ADVANCED PLACEMENT BIOLOGY STUDENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction and Background for AP Biology………….…..1-2
AP Biology Contract…………………………………………….4
AP Biology Grading Breakdown……….………………………5
AP Biology Course Outline/Syllabus……………………….6-7
College Board’s AP Biology Course Description…............7-8
AP Biology Calendar – Overview………………………….8-14
College Board’s Annotated Course Outline…………..…15-18
College Board’s Major Themes……………...……………….19
Dear Student and Parents,
Welcome to AP Biology!
The course that you have chosen may be the most challenging, demanding and exciting course that you
have taken so far in your school career. You are studying biology at a time of many scientific advances,
especially with the nucleotide sequence of the Human Genome project essentially done, exciting new
information is coming everyday. We will have guest lectures from people doing research during the year. We
will take a field trip to M.I.T. to hear faculty lecture on their research and at times we will be visiting their
labs. We also have two scheduled laboratory experiments that we will be conducting at “City Lab”, which is
located at Boston University’s School of Medicine. These labs are an essential part of the AP lab curriculum
and are mandatory. The faculty lectures add depth to the curriculum and gives you insight to the frontiers of
AP Biology is an intense and comprehensive survey course that follows a strict outline and schedule (see
course outline). It was designed by a select group of college professors and high school science teachers to
be equivalent to an introductory college biology course including lectures, discussions and laboratory
investigations. At HHS, Advanced Placement courses provide more advanced students the opportunity to try
their hand/minds at college-level materials and requirements. Students who are successful in completing the
requirements for AP Biology can take an exam to exempt them from their introductory college biology
course, thus saving themselves several hundred to several thousands of dollars and permitting an early
enrollment in more advanced courses. This AP course will prepare you to do college level work. The AP
experience is not only about passing the AP exam. It is about developing skills and study habits that will be
vital in your college studies. For example, you will learn to analyze problems and improve your writing skills,
and prepare for exams. This class will help you learn to successfully write lab ‘reports, write concise and well
written essays and most importantly make you get organized. Success in a college level class is about
organizing your time well. This course will challenge you and prepare you for college. This class is often
more demanding than a college introductory biology class, mostly because we are required to finish the text
whereas colleges do not have this demand. Colleges expect a student placing out of their Introductory
Biology course to have had an equivalent experience as well as having mastered its content in AP Biology.
To place out of Introductory Biology in college, a student must take the AP Biology Exam and receive an
“acceptable” grade. This exam is written and graded by the Educational Testing Services (hired by the
College Board). The test is three hours long, divided equally into two sections: a 120 item multiple choice
objective section and a four item free response essay section. Most of the multiple choice questions are
based on lecture content, but about 25% are laboratory-based questions. Also some of these lab based
questions makes the student analyze given data from one of the 12 required labs. In addition, one of the four
required essays on the Exam is a lab-based discussion question. Thus, even if a student has had no
laboratory experience at all, it is quite possible for him/her to still receive a “passing” grade on the exam.
However, the nation’s colleges expect that AP Biology should be a complete lab course. Indeed, the AP
Biology course is the only AP science course that the College Board has mandated 12 college-level
laboratories that must be performed during the year to meet their minimum requirements. Of course, any
good AP program will require more than the minimum. We will be doing approximately 7 additional labs
throughout the year. These labs will enhance your working knowledge of biology as well as refine your lab
AP exam grades are assigned on a scale of 1 to 5 with a 3 as a passing score and a 5 as “extremely well
qualified”. Many colleges give credit for Introductory Biology to applicants with a score of 3 if they are non-
science majors, but few competitive colleges accept a score of 3 for credit for advanced placement if the
student is a science major. Most colleges are now requiring science majors to receive scores of 4 or 5 to
place out of Introductory Biology.
Although I do not like the idea of teaching (or learning) a course for a specific, one time, three hour test, we
will spend time throughout the year going over essay and objective questions from previous AP Biology
exams. We will learn how to write “better” answers to essay questions, and we will discuss how the AP
Biology grading committee sets up a rubric for grading the exams. Examples of AP Exam questions will be
given on each unit test that you will take this year. Familiarity with these questions should make you more
confident and comfortable when you take the exam in May. All Students are required to take the AP exam in
I consider this an advanced biology course that happens to prepare you for the AP Biology Exam. We use a
college text, college labs and a comprehensive college curriculum. As such, we will not be able to consider
all of general biology in detail between September and May. In some ways, this is a survey course. The
pace of the class will be rapid; at times it will boggle your mind! It will be of UTMOST importance to
consistently keep up to date with the text readings, class work and laboratory assignments. The pace will be
set as a college laboratory course. Much study and review will have to be done on your own outside of
class. Our class, however, will be much smaller and more supportive than the typical Introductory Biology
class in college. Tests, assignments and reinforcements will be more frequent and analyzed more carefully
than those in college where grades are often determined mainly by a midterm covering half of the text and a
final exam over the whole year. Your AP exam grade will not affect your HHS grade.
We will be using the 6th edition (2002) textbook Biology by Campbell & Reece. I will give you a text and a
student study guide and Interactive Study Partner CD-Rom to borrow for the year.. This CD-ROM includes
interactive exercises, animations, and lab simulations. There are also quiz questions for each chapter with
feedback for all answers and page reference to the relevant explanations in the textbook. You may want to
purchase a student study guide. I will order you one from the publisher. It is very helpful as a review guide to
help you study for the A.P. exam. Former students highly recommend the Cliff’s notes for AP Biology. You
can find this at any large book store. Past students have found this helpful since it also provides summaries
of all the 12 required labs and sample lab questions. It is also helpful in analyzing the labs. These
supplementary materials are NOT and CANNOT be used as your primary text. Orders will be taken on the
first day of classes for it takes two weeks to get these to HHS.
An Independent Research project will be conducted during the school year. Students have the option to
work with a partner. Time will be given periodically for students to carry out their projects in class. More
information will be given during the first week of school.
It is important for you to consider why you are taking this course. Since this course will be fast paced and
intense at times, it is important to keep up with the scheduled reading and assignments. This course may be
the first really demanding course in your high school experience. Do NOT give up; keep trying. This course
will teach you to organize vast amounts of information. You may have to reevaluate how you learn and
adjust accordingly. You should form study groups to help you digest all this material.
Although extracurricular activities should be chosen wisely, past AP Biology students have been able to
participate fully in athletics, clubs, student government, and student publications, but they had to plan their
time carefully. The busiest students are often the most successful in this class. They have developed the
ability to manage their time wisely. Success in AP, as in any course, will depend on your motivation and
maturity, your ability to read for comprehension and to communicate well in writing, as well as your ability to
In my estimation, the greatest challenge is the requirement that students be responsible and work
consistently throughout the year. The urge to go into a senior slump, “senioritis,” once you have been
accepted to a college of your choice can be overwhelming; to give into that urge will be self-defeating. It is
just at this time when you need to push harder in preparation for the upcoming AP Exam in May.
Rule number one Read the appropriate sections prior to class. This will help you understand the lectures in
greater depth. Rule number is to read and do all the objective questions. While this may seem like a waste
of time to you initially, you will realize how much more information you will retain as a result of repeated
exposure to the material. I highly recommend purchasing the student study guide. Do the questions at the
end of each chapter in both the text and the study guide. This will give you an idea of the types of questions
that may appear on the exam. You can turn in the objective questions two days prior to the test date for five
extra points that will go unto your test grade. At this time, you can get the answers to these questions. This
will help you know the material. Rule number three Seek extra help after school with me individually or in a
“Review party” situation. Email is NOT a suggested means of getting extra help or getting H.W. answers. I
do not check my email everyday. The best way is to see me after school.
Lastly, a former student has asked me to forewarn all of you to start right away. We will start immediately
from day one. There will be no grace period. We will stick with the schedule on the syllabus. I will give you a
calendar — monthly. There is a lot to learn. We will cover — 50 chapters! We will all be active learners, you
and I, in this learning community. It will be a fun and bonding experience! I hope you are as eager as I am to
start this class and the new academic year.
1. To provide the student with a fundamental knowledge of biology.
2. To provide the student with instruction to meet the Massachusetts
3. To prepare students for the Advanced Placement Biology Exam.
4. To reinforce the student’s skills in reading, writing, listening, note taking,
analyzing, quantifying, and creative thinking.
5. To acquaint the student with the history of biology and the scientific
6. To realize the social and economic consequences caused by
advancements in biology.
7. To make the student aware of ethical and moral issues related to these
8. To have the student consider biology as an essential part of their everyday
9. To provide the student with opportunities to foster inquiry based learning
through lab activities and independent projects.
CONTRACT FOR AP BIOLOGY
I, the undersigned, will use the statements given below to govern my behavior in AP Biology. I
realize that the failure to abide by any one of these rules is likely to negatively affect my overall
1. I have read the Introductory & Background letter on pgs. 1-2.
2. Lectures and labs conducted during a scheduled AP Biology class period are for those
purposes only. I will not do any other work during an AP Biology class. This includes:
assignments for other classes, reading books or magazines, listening to an iPod/MP3 player, AP
Biology assignments (including objective - questions, labs, etc.). All of the above will be taken
away the moment it is seen.
3. Any requests for a re-grade must be written. No verbal requests will be honored.
4. I am responsible for any work/due dates/important class information I miss when I am absent
for a class. I understand that I am responsible for directly approaching the teacher for such
5. Test Policy
It is best to take the exam on the scheduled date. Makeup exams are often more difficult. The 1st
makeup, due to an absence, will be the same, but those after will be ALL essays. Conditions for
taking the make-up are as follows:
a) if you know that you will be missing a test date due to travel (i.e., college visits or away games
(athletics, etc.)), you must make alternative test arrangements prior to this situation.
b) For only 1st quarter, one grade may be dropped. This can be your lack of preparation/ “I can’t
take the test today grade.” It is always best to save this for a true lowest grade.
c) NO EXCUSES: truancy (cuts/unexcused), lack of preparation “excuses” are not considered
valid. No make-up will be given.
d) NO LATES on take-home Tests - Open Textbook exam given during Winter/Feb/April Breaks.
6. Lab Policy
a) It must be emphasized that labs are set up based on the scheduled date. Make-ups are difficult
and in some cases, impossible. It is best NOT to miss a lab!
b) All assignments are due at the beginning of the class. This means ready to pass in. Put in
together and staple it AT HOME.
c) 5 points off each school day up to 5 days late (After 5 days late, you will receive a zero, BUT
you must still pass it in OR this will affect your 10% effort/performance grade.
7. Help for an AP Biology assignment should be sought before the due date. I understand that
handing in assignments late will affect my 10% grade.
8. NEATNESS COUNTS! This is a college level course. You are expected to perform at the
college level. Please type everything (except objective questions could be hand written) and Keep
a hard copy AND a disk copy for your records JUST in case. This is always a good habit.
9. All outside of HHS lab experiments are Mandatory (~3 Lab Field Trips)
10. Keep all graded assignments to check your grades with mine (checks and balances). This is
also a good habit. You will need them for your portfolio.
Print and Sign Full Name with date. _____________________________________________
TESTS, REVIEW SHEETS, TIMED ESSAYS 45%
Multiple-choice (M.C.) questions 60% (these are for min. 40 M.C. questions)
(min. 30 m.c. = 50%/50%; min. 20 m.c. =40%/60%)
- These essays will be given in class. They are former AP Exam essay questions and
will help prepare you, in terms of both timing and material, for the actual exam in May.
- Worth 1/2 a test grade
LABORATORY GRADE (REPORTS & PERFORMANCE) 30%
- Read the Laboratory Manual for details (Lab conduct + performance =10%)
- Performance in lab is based on if you read the lab prior to the lab day. This will
contribute to organizing yourself so the lab gets done in the 90 minute block.
HOMEWORK, including: 15%
- Essays (take-home)
- Objective Questions- Some will be mandatory. All others are worth 5 extra points on
that chapters test grade.
- Other assignments TBA throughout the year
PORTFOLIO / Keeping up with readings / EFFORT
Class work – PowerPoint presentations
- 5 percentage points off per day, up to 5 school days (not class days)
- NO LATES take-home tests
• The AP Exam scores are not received until early July. These scores are, therefore, not
used as a part of a student’s average in the course.
• If you have not taken the SAT II (Achievement Test) in Biology, it is recommended that
you take this in June. Online deadline is around end of April. Check deadline dates on
AP Biology Course Outline/Syllabus
Class Meetings: Monday - Friday (Semester I & Il/ Year Long Course), 90 minute blocks a day.
Labs: All 12 required AP Biology labs are done in class or at City Lab plus minimum four
additional labs. Refer to lab manual. There will also be an independent experimental research
project. All labs are student conducted.
Text: BIOLOGY, Campbell and Reece, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company 2002, 6th
edition and Student Study Guide Companion Book.
Labs 1 -12 (Completed during a 90 minute block unless noted) +
Additional labs beyond the AP Bio College Board recommended labs
1. Diffusion and Osmosis: To investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a model
membrane system. (2- 90 minute blocks)
2. Enzyme Catalysis: To determine the quantity of a substance in a solution via the titration
method and then calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and
oxygen gas by enzyme catalyses.
3. Mitosis and Meiosis: To use prepared slides of onion root tips to study plant mitosis and
to calculate the relative duration of the phases of mitosis in the meristem of root tissue.
Prepared slides of the whitefish blastula will be used to study mitosis in animal cells and
to compare animal mitosis with plant mitosis. You will also fix, stain, and make slides of
onion root tips. These slides will be studied for the presence of cells in the four stages of
4. Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis: To separate plant pigments using chromatography.
You will also measure the rate of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts. The
measurement technique involves the reduction of the dye, DPIP. The transfer of
electrons during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis reduces DPIP, changing
from blue to colorless.
5. Cell Respiration: To measure the oxygen consumption during the respiration of peas.
This will be done by measuring the change in gas volume in respirometers that contain
either germinating or non-germinating peas. In addition, you will also measure the
respiration of these peas at two different temperatures. You will then compare these
results, and draw conclusions about the rate of respiration as it is affected by different
6. Molecular Biology: To study the basic principles of genetic engineering using foreign
DNA to transform Escherichia coli, demonstrating techniques for separating and
identifying DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis.
7. Genetics of Organisms: To determine the quantity of a substance in a solution via the
titration method and then calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water
and oxygen gas by the enzyme catalase.
8. Population Genetics and Evolution: To learn about the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic
equilibrium and study the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequency
by using your class as a sample population.
9. Transpiration: To study the organization of the plant steam as it relates to these
processes by observing sections of fresh tissue.
10. Physiology of the Circulatory System: To measure blood pressure using a
sphygmomanometer and measure pulse rate under different physiological conditions.
11. Animal Behavior: To observe pill bugs and investigate their responses to environmental
12. Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity: To measure and analyze the
dissolved oxygen concentration in water samples at varying temperatures. Then you will
analyze the primary productivity of natural waters as a function of depth.
13. Yeast Complementation: To examine the histidine biosynthetic pathway in yeast. ( 4
14. Artificial Yeast Chromosomes: To investigate the effect of the shape of size of
chromosomes on their stability. This will be done in the context of growing various
strains of yeast.
15. Polymerase Chain Reaction: To amplify the Alu element within the TPA gene. Students
will use their own cells to identify if they are homozygous, heterozygous for the Alu
16. Microbiology: To examine the effects of antibiotics on Gram positive and negative
bacteria using zones of inhibition tests. Students will learn aseptic techniques and
A.P. Biology College Board’s Course Description
I. Molecules and Cells..............................................................................................................25%
A. Chemistry of Life (Chapters 1-6)………………...……………………………………..7%
Organic molecules in organisms
Free energy changes
B. Cells (Chapters 7, 8, 11, 12)……………………………………………………………10%
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Cell cycle and its regulation
C. Cellular Energetics (Chapters 9 and 10)……………………………………………….8%
Fermentation and cellular respiration
II. Heredity and Evolution.........................................................................................................25%
A. Heredity (Chapters 13-15)...………………………………………………….…………..8%
Meiosis and gametogenesis
B. Molecular Genetics (Chapters 16-21)...……………………………………….………...9%
RNA and DNA structure and function
Viral structure and replication
Nucleic acid technology and applications
C. Evolutionary Biology (Chapters 22-25)…………………………………………………..8%
Early evolution of life
Evidence for evolution
Mechanisms of evolution
III. Organisms and Populations…………………......................................................................50%
A. Diversity of Organisms (Chapters 26-34)………………………………………………..8%
Survey of the diversity of life
B. Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (Chapters 35-49)..……………………32%
Reproduction, growth and development
Structural, physiological and behavioral adaptations
Response to the environment
C. Ecology (Chapters 50-55).……………………………………………………………....10%
Communities and ecosystems
After the A.P. Exam, you will be working on a plant diversity plant project, chapter PowerPoint projects
and/or independent research projects. All of this is dependent on the number of days available before
seniors last day & last day of school.
Please note: This AP Biology course will be in close alignment with the
College Board’s course outline and we will follow its major themes as
COLLEGE BOARD’S ANNOTATED COURSE OUTLINE
The following annotated outline of topics provides a sample of questions targeting important concepts
related to individual biological topics. The questions are intended to help you better put the topics into the
context of a conceptual framework. This list is not exhaustive it is only a beginning. You are encouraged to
focus on understanding important relationships, processes, mechanisms, and potential extensions and
applications of concepts--less important, is the memorization of specialized terminology and technical
details. For example, understanding how protein structure affects enzyme action is more important than
memorizing a list of enzyme names.
I. MOLECULES AND CELLS: Cells are the structural and functional units of life; cellular processes are
based on physical and chemical changes.
A. CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
- How do the unique chemical and physical properties of water make life on earth possible?
2. Organic molecules in organisms
- What is the role of carbon in the molecular diversity of life?
- How do cells synthesize and break down macromolecules?
- How do structures of biologically important molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
account for their functions?
3. Free energy changes
- How do the laws of thermodynamics relate to the biochemical processes that provide energy to living
- How do enzymes regulate the rate of chemical reactions?
- How does the specificity of an enzyme depend on its structure?
- How is the activity of an enzyme regulated?
1. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
- What are their similarities and differences?
- What are their evolutionary relationships?
- What is the current model of the molecular architecture of membranes?
- How do variations in this structure account for functional differences among membranes?
- How does the structural organization of membranes provide for transport and recognition?
- What are the various mechanisms by which substances cross membranes?
3. Subcellular organization
- How does compartmentalization organize a cell’s functions?
- How are the structures of the various subcellular organelles related to their functions?
- How do organelles function together in cellular processes?
- What factors limit cell size?
4. Cell cycle and its regulation
- How does the cell cycle assure genetic continuity?
- How does mitosis allow for the even distribution of genetic information to new cells?
- What are the mechanisms of cytokinesis?
- How is the cell cycle regulated?
- How can aberrations in the cell cycle lead to tumor formation?
C. CELLULAR ENERGETICS
1. Coupled reactions
- What is the role of ATP in coupling the cell’s anabolic and catabolic processes?
- How does chemiosmosis function in bioenergetics?
2. Fermentation and cellular respiration
- How are organic molecules broken down by catabolic pathways?
- How do cells generate ATP in the absence of oxygen?
- How does photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy?
- How are the chemical products of the light-trapping reactions coupled to the synthesis of carbohydrates?
- What kinds of photosynthetic adaptations have evolved in response to different environmental conditions?
- What interactions exist between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
II. HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION: Hereditary events control the passage of structural and functional
information from one generation to the next
1. Meiosis and gametogenesis
- What features of meiosis are important in sexual reproduction?
- Why is meiosis important in heredity?
- How is meiosis related to gametogenesis?
- What are the similarities and differences between gametogenesis in animals and gametogenesis in plants?
2. Eukaryotic chromosomes
- How is genetic information organized in the eukaryotic chromosome?
- How does the organization contribute to both continuity of and variability in genetic information?
3. Inheritance patterns
- How did Mendel’s work lay the foundation of modern genetics?
- What are the principal patterns of inheritance?
B. MOLECULAR GENETICS
1. RNA and DNA structure and function
- How do the structures of nucleic acids relate to their functions of information storage and protein
- What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes?
2. Gene regulation
- What are some mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
- In what ways can genetic information be altered?
- What are some effects of these alterations?
4. Viral structure and replication
- What is the structure of viruses?
- What are the major steps in viral reproduction?
- How do viruses transfer genetic material between cells?
5. Nucleic acid technology and applications
- What are some current recombinant technologies?
- What are some practical applications of nucleic acid technology?
- What legal and ethical problems may arise from these applications?
C. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
1. Early evolution of life
- What are the current biological models for the origins of biological macromolecules?
- What are the current models for the origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
2. Evidence for evolution
- What types of evidence support an evolutionary view of life?
3. Mechanisms of evolution
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- What is the role of natural selection in the process of evolution?
- How are heredity and natural selection involved in the process of evolution?
- What mechanisms account for speciation and macroevolution?
- What different patterns of evolution have been identified and what mechanisms are responsible for each of
III. ORGANISMS AND POPULATIONS: The relationship of structure to function is a theme that is common
to all organisms; the interaction of organisms with their environment is the major theme in ecology.
A. DIVERSITY OF ORGANISMS
1. Evolutionary patterns
- What are the major body plans of plants and animals?
2. Survey of the diversity of life
- What are representative organisms from the Monera, Fungi, and Protista?
- What are representative members of the major animal phyla and plant divisions?
3. Phvlogenetic classification
- What are the distinguishing characteristics of each group (kingdoms and the major phyla and divisions of
animals and plants)?
4. Evolutionary relationships
- What is some evidence that organisms are related to each other?
- How do scientists study evolutionary relationships among organisms?
- How is this information used in classification of organisms?
B. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
1. Reproduction, growth, and development
- What patterns of reproduction and development are found in plants and animals? How are they regulated?
- What is the adaptive significance of alternation of generations in the major groups of plants?
2. Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations
- How does the organization of cells, tissues and organs determine structure and function in plant and
• How are structure and function related in the various organ systems?
- How do the organ systems of animals interact?
- What adaptive features have contributed to the success of various plants and animals on land?
3. Response to the environment
- What are the responses of plants and animals to environmental cues, and how do hormones mediate
1. Population dynamics
- What models are useful in describing the growth of a population?
- How is population size regulated by abiotic and biotic factors?
2. Communities and ecosystems
- How is energy flow through an ecosystem related to trophic structure (tropic levels)?
- How do elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen) cycle through ecosystems?
- How do organisms affect the cycling of elements and water through the biosphere?
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- How do biotic and abiotic factors affect community structure and ecosystem function?
3. Global issues
- In what ways are humans affecting biogeochemical cycles?
COLLEGE BOARD’S MAJOR THEMES
In the attempt to develop unifying constructs in biology, the AP Biology Development Committee has
identified eight major themes that recur throughout the course.
Applying the Themes: Examples for the Three Major Subject Areas
1. Molecules and Cells
2. Heredity and Evolution
3. Organisms and Populations
I. Science as a Process
How did Melvin Calvin and his students discover the sugar- producing cycle of photosynthesis?
Experiments with artificial membranes have added to our understanding of the structure and function of the
How do we know DNA is the genetic material?
X-ray diffraction, model building, and analysis of base pairing led to the development of the double helix
model of DNA.
What can long-term ecological research teach us about human impact on the biosphere?
Measurements of rates of transpiration using part of plants have helped biologists understand the roles of
the roots and the leaves.
Chemical evolution on a young Earth set the stage for the origin of life,
C4 and CAM plants represent structural and biochemical adaptations for photosynthesis in hot and dry
Mutations and genetic recombination generate heritable variation that is subjected to natural selection.
Natural selection occurred in early pm-life forms, as coacervates possessing enzymes for synthesis of
various metabolites had more options for energy utilization and thus were more likely to survive.
When a population’s local environment changes unfavorably, the population adapts, migrates, or dies.
The system of taxonomy used by most biologists today reflects our current understanding of phylogenetic
relationships among organisms.
5. Energy Transfer
Plants transform light energy into chemical energy.
A proton gradient across membranes powers the synthesis of ATP in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and
A cell must spend energy to transcribe and translate a gene because entropy decreases as monomers are
organized into complex macromolecules.
Energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP is used by cells in DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation.
Energy flows into producers to consumers in an ecosystem.
Ion pumps in membranes reestablish a transmembrane resting potential alter a neuron fires an impulse or a
muscle fiber contracts.
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