rev. William Rider (Delaware Gazette 11 Dec 1829).

Public Auction at residence in Christiana, all his property, Signed John J. Briscoe.
(Delaware Advertiser 11 Mar 1830).

Anti-Masonic Meeting. Citizens of Christiana and Mill Creek Hundreds held at the
house of William Bracken. Next meeting at the house of William Simpson, in the village
of Christiana Bridge (Delaware Advertiser 3 Jun 1830).

Church Robbery. The Methodist Meeting House of Christiana Bridge was robbed.
Notice signed by Abraham Egbert (Delaware Advertiser 10 Jun 1830).

Friday night last, the house of Mr. John Y. Townsend, near Christiana took fire and was
consumed. Mr. Townsend was burned to death (Delaware Advertiser 1 Jul 1830).

Public Sale on the property lately occupied by John Y. Townsend, dec’d, within one mile
of Christiana Bridge. Signed E. S. Mendenhall, Ex’r (Delaware Advertiser 29 Jul 1830).

School District No. 44 is situate in white clay creek hundred and including the village of
Christiana. Beginning at the mouth of Leathrem’s run and up said run to the mouth of
white spring run, and running up the said white spring run to the head thereof, at or near
Egbert’s lane, and running from thence up said lane to the Christiana and New Ark road
and up said road to the intersection of Harmony mill road and the last named road to
Massey’s road and down Massey’s road to the mouth of a lane passing through land of
Black and Roger’s, and running from thence south seventy degrees east and passing
through land of the aforesaid Black and Rogers and thro’ land of the heirs of Thomas
Hawthorn and the land of John and William Hawthorn and crossing the Wilmington
Turnpike and passing through the land of John Jordan and Simon Cranston and the land
of Jacob Whiteman and the land of Mary Robinson to the Christiana Creek, up said creek
to the place of beginning. [Note: This is the land roughly bounded by Rt. 273, Rt. 4,
Churchman’s Road, and Rt. 7, including the town of Christiana and the Christiana Mall,
ed.]
         A Convenient place for the school voters to meet and hold their Election in this
district is the Christiana School house (Delaware Advertiser, 7 Oct 1830).
Tannery and Farm for Sale. Property in village of Christiana, New Castle County. Apply
to Sarah Briscoe on the premises or to William Janvier, South Fifth Street, Philadelphia
(Delaware Advertiser 11 Nov 1830).

DIED, In this Borough, on Wednesday last, Mrs. Rhoda Armstrong, wife of David
Armstrong, late of Christiana, Del., in the 56th year of her age (Delaware Advertiser 2 Jun
1831).

Alexander Murdaugh, of Christiana Bridge, married Miss Jane McCoy of White Clay
Creek, 4 April 1833, by the Rev. A. K. Russel (Delaware Gazette 12 April 1833).

Samuel Eccles, of Christiana Bridge, DE to Miss Margaret C. Hall, of Darby, PA, on
March 27, 1834, by the Rev. Joseph Lybrand (Delaware Gazette, 1 Apr 1834).

William M. Fowler, of Chestertown, MD, married Miss Eliza Stroup, of Christiana, DE,
at Wilmington on May 29, 1834, by the Rev. Joseph Rusling (Delaware Gazette, 3 June
1834).

Dr. Robert Smith, in the village of Christiana, died on 24 July 1834, aged 73 years
(Delaware Gazette, 30 Sept 1834).

Amos Saunders Jr., married to Miss Mary Jane Moody, both of New Castle County, 27
July 1843, at Christiana Bridge, by the Rev. William Ryder (Delaware Gazette, 4 Aug
1843).

Joseph J. Thompson, married Miss Eliza Calhoun, both of New Castle County, 6 January
1846, at Christiana Bridge, by Rev. William Ryder (Delaware Gazette 16 Jan 1846).

James Draper fell from the steam packet E. I. DuPont when within 2 or 3 miles of the
Christiana, 17 August 1846. Leaves a wife and several small children who reside in
Christiana Village (Delaware Gazette 21 Aug 1846).

Thomas Holmes, married Miss Mary Rhodes, all of New Castle County, in Christiana
September 3, 1846, by the Rev. Mr. Rider (Delaware Gazette 8 Sep 1846).

Samuel M. Jones married Miss Margaret Ann Crawford, both of New Castle, Jan 24,
1847, at Christiana Bridge, by Rev. William Ryder (Delaware Gazette 2 Feb 1847).

Edward Sayman, maried Miss Margaret Williams, both of Christiana, 4 June 1847, by
Rev. William Ryder (Delaware Gazette 4 June 1847).

Rev. William Ryder, died at Christiana, after a short attack of typhus pheumonia, 18 July
1847, in his 70th year (Delaware Gazette 23 July 1847).

Mrs. Esther Ogle, relict of Peter L. Ogle, Esq., of Christiana Bridge DE, in Philadelphia,
March 5, 1848, in her 81st year (Delaware Gazette, 17 Mar 1848).
Edward B. Pierce, of Wilmington, married Miss Mary Ann Loyd, of Christiana, 2 August
1848, by Rev. T. J. Thompson (Delaware Gazette 4 August 1848).

William Conner married Miss Rebecca Jackson, both of Christiana, Delaware on
September 2, 1849, at the Marcus Hook Parsonage by Rev. T. A. Fernly (Delaware
Gazette, 2 Oct 1849).

Charles W. Whiteman, married Miss Susanna Hutton, all of Christiana, 24 February
1850, by Rev. Mr. Crouch (Delaware Gazette, 5 Mar 1850).

Thomas Whiteman, Esq., of Christiana, married Miss Mary G. Down, of Glassboro, NJ,
in Philadelphia, 23 Jan 1851, by the Rev. Fingston Goddard (Delaware Gazette 21 Feb
1851).

Benjamin Odle [Ogle?], died at Christiana, 29 August 1851, aged ca. 35 years (Delaware
Gazette 5 Sept 1851). [Check census records]

Joshua Starr, died in Christiana, 2 February 1853, aged ca. 85 years (Delaware Gazette, 8
Feb 1853).

James Miller, married Martha Todd, 30 July 1853, by the Rev. William C. Cooley, all of
Christiana (Delaware Gazette 5 Aug 1853).

Robinson Ware, married Miss Amelia Jane McCracken, both of Christiana DE, in the
borough of Chesterm 21 April 1853, by R. R. Powell, Esq. (Delaware Gazette 28 April
1853).

Hyland Price, married Eliza Jane Todd, 30 July 1853, by the Rev. William C. Cooley, all
of Christiana (Delaware Gazette, 5 August 1853).

J. J. Howe, of Norwich Conn., married M. E. Fisher, of Christiana, by Rev. Griffith
Owens, (Delaware Gazette, 11 Apr 1854).

Amanda Allen, in Christiana Village, died on 27 May 1855, aged ca. 35 years (Delaware
Gazette, 1 Jun 1855)

Elizabeth Cann, near Christiana Village, died 25 September 1855, in her 77th year
(Delaware Gazette, 2 Oct 1855).

Robert McFarlin, of Christiana Village, died from suicide, 6 October 1855, ca. 72 years
old. Born in Londonderry, Ireland, wife died over a year ago, leaves several children
(Delaware Gazette, 9 Oct 1855).

Robert McFarlin, of Christiana Village, dec’d, late of White Clay Creek Hundred, Peter
Countess and John H. McFarlin, exec’rs (Delaware Gazette, 15 Nov 1855).
George Allen married Miss Sarah Hiesler, both of Christiana Village, on 27 November
1855, in Philadelphia (Delaware Gazette, 7 Dec 1855).

Rachel Wright, Christiana Village, died 8 December 1855, wife of Richard Wright
(Delaware Gazette, 14 Dec 1855).

Mrs. Rachel Ryder, at Christiana, died 2 January 1856, aged 57 years, widow of the late
Rev. William Ryder of the Philadelphia Conference (Delaware Gazette, 8 Jan 1856; 8
Feb 1856).

John B. Fowler, emplyed by Messers Smith & Callahan as a stonecutter, of Hammerton,
Chester Co., PA, killed, shot by his friend, Wm. Walker, in a hunting accident in
Christiana, Thanksgiving, 20 November 1856. Uncle, Joseph Boughman, res. Market
Street below 12th. Buried Wilmington & Brandywine Cemetery (Delaware Gazette, 25
Nov 1856).

Frederick Currinder, married Miss Eliza Jane Griffith, both of Christiana, 7 May 1857, by
the Rev. A. Q. Sproull (Delaware Gazette, 26 May 1857).

Rev. John Talbot Graceyt, of the Philadelphia Annual Conference, married Miss Annie
M. Ryder, of Christiana, DE., on 10 March 1858, by Rev. Bishop Scott, D. D. (Delaware
Gazette, 16 Mar 1858).

William D. Ocheltree, in Christiana, died on 29 July 1858, in his 46th year; (Delaware
Gazette, 30 Jul 1858).

William D. Ocheltree, late of White Clay Creek Hundred, dec’d, Thomas M. Ocheltree,
adm’r (Delaware Gazette, 17 Sept 1858).

John France, of Wilmington, married Miss Maggie Kemp, of Christiana, in Christiana on
17 February 1859, by. Rev .Wm. Urie (Delaware Gazette, 22 Feb 1859).

John Allen, at Christiana, died on 25 April 1859, in his 62nd year (Delaware Gazette, 29
Apr 1859).

John Allen, late of White Clay Creek Hundred, estate papers taken out by George Allen
and Dr. Duffield Armstrong (Delaware Gazette, 13 May 1859).

Abraham Draper, married Anna Maria Willey, 5 February 1861, in the village of
Christiana, by Rev. R. B. Hazzard (Delaware Gazette, 15 Feb 1861).

James Caulk, at his residence near Christiana Village, died 16 March 1861, aged ca. 60
years (Delaware Gazette, 22 Mar 1861).
Mary T. Russel, Christiana, died 31 March 1861, wife of Dr. Washington Russel
(Delaware Gazette, 2 Apr 1861).

James Lunny, married Sarah E. Castloe, all of New Castle County, 28 March 1861, in
Christiana Village, by Rev. R. B. Hassard (Delaware Gazette, 5 Apr 1861).

Jonah J. Sankey, at his residence in Christiana, died 7 July 1861, aged 47 years
(Delaware Gazette, 16 July 1861).

Jonah J. Sankey, late of White Clay Creek Hundred, James W. Sankey and Walter F.
Southgate, Adm’rs (Delaware Gazette, 23 July 1861).

Mrs. C. Lewden, at Christiana, died 10 September 1861, aged 74 years, wife of the late
Jeremiah Lewden (Delaware Gazette, 15 Oct 1861).

Matilda Fowler, Village of Christiana, died 20 October 1861, aged ca. 44 years
(Delaware Gazette , 22 Nov 1861).

Anna B. Ashton, near Christiana, died 24 March 1862, in her 7th year, daughter of Lewis
and Emeline S. Ashton (Delaware Gazette, 1 Apr 1862).

Benjamin Whiteman, at Christiana, died of pneumonia on 21 March 1863, in his 71st
year. He served in the War of 1812, 1st Company, Washington Guards of Philadelphia
(Delaware Gazette, 7 Apr 1863).

John Willits Webber, near Christiana, died 14 May 1864, aged 8 years, son of Thomas
and Louisa Webber (Delaware Gazette, 3 Jun 1864).

Harry B. Vanarsdalen, in Christiana Village, died on 31 May 1864, aged 2 years 2
months, only child of James and Maria Vanarsdalen (Delaware Gazette , 7 Jun 1864).

Harriet Hill, of Christiana, died 14 November 1864, aged 71 years (Delaware Gazette, 8
Mar 1864).

James Miller, in Christiana Village, died 21 Jun 1864, aged 37 years (Delaware Gazette,
1 Jul 1864).

Thomas Reece, late of New Castle County, sale of land in Christiana by trustee, Thomas
F. Bayard, Esq. (Delaware Gazette, 23 Feb 1866; 9 Mar 1866).

Joseph G. Oliver, married to Miss Amanda Allen, both of Christiana, DE, 10 April 1867,
by Rev. J. Henry Beale (Delaware Gazette, 16 Apr 1867).

Southgate, Walter F., a respectable merchant of Christiana, wagon upset and he spent the
night under it in a snowstorm, and died of exposure on 22 March 1868 (Delaware
Gazette, 24 Mar 1868). Late of White Clay Creek Hundred, Henry L. Churchman and
William F. Smalley, adm’rs (Delaware Gazette, 21 Apr 1868). Sale of farm lands by
adm’rs (Delaware Gazette, 1 Jan 1869; 22 Jan 1869). Sale of real estate in White Clay
Creek Hundred to pay debts, by order of the Orphans Court (Delaware Gazette, 12 Nov
1869).

Harry C. Dawson, married Maggie Wier, all of Delaware, on 5 November 1868, in
Christiana, DE, by Rev. D. Kennedy (Delaware Gazette, 11 Dec 1868).

George M. Racine, married Mary E. Armstrong, both of New Castle County, 27 January
1869, at Christiana, DE, by Rev. D. Kennedy (Delaware Gazette, 29 Jan 1869).

Dr. Washington Russel, died at Christiana, DE, 30 July 1869, in his 70th year (Delaware
Gazette 6, Aug 1869).

Ellen McCarter, daughter of Robert and Mary McCarter, died suddenly, near Christiana,
5 September 1870, aged 6 years 11 months (Delaware Gazette, 23 Sep 1870)

Anna W. Shannon, wife of A. P. Shannon, of Christiana, DE, died 17 October 1870, no
age listed (Delaware Gazette, 25 Oct 1870).

Edward Sillitoe, died in White Clay Creek Hundred near Christiana Village, 21 April
1871, aged ca. 75 years (Delaware Gazette, 25 Apr 1871).

Jessie Smith, infant son of Edmond and Ella Smith, died at Christiana Village, 2
September 1873, aged 1 year 9 months (Delaware Gazette, 19 Sep 1873).

William L. Wier, married Maggie A. Levey, both of Christiana, in Philadelphia on 21
January 1875, by the Rev. Thomas Myers of Baltimore, MD (Delaware Gazette, 28 Jan
1875).

Howard Ogle, father of Thomas M. Ogle, Recorder of Deeds, died in Delaware City, at
his residence on 9 February 1875, in his 85th year, interred in Christiana Cemetery (11
Feb 1875).

Lewis H. Webber, of Dayton, Ohio, married Miss Florence Southgate, of Christiana, at
the residence of the bride in Christiana on 18 February 1875, by the Rev. J. Harvey Beale
(Delaware Gazette 25 Feb 1875),

Mrs. Maggie Wier, died at Christiana, 15 May 1875, in her 72nd year (Delaware Gazette,
27 May 1875).

Henry Hugg, deceased, sale of land in New Castle Hundred, on the road from Christiana
to Red Lion. Names mentioned in partition of land, Daniel Diehl et al, Abraham
Shannon et al., Charles B. Lore, trustees (Delaware Gazette, 23 Sep 1875),
James Bolton, late of White Clay Creek Hundred died, William L. Wier, Christiana, DE,
adm’r. (Delaware Gazette, 11 Nov 1875).

Isaac Bostic, died, sale of land in Christiana Village, 18 December 1875, by A. Cannon,
Esq., adm’r (Delaware Gazette, 23 Dec 1875).

Mary B. Patterson, wife of John A. Patterson, died 22 February 1876, in Christiana
Village, no age (Delaware Gazette, 24 Feb 1876).

Benjamin Peters, Jr., married Marianna Russel, daughter of the late Dr. W. Russel, all of
Christiana, DE., 23 February 1876, by the Rev. Charles C. Spencer, rector of Emmanuel
Church, New Castle (Delaware Gazette, 24 Feb 1876).

Thomas Webber, died in Christiana Village, 29 June 1876, aged ca. 55 years (Delaware
Gazette 6 Jul 1876).

Eugene Cooper died at BULL RUN (Del Gazette – 20 Jul 1876) – COPY FOR GARBO
AND ERASE THIS

Marshall Wier, little twin son of Wm. L. and Maggie Wier, died at Christiana, 22 June
1876, aged 3 months (Delaware Gazette, 27 July 1876)

Robert Wier, little twin son of Wm. L. and Maggie Wier, died at Christiana, 26 June
1876, aged 3 months (Delaware Gazette, 27 July 1876)

Thomas Webber, late of Christiana Hundred, sale on property on 17 November 1877, by
his adm’rs Louisa Webber and Arthur G. Webber (Delaware Gazette, 1 Nov 1877).

Mabel Smalley, only daughter of Wm. F. and Mary Smalley, died on 30 October 1877,
no age listed (Delaware Gazette, 1 Nov 1877).

Sarah Carter, colored woman, died in her bed in Christiana, of natural causes, 22 May
1878 (Delaware Gazette, 23 May 1878).

James R. McClintock, of Christiana, married Miss Sarah Jane Thompson, of Baltimore
MD on 22 May 1879, by Rev. W. C. Robinson, 515 Welsh Street, Chester, PA (29 May
1879).

Maxwell Ocheltree, son of M. B. Ocheltree, married Agnes B. Ogle, youngest daughter
of Thomas M. Ogle, Esq., 22 December 1879, at the South Bend Street Church, in
Philadelphia, by Rev. R. B. Cook (Delaware Gazette 24 Dec 1879).
REFERENCES

Frazier, Margaret Mendenhall, Delaware Advertiser, 1827-1831. Carl Boyer, 3rd.,
Newhall, CA, 1987.

Richards, Mary Fallon and John C. Richards, Deaths from the Delaware Gazette, 1854-
1859, 1861-1864. Family Line Publications, 1995.

Richards, Mary Fallon and John C. Reynolds, Delaware Marriages and Deaths from the
Delaware Gazette, 1875-1879. Willow Bend Books, Westminster, MD 2000.

Richards, Mary Fallon Delaware Marriages and Deaths from Newspapers, 1729-1853.
Family Line Publications, Westminster, MD, 1997.

				
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