IENG 471 Lecture 04 - Schedule Design by NvKrx4

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									IENG 471 - Lecture 04

        Schedule Design




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Agenda

   Assignments
   Schedule Design
         Required Data
         Estimating Production Volume
         Estimating Equipment Needs (Equip. Frac.)
         Facilities Project Management Tools
   Questions & Issues


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Assignments
   Current Assignment:
         HW:      (HW 2)
            Product BOM
             Product Operation Process Chart
             Product Precedence Diagram

   Next Assignment:
         HW:         (HW 3) See Assignment Link
               required input for each of the workstations
               equipment necessary for each machine
               steady state cycle time for each machine
               ideal machine assignment for each machine
               compute the idle time
               unit cost at each workstation
               total cost per good unit
               square footage for each workstation and the total space required

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Schedule Design Overview

   Schedule Design is undertaken to
      decide for a facility design:
         How much should the facility be designed to
          produce
         When should the facility be able to produce
          the product




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Impacts of the Schedule Design:
    The Schedule Design of the facility will
       impact:
          Types of machines required
              Processing equipment
              Storage equipment
              Material handling equipment
          Number of machines required
          Number of employees required
          Space requirements
              For all of the above, plus support functions
              (services, utilities, …)



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Information Req’d: Marketing

    What products are to be produced
    What volume of each product is
       expected to be produced (and when)
          How probable are the production requirements
          Seasonality and life cycle considerations
    Where are the products to be acquired
    Who will acquire the products
    What are the product development plans

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Production Volume

     Types of Manufacturing Systems:
           Job Shop
           Batch/Cellular
           Mass Production

     Approximate Annual Volume:                                                  Kalpakjian

         Type of Production   No. Produced                   Typical Products

 Job     Prototype                  1 - 10                   Anything
Shop     Piece/Small Batch       10 - 5,000                  Aircraft, Machinery, Dies
         Batch/High Volume    5,000 - 100,000                Trucks, Ag. Equip., Engines
         Mass Production       Over 100,000                  Cars, Appliances, Fasteners
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Characteristics
                    Type of Production System               Kalpakjian

         Job Shop             Batch Prod.                Mass Prod.


         General               Equipment                    Special
                          Production Rate
                        Production Quantity
         Process            Plant Layout                  Flow Line
                               Labor Skill
                              Part Variety
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Example Job Shop Layout

               Drill      Grind                    H. Mill    H. Mill

               Drill      Grind                    H. Mill    H. Mill

               Drill
                                                   V. Mill    V. Mill
               Drill      CMM
                                                   V. Mill    V. Mill
            Receiving

              Lathe     Lathe                      L. Paint
                                                              Oven
              Lathe     Lathe Shipping             P. Paint

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Example Mass Production Layout

                         V. Mill          H. Mill                 Drill


                Drill                                                      Grind



               Lathe                                                       CMM


             Receiving                                                    L. Paint



                                                                           Oven

                                         Shipping

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Example Batch/Cell Production Layout

                         V. Mill           Grind                  Drill


                Drill                                                      Grind
                                          H. Mill


               Lathe                                         Drill         CMM


             Receiving                                                    L. Paint



                                                                           Oven

                                         Shipping

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Volume, Variety & Automation
                                           Transfer                                           Rembold, et. al.
                              100,000
                                             Line

                            High                                                          Increasing
                                  10,000              Batch                               Flexibility
                                                                               Increasing
                                                      Flow
      Production Quantity




                                                                               Productivity
                                                      Line

                                   1,000
                            Medium

                                    100           Flexible
                                                                             Mfg Cell
                                                  Mfg Sys

                            Low       1                                                          NC Machine

                                           1      10              100                    1,000
                                            Low                Medium                             High
                                                                  Part Variety
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Which Type to Use?: Pareto Chart

   80% of any problem                                                              Pareto Chart for Product Volume
      is the result of 20% of                                        120                                                                            120%
      the potential causes*




                                                 Est. Volume Req’d
                                                                     100                                                                            100%

          Histogram categories




                                                                                                                                                           Cumulative %
                                                                     80                                                                             80%

          are sorted by the                                          60                                                                             60%
          magnitude of the bar                                       40                                                                             40%

          A line graph is overlaid,                                 20                                                                             20%

          and depicts the                                             0                                                                             0%
          cumulative proportion of




                                                                                                                Prod E




                                                                                                                                  Prod G
                                                                           Prod A

                                                                                    Prod B


                                                                                             Prod C

                                                                                                       Prod D




                                                                                                                                           Prod H
                                                                                                                         Prod F
          products
          Quickly identifies where                                                                   Product Type


          to focus efforts

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Estimating Production Volume with Scrap

    The production facility must operate in the “real world”
       In the real world, things go wrong – defects!
    To size the facility, the plant capacity must include extra
       volume for scrap:
         At a single workstation (k) the formula is:
                                                                       Ok
                Ok  Ik  Ik Pk                                 Ik 
                                                                     1  Pk
             where:
               Ik is the input amount required for the process to achieve goals
               Ok is the output amount required of the process, and
               Pk is the percentage of scrap generated by the process per unit




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Estimating Production Volume with Scrap

    Most processes are a sequence of operations
       We need to know the sequence and individual scrap rates of each of the
        operations…
               Good thing we got those Operation Process Charts!

    Assuming that each unit must go through each operation in a chain
     of operations, the plant capacity must include extra scrap volume:
       At end of a single chain of (n) individual operations, the formula for total
         input volume required is:

                                                  On
                      I
                           1  P1 1  P2 1  P3 ...1  Pk ...1  Pn 
             where:
               On is the output amount required at the end of the operation chain, and
               Pk is the percentage of scrap per unit generated by the kth operation, starting
                        with operation 1 and continuing through operation n


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