Artificial Intelligence Past, Present, & Future Andrea McGrath April 21st, 2006 What is AI? The ability of a computer or other machine to perform those activities that are normally thought to require intelligence. A brief history 1936 Alan Turing completes his paper "On computable numbers" which paves the way for artificial intelligence and modern computing 1942 Isaac Asimov sets out his three laws of robotics in the book I, Robot 1950 Alan Turing proposes the Turing test to decide whether a computer is exhibiting intelligent behaviour 1956 John McCarthy coins the phrase "artificial intelligence" at a conference at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire 1956 Stanislaw Ulam develops "Maniac I", the first chess program to beat a human player, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory 1965 Herbert Simon predicts that "by 1985 machines will be capable of doing any work a man can do" 1966 Joseph Weizenbaum, a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, develops Eliza, the world's first chatbot 1969 Shakey, a robot built by the Stanford Research Institute in California, combines locomotion, perception and problem solving 1982 The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project to develop massively parallel computers and a new artificial intelligence is born 1992 Doug Lenat forms Cycorp to continue work on Cyc, an expert system that's learning common sense 1997 The Deep Blue chess program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov 1997 Microsoft's Office Assistant, part of Office 97, uses AI to offer customised help 1997 Microsoft's Office Assistant, part of Office 97, uses AI to offer customised help 2001 The Global Hawk uncrewed aircraft uses an AI navigation system to guide it on a 13,000- kilometre journey from California to Australia The Turing Test Created by Alan Turing in 1950 A test designed to assess a machine’s intelligence No machine has consistently passed the test How does it work? A human interrogator is connected to both a human and a machine, neither of which can be seen. The interrogator asks questions to both the machine and human, trying to determine which is the machine. The machine and human subject both try to convince the interrogator that they are human If the interrogator incorrectly identifies the computer as human, the machine has passed the test and is considered intelligent How does it work?
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