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									Artificial Intelligence

 Past, Present, & Future

      Andrea McGrath
      April 21st, 2006
                   What is AI?
   The ability of a
    computer or other
    machine to perform
    those activities that
    are normally thought
    to require intelligence.
A brief history
   1936 Alan Turing completes his
    paper "On computable numbers"
    which paves the way for artificial
    intelligence and modern
   1942 Isaac Asimov sets out his
    three laws of robotics in the book I,
   1950 Alan Turing proposes the
    Turing test to decide whether a
    computer is exhibiting intelligent
   1956 John McCarthy coins the
    phrase "artificial intelligence" at a
    conference at Dartmouth College,
    New Hampshire
   1956 Stanislaw Ulam develops "Maniac I", the
    first chess program to beat a human player, at
    the Los Alamos National Laboratory
   1965 Herbert Simon predicts that "by 1985
    machines will be capable of doing any work a
    man can do"
   1966 Joseph Weizenbaum, a computer scientist
    at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
    develops Eliza, the world's first chatbot
   1969 Shakey, a robot built by the Stanford
    Research Institute in California, combines
    locomotion, perception and problem solving
   1982 The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer
    project to develop massively parallel computers
    and a new artificial intelligence is born
   1992 Doug Lenat forms Cycorp to continue work
    on Cyc, an expert system that's learning
    common sense
   1997 The Deep Blue chess program beats the
    then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov
   1997 Microsoft's Office Assistant, part of Office
    97, uses AI to offer customised help
   1997 Microsoft's Office Assistant, part of Office
    97, uses AI to offer customised help
   2001 The Global Hawk uncrewed aircraft uses
    an AI navigation system to guide it on a 13,000-
    kilometre journey from California to Australia
The Turing Test
   Created by Alan
    Turing in 1950
   A test designed to
    assess a machine’s
   No machine has
    consistently passed
    the test
How does it work?
   A human interrogator is connected to both a
    human and a machine, neither of which can be
   The interrogator asks questions to both the
    machine and human, trying to determine which
    is the machine.
   The machine and human subject both try to
    convince the interrogator that they are human
   If the interrogator incorrectly identifies the
    computer as human, the machine has passed
    the test and is considered intelligent
How does it work?

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