"Memos and emails"
Memos and emails Official business messages Professional approach Memos Memorandum Used for communication within the organization. Purpose: Ask for information Give information Request decision or action Convey information about action or decision. Format of a memo Memos have just 2 sections :heading and the body. A memo format may be vertical or horizontal. Vertical format: all lines of formal info begin at the left margin. Horizontal format: to and from begin at lefyt margin while date and subject are at the right. Format A memo should- Have a one inch margin all around. Be left justified. Have block style paragraphs. Be single spaced. Double space between paragraphs 12 size font A well written memo is informative and concise. Writing a memo needs preparation and organization. A memo is always brief. Be plain, direct and concise using a comfortable natural style. Have a style that is cordial, straight forward, lucid and yet formal. be conversational. Email messages Used for communication within and outside the organization. Inexpensive Speed-at times can create problem. netiquette-email etiquette. Email messages need to be professional and smart: be concise and to the point. Write a specific subject line Identify your self ,if necessary Include necessary info Keep message focused Maintain a professional tone. Tone and language of email message must be professional and have: Standard capitalization Proper punctuation Correct spelling Standard font size No short forms Criticizing words, angry phrases Use standard English While sending important email Use a proper suitable salutation Add your signature to email message No privacy in email Respond promptly Follow up urgent matters by phone Avoid making needless printouts delete needless information Do not send unsolicited emails Keep date settings and internal clock of computer accurate. Reports- types and structures A report is a logical and systematic presentation of facts and information related to a specific topic.It is defined as a written statement of the facts of a situation ,a project, a process or a test. Purpose: information needed for reviewing and evaluating progress Planning future course of action Taking decisions Reports provide feedback to managers for performance, keep a check on a continuing activity Plan for future needs Survey market for launching a new product. Types of reports Routine Special Routine-periodical, prepared by filling printed/cyclostyled formsto conveybstandarised information about the progress or statusof work/tasks.submitted at regular intervals or soon after completion. Special-required when a special situation or problem arises. Types Routine reports: Progress Inspection Performance appraisal Periodical Special reports First information report Investigating Feasibility or survey report Project report Reports by individuals: short written in a letter form. long report written in schematic form. Reports by committee: schematic form on organization’s letterhead. Structure of a report: divided in to sections with headings ,so that info collected can be presented in a form that is easy to read and refer.a covering letter accompanies the report. A report is formal and follows a logical order. Parts of a report Report has several sections enabling easy to read form. Essential sections: letter of transmittal Title page Table of contents Glossary Abstract Introduction Methodology/findings Conclusion Recommendations Appendices bibliography Business reports Analyse the problem and the purpose Anticipate the audience response and issues that will arise Research the data and collect information Organize, analyse, interpret the data, prepare illustrations if appropriate Compose the first draft Revise proof read and evaluate Steps in preparing to write a report Understand the assignment clearly Analyse the situation Statement of purpose :expanded to include significance, scope and limitations of the study. Anticipating the audience and its reactions Preparing the outline Preparation: collecting material/information sources: personal observation, printed info and records, people, other media internet. Organizing collected information Composing the report Expressions Principles of work Always keep the readers and their needs in mind Choose simple words Avoid adjectives Be specific and precise Never exaggerate Write to inform and not impress Simplify, justify , quantify Order of writing Main body Conclusions Recommendations Introduction Ancillary parts-content, acknowledgement, reference, appendices, bibliography Summary Remember reader’s response Revising: proof reading and evaluation