# accuplacer

Document Sample

```					PLEASE BRING A PHOTO I.D. TO YOUR SCHEDULED TESTING

What kinds of questions are on ACCUPLACER?
Reading Comprehension This test is designed to measure how well you understand what you read. It contains 20 questions. Some questions are the sentence relationship type in which you must choose how sentences are related. Other questions refer to reading passages of varying lengths. Sentence Skills Two kinds of questions are given in this test. Sentence correctionquestions ask you to choose a word or a phrase to substitute for an underlined p011!'2.n a sentence. ~f Construction shift questions ask that a sentence be rewritten in a specific way without changing.the meaning. A variety of topics is included. You will be given 20 questions. Arithmetic The arithmetic test measures your skills in three primary categories. The first is operations with whole numbers and fractions. This includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and recognizing equivalent fractions and mixed numbers. The second category involves operations with decimals and percents. It includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division as well as percent problems, decimal recognition, fraction and percent equivalences, and estimation problems. The last category tests applications and problem solving. Questions include rate, percent, and measurement

problems,geometryproblems,and distributionof a quantityintoits fractionalparts.A
total of 16 questions are asked.

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PRACTICE TEST READING STRATEGIES Be. IAGNOSTIC D

Six skills prepare students to become better readers and for college-level courses:
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cause and effect. understanding purpose and tone.

recognizing main Ideas. identifying supporting details. . recognizing impliedmain ideas and the central point. understanding relationshipsthat involve addition and time. understanding relationshipsthat Involveillustration, comparison or contrast, and

MAIN IDEA In order to become a better and faster reader, recognizing the main idea is the most important skill you can develop. Think of the main Idea as an "umbrella" idea. It is the author's primary point about a topic. All other material in the paragraph fits under the main idea. In a paragraph, authors often present the main idea to readers in a single sentence called the topic sentence. Consider this example: TV violence does affect people in negative ways. Frequent TV watchers are more fearful and suspicious of others. Heavy TV watchers are less upset about real-life violence than non-TV watchers. TV violence Increases aggressive behavior in children. You will see the word topic used In two different ways. First, topic can be used generally to mean the subject of the reading. Second, it can be used as a part of the phrase, topic sentence. In this example, the first sentence tells the reader the general subject or, topic, of the passage. The second sentence is the topic sentence, and in this case also gives the author's main idea. This sentence tells the reader what the passage is about and gives the main point the author is making. SUPPORTING DETAILS Supporting details are reasons, examples, steps, or other kinds of factual evidence that explain a

main idea.

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Consider this example: Main Idea: Our government should phase out the penny in the economy. Supporting detail 1: Pennies take UDmore SDace than they are worth. Supporting detail 2: Pennies are a nuisance to the business communltv Supporting detail 3: Pennies cost the nation as a whole. In this case the supporting details give reasons to support the main idea. RECOGNIZING IMPLIED AND STATED IDEAS Sometimes a selection lacks a topic sentence, but that does not mean it lacks a main idea. The author has simply decided to let the details of the selection suggest the main idea. You must figure out wh'at that implied main idea Is by deciding upon the point all of the details make when they are all added together.

Passages that imply an idea give supporting details first. The reader must extrapolate (or makes an "educated guess) in order to understand the main idea. In these sorts of passag~s the main

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Idea is the genera" statement that all of the details make when they are considered as a whole. The main idea must be general enough that all of the details fit into it.

Consider this example: 1.

2. 3. 4.

and to establish close ties with them. . Two-persongroups are the setting for many of our most intense and influential relationships. In three-person groups, coalitionsbecome possible, with tWomembers joining force against a third member. Five-person groups are large enough so that people feel they can express their emotions freely and even risk antagonizing one another, yet they are small enough so that members show regard for one another's feelings and needs.

The smaller a group Is, the more opportunities we have to get to know other people well

Whichstatement best expresses the unstated main idea of the above sentences? a. b. c. d. Explanation:
a. b. c. d. Answer a is too narrow to be the implied idea. It is based on only one of the four supporting details, statement 1. Answer b covers only statements 2"and 4; therefore it is too narrow to be the implied main Idea. In addition, it is a conclusion that is not based on the given facts, which say nothing about one group always being better than another. Answer c is a general statement about the number of people in a group and how that number affects a group. It is illustrated by all four of the supporting details. So answer c is the implied main idea. Answer d is true, but it is not what the supporting details are about. The supporting details do not address the part that groups play in society.

Two-person groups are an important part of our lives. A five-person group is better than a two-person group The number of people in a group affects relationships within the group. Groups playa central part in every human activity, within family,the workplace,and the government.

If you have trouble focusing in on an implied main idea, remember that finding the topic may help. For instance, you probably soon realized that the topic of the supporting ideas above is the number of people in a group. Then you could have asked yourself, "What are the supporting details saying about the number of people in a group?". As you thought about the four statements, you would try to find a point about the number of people in a group that is general enough to cover all of the specific details.
UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS THAT INVOLVE ADDITION AND TIME

To help readers understand the main points, authors use two common methods to show relationships among ideas and to make ideas clear. These two methods are transitions and patterns of organization. Transitions are words or phrases (like first of all) that show relationships between ideas. Two forms of transition are words that show:
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addition, contrast, exception. time or sequence.

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Addition words tell you that writers are adding to their thoughts. The writers are presenting one or more ideas that continue along the same line of thought as a previous idea. Addition words include: furthermore, additionally, next, in addition, etc..

Contrast words show differences between two or more items being compared. Contrast words include: on the other hand, in contrast, despite.
Exception words point out an unusual or unique feature of one item that is otherwise part of the same main category. Exception words include: however, nevertheless, with the exception of, in

the case of.

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Time words provide chronological organization to writing. Time words include: later, during + a specific time period such as a decade, a year, a month, a week, or a century e.g. the 90's, the nineteenth century. Sequential words provide step-by-step organization to writing. Sequential words include next, first, second, after, before.
UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS THAT INVOLVE ILLUSTRATION, COMPARISON OR CONTRAST, AND CAUSE AND EFFECT

Illustration is one method of clarifying our ideas. Writers often use examples and illustrations introduced by a phrase such as for example or for instance to demonstrate the point they are trying to make. Which of these two statements is easier to understand? 1. 2. Even very young children can do household .chores. They can run a du.ster along baseboards or fold napkins for dinner. Even very young children can do household chores. For instance, they can run a duster along baseboards or fold a napkin for dinner.

The second item is easier to understand becausethe phrase "For instance" tells the reader that
there is a relationship between the first and second sentence. The second sentence offers an example of the point the author makes in the first sentence..

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST:

Comparison shows similarities. Contrast shows differences. Writers often use comparison and contrast together as a way.of explaining and or analyzing the relationship between or among items, ideas, or people.

Consider the relationship among these sentences as an example of how comparison and contrast can be used together and notice the role that the underlinedtransitions play in making this relationship clear to the reader: 1. 2. 3. 4. S. Advertising is part of the strategy manufacturers use to sell their products Manufacturers use advertising as a way to advertise established products as well as new products. New products are generally advertised differentlvfrom established products. New products are often introduced with "informational"advertising telling what the products are, why they are needed, and where they are available. Established products on the other hand can rely on "reminder" advertisements, which provide little hard informationabout the product.
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The first sentence of this paragraph gives the general, or main, idea. The second sentence uses "as well as" to signal that the writer is showing a similarity between the way new and established products are advertised. The word "differently" in the third sentence and "on the other hand in the fifth sentence shows that the writer is also showing differences in the way these two types of

products are advertised.
Cause/Effect

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Information that falls into a cause-effect pattern addresses itself to the question "Why does an

event happen?" and "What are the results of an event?" Often authors try to tell about events In a way that explains both what happen~d and why.
Consider how this passage reflects the relationship between cause and effect: In 1970 about sixty small and medium-sized factories in the United States adopted a fourday workweek. According to the plan, workers work forty hours but instead of the usual five-day week, they now work only four days. Workers are enthusiastic about the three-day weekly vacation. According to management, productivity has increased about 18% since the inception of the new plan. Absenteeism has dropped by 69% and lateness is almost non-existent. What are the effects being discussed in this passage? A. B. C. D. shorter work weeks sixty small and medium-sized factories decided to try the four-day work week the seventies were a time of change increased productivity and decreases in absenteeism and tardiness

Explanation: a. Answer a gives the topic of the passage but does not discuss cause or effect. b. Answer b explains who was involvedin this experiment, but does not show a cause/ effect relationship. c. Answer c is true, but is not discussed in this passage. d. Answer d explains the results of the four-day workweek.
TONE

A writer's tone reveals the attitude he or she has toward a subject. Tone is expressed through the words and details the. author selects. Just as a speaker's voice can project a range of feelings, a writer's voice can project one or more tones, or feelings: anger, sympathy, hopefulness, sadness, respect, dislike and so on. Understandingtone is then an important part of understanding what an author has written. To illustrate the difference a writer can express in tone, consider the followingcomments made by workers in a fast food restaurant.
"I hate this job. The customers are rude, the managers are idiots, and the food smells like dog chow." (Tone: bitter, angry.) "I have no doubt that f1ippingburgers and toasting buns will prepare me for a top position on Wall Street." (Tone: mocking, sarcastic.)

"I love working at Burger Barn. I meet interesting people, earn extra money, and get to eat all the chicken nuggets I want when I go on break." (Tone: enthusiastic, positive.) Wordsthat express tone reflect a feeling or judgment. Some words that describe tone include: amused, angry, ashamed, praising, and excited. 4

Reading Diagnostic The following contains 20 questions, a section with Reading Strategies that provides explanations of all problems Included on the test, and a Key with suggestions for review that you can use for the questions you missed.
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ANSWER EACH OF THE 20 QUESTIONS ON THE ANSWER SHEET PROVIDED SCORE YOURTEST WITH THE KEYTHAT IS PROVIDED AND EVALUATE YOUR SCORE USING THE SCALE. IF YOU MADELESS THAN 70%, USE THE SECTIONS FROMTHE READING STRATEGIES SECTION IN PARENTHESES FOLLOWING THE CORRECT ANSWERS ON THE KEY TO REVIEWTHE QUESTIONS YOU MISSED. AFTER YOU HAVE COMPLETEDTHE REVIEW, TAKE THE TEST AGAIN

1. Read the statements belowand then choose the best answer to the question fromthe list of lettered choices that follows.
Sometimes when we don't oet enouoh sleeD we become very short-temDered. It is important to set a time to 00 to bed that is realistic. How are these two sentences related? A. B. C. D. The The The The first sentence explains the meaning of the second. second sentence explains why a lack of sleep affects us. second sentence contradicts the first. second sentence proposes a solution.

2. Read the statements below and then choose the best answer to the question from the list of lettered choices that follows. Most Deople collect Star Wars tovs for sentimental reasons. Some Deople collect them strictly to make monev. What is the relationship between the two sentences?

A. B. C. D. 3.

cause & effect contrast repetition statement &example

Answer the question based on what is stated or implied.

There are two kinds of jewelry that I do. There is commercial jewelry-class rings, necklaces, the kinds of things most people wear. I sell these items to meet my expenses for raw materials, supplies, and to make my living. The other, more creative work I do makes me feel that I am developing as a craftsperson. The author of this passage implies that:

A. B. C. D.

artists are poor. there is no market for creative work. rings and necklaces can not be creative. commercial and creative work fulfilldifferent needs for the artist. s

4. Read the passage below and choose the one organizational pattern from the lettered choices following the passage that best describes the way the author organized this paragraph? Did you know that the U.S. postal service handles 40% of the wor:ld'smail volume? Japan is the second largest carrier of cards and letters, but it handles only 8% of the world's mail. Perhaps the reason that the U.S".handles such a large volume of mail is the large number of personal letters American citizens write. Personal letters do not require a strict format, but they do have a few guidelines. The date should be written at the" top of the letter, either in the center or in the righthand corner. The salutation, "Dear -," should begin the letter and should be followed by a comma instead of a colon which is used in the salutation of a business letter. The body of the letter should sound like you, and say the things you Intend to say. Unlike In a business letter, you can use slang words, dashes, smiley faces, sentence fragments, and other kinds of casual forms of communication. Closing for personal letters are also a matter of personal preference. While a business letter requires you to use more formal closings such as "Sincerely," "Regards," or "Best Wishes," a personal letter can end with more casual phrases such as "later," "Talk to you Soon," or "Bye." As with the rest of the letter, the closing should express your own feelings. A. B. C. D. Cause and Effect Example Comparison and Contrast Humor

S. Read the statements below and then choose the best answer to the question from the list of lettered choices that follows. Jennv does not like cake. She does not like to bake it. to ice it. or to eat ft. What does the second sentence do?

A. B. C. D.

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It It It It

states the cause of the first. emphasizes what is stated in the first. compares the three things Jenny does not likeabout cake. draws a conclusi<:>n about Jenny.

6. Read the sentences belowand then choose the best answer to the question from the list of lettered choices that follows.

to cover.
What does the second statement do? A. B. C. D. It It It It provides supporting evidence for the first statement. draws a conclusion from the first sentence. restates the central idea of the first sentence. provides a contradictory point of view.

7. Read the statements belowand then choose the best answer to the question fromthe list of lettered choices that follows. The new Dance Tunes CDhas proved to be very popular.
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It has sold 80,000 copies over the last year. How are these two sentences related? A. B. C. D. The first sentence explains the meaning of the second. The. second sentence explains why the CD is popular.. The second sentence provides evidence of the first. The first sentence contradicts the second.

8. Read the passage below and then choose the bestanswer to the question from the list of lettered choices that follows. Before the invention of automobiles and airplanes travel was a slow process. When traveling long distances families would be out of communication until the travelers reached their destination. Sometimes people lost touch with each other permanently. The author would most likely continue the passage with which of the following sentences?

A. B. C. D.

Advances in communicationhave helped travelers stay in communication. Airplanes make travel more fun Drivinga car helps familiesstay in touch. Cars can be used to travel comfortably.

9. Read the passage below and then choose the best answer to the question from the list of lettered choices that follows. Scuba diving is the most exhilarating experience I have ever had. The first time I went, the dark mirror of the water beckoned me to drop from the side of the boat. I jumped feet first and entered a brightly colored world populated with fish, plants, and objects I had never dreamed of.

Whichof the A. B. C. D.
10.

followingbest describes the mood of the author after having this experience? Bored Anxious Excited Serene

Read the passage below and then choose the best answer to the question from the list of lettered choices that follows.

Did you know that a half-gallon milk container holds about \$50.00 in pennies? While all investment counselors realize that we must accumulate money in order to save, most recommend different kinds of investments for people who are in different stages of life. Older investors, those with limited funds to invest, or people with greater financial and family commitments, should take fewer risks. Younger, wealthier, and unmarried investors can afford to venture into the unknown. Which of the following best describes the main idea of this passage? A. B. C. D. 11. A penny saved is a penny earned. Our ages and stage of life are part of what determines the investments that are best for us. Old people have the most money. Young people should concentrate on collecting pennies.

Read the passage below and choose then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in this passage.

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Experienced truck drivers often travel in a convoy-a group of trucks that are traveling to the same

part of the country. Convoyscan help truckers to stay alert.

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The author implies that professional long-distance truck drivers may avoid traveling alone because:

A. B. C. D. 12.

they might drive too fast. they want to arrive before anyone else. acddents happen more frequently to lone truck drivers than to car drivers whotravel alone. long-distance travel can cause drowsiness.

Read the passage belowand choose then choose the best answer to the question.

Huge beasts such as the dinosaur have never really become extinct. Mothra, a. giant caterpillar who later becomes a moth, destroys Tokyo, and stars in the 1962 Japanese film named for him. Mothra is born, dies, and reborn regularly on classic movie channels. In Japan Mothra is one of the most popular films ever made. Mothra has survived the creation of more current scary creatures such as giant apes, extraterrestrial beings and swamp creatures. More than 30 years after his creation, Mothra still lives. The main subject of the passage is:

A. B. C. D.
13.

the reasons that fads do not endure. the lasting appeal of Mothra. the difficultyof marketing good horror.movies. old models for creatures are still used because making new monsters is expensive..

Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or statement. Read the sentences, and then choose the best answer to the question or the best completion of the statement. work than on tbe

What does the second sentence do?

A. It cancels the meaning of the first sentence C. It adds more detail to the first sentence. D. It offers an exception to the Informationgiven in the first sentence.
14. Read the passage below and choose then choose the best answer to the question. B. It provides an example of the first sentence. .

The Earth's past climate-Including temperature and elements In the atmosphere-has recently been studied by analyzing ice samples from Greenland and Antarctica. The air I?ubblesin the ice have shown that, over the past 160,000 years, there has been a close correlation between temperature changes and level of natural greenhouse gases carbon dioxideand methane. One recent analysis from Greenland showed that at the end of the last glacialperiod (when the great . ice sheets began to re.treat to their present position), temperatures in southern Greenland rose from 5 to 7 degrees In about 100 years. .
Air bubbles are not the only method of determining characteristics of the Earth's ancient climate history. Analysis of dust layers from ancient volcanic activity is another such method; as is the study of ice cores, which interpret past solar activity that may have affected our climate.

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. This passage states that:

A. B. C. D. 15.

the Greenhouse effect is destroying the planet's atmosphere. temperatures in Greenland have been unusually stable over the past 100 years. there is more than one kind of informationthat scientists can use to determine the characteristics of the Earth's early climate. solar energy is the wave of the future.

Two passages are followedby a question or statement. Read the passages, th~n choose the best answer to the question or the best completionof the statement.

Before video cameras were widely used, home and business owner~ had to rely only on written reports and photos as a way to document their valuables for insurance purposes. This form of documentation was difficult for some insurance policy holders. They found it was easy to lose lists, forget to add new items they purchased, or delete items they no longer had. As a result these insurance inventories were often inaccurate. While video taping is not an option for every home or business owner, this kind of insurance

documentation is helpful for some.
How are these passages related? A. B. C. D. 16. They They They They

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repeat the same idea. contradict one another. compare two forms of written documentation. present a problem and a solution.

Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or a statement. Read the sentences, and then choose the best answer to the question or the best completion of the statement.

Public speakina is verY different from everYday conversation. First How are these sentences related?

A. B. C.
D. 17.

Sentence two offers support for the statement made in the first sentence. Sentence two contradicts the statement made in the first sentence. Sentence two shows an exception to the first sentence
Sentence two compares two kinds of speeches.

Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in these passages.

French physicist Charles Fabry found ozone gas in the atmosphere in 1913. At room temperature, ozone is a colorless gas; it condenses to a dark blue liquid at -170° F. At temperatures above the boiling point of water, 2120 F, it decomposes.

Ozone is all around us. After a thunderstorm, or around electrical equipment, ozone is often detected as a sharp odor. Ozone is used as a strong oxidizingagent, a bleaching agent, and to sterilize drinking water. This gas is also highlyreactive. For example, rubber insulation around a car's spark plug wires willneed to be replaced eventually, due to the small amounts of ozone produced when electricity flowsfrom the engine to the plug.
These passages imply that:

A.

Ozone is the result of pollution.
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C. D.

car batteries. . Ozone has no practical uses. Ozoneis a natural part of the Earth's atmosphere.

High ozone levels in the atmosphere will cause large numbers of people to buy new

18. Read the passagesbelow,and-then choosethe best answer to the question. Answerthe question on ttie basis of what is stated or implied in these passages.
Many people who have come close to death from drowning, cardiac arrest, or other causes have described near-death experiences-profound, subjective events that sometimes result in dramatic changes in values, beliefs, behavior, and attitudes toward life and death. These experiences often include a new clarity of thinking, a feeling of well being, a sense of being out of the body, and visions of bright light or mystical encounters. Such experiences have been reported by an estimated 30 to 40 percent of hospital patients who were revived after coming close to death and about 5 percent of adult Americans in a nationwide poll. Near-death experiences have been explained as a response to a perceived threat of death (a psychological theory); as a result of biological states that accompany the process of dying (a physiological theory); and as a foretaste of an actual state of bliss after death (a transcendental theory). The primary purpose of this passage Is to:

A. B. C.

entertain persuade inform

D. 19.

express disbelief in the afterlife

Read the passages belowand choose then choosethe best answerto the question. Answer the question on the basisof what is stated or implied in these passages.

In most cases little birds lay little eggs. The kiwi is an astonishing exception to this rule-it is a smallish bird that lays a big egg. The kiwi, a flightless bird found in New Zealand, weighs about four pounds, and its egg weighs, believe it or not, about one pound. That is one-fourth of the bird's body weight! If an ostrich laid an egg that was in the same proportion to the ostrlcl,\ as the kiwi egg is to the kiwi, an ostrich egg would weigh a whopping seventy-five pounds instead of the usual three pounds.

Which statement below best describes the organizational method used in this passage? A. description B. comparison/contrast. C. chronological D. cause/effect 20. Read the passages below, and then choose the best answer to the question.

Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in these passages.
The rise in personal debt in recent years is due largely to aggressive and unwarranted hustling by credit-card companies. Between 1990 and 1996, credit card debt doubled. Today it is sti1lrising. Credit cards with interest rates reaching nearly 20 percent are a remarkably lucrative part of the loan business. Debtors pay an average of \$1,000 a year in interest and fees alone, money that couldinsteadhave been used for a college or retirementfund. Usingsubtle tactics to tempt unwary consumersto borrow, credit-card companies have led consumers to hold more cards and to fork over a bigger and bigger fraction of their income to the companies. A. B. C.
D.

Whichstatement best reflects the organization used in this passage?
cause/effect comparison/contrast description
explanation
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ANSWER SHEET Write In the letter of your answer next to the number that corresponds

to each question. .

1.

11.

2.

12. 13. 14.
15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

3.
4. 5.
6.

7.
a. 9. 10.

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KEY Grade your test and evaluate your score using the" scale provided below. Review the questions you missed In the Reading Strategies sections Indicated In parentheses following the correct answer.

Scale: A=18-20

8=16-17

C=14-15
(70-79°/0)

(90-1000/0) (80-89°m)
1. D. B. (Cause/Effect) (Comparison/Contrast)

D= 12-13 (69-59%) 11. 12. 13.

F=11 and below (58-0%) D. (Main Ida) (Main Idea) (exception)

2. 3.

B.
D.

D.

(Implied and Stated Ideas)

4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

C.
B. C. C. A. C.
B.

(Comp.jCont.) (Supporting Details) (MainIdea) (Supporting Details) (MainIdea) (Tone) (MainIdea)

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

C.
D.

(MainIdea)
(Cause/Effect)

A. D. C. B.
A.

(Supporting Details) (MainIdea) (MainIdea) (Comp./Cont.) (Cause/Effect)

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PRACTICE TEST SENTENCE SKILLS REVIEW

This review tests your understanding of sentence structure-of and what makes a sentence comp.lete and clear. There are 20 questions on this review.

how sentences are put together

Before you begin, work the two sample questions to get the feel of the instructions. The correct answers are indicated. Some questions on the reviewwillask you to select the best version of the underlinedpart of the sentence. The first choice is the same as the original. If you think the originalsentence is best, choose the first one, for example, Mr.Wilsonolannino to teach a course in physics next fall. a. planning b. are planning c. with a plan d. plans The correct answer is d. plans.
fall." The revised sentence should read "Mr. Wilson plans to teach a course in physics next

In other questions, the review will ask you to think through the sentences and the answer choices for a good revision. A new sentence beginning is provided. Your new sentence should be well written and should have basically the same meaning as the original sentence. Rewrite the following: Using the spell checker, she eliminated a number of errors on her paper. Rewrite, beginning with She eliminated a number of errors on her oaper...

The next words willbe a. on account of she used b. by her using c. because she used d. being as she was using The correct answer is c. because she used. The rewritten sentence should be
"She eliminated a number of errors on her paper because she used the spell checker."

For.the first three problems, select the answer that is the best version of the underlined part of the sentence. The first choice is the same as the original. If you think the original sentence is best, choose the first one.

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Working as a receptionist for my uncle's business taught me to handle customer comclaints. answerina the telechone. and how to maintain a Rolodex.

a. b. c. d.

to handle customer complaints, answering the telephone, and how to maintain a

Rolodex. Rolodex.

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how to handle customer complaints, answering the telephone, and maintaininga how to handle customer complaints, how to answer the telephone, and howto

maintaina Rolodex.

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handling customer complaints, answering the telephone, and maintenance of a Rolodex.

2.

Judy is dating a man that has a seven hundred-acre ranch near the foothills outside of tmm..

a. b. c. d.
3.

a man.that has a seven hundred-acre ranch near the foothillsoutside of town. a man, that has a seven hundred-acre ranch near the foothillsoutside oftown. a man, who has a seven hundred-acre ranch near the foothillsoutside of town. a man who has a seven hundred-acre ranch near the foothillsoutside of town.

These books. which was Dublished in the late eiahteenth centurY. are very valuable. a. b. c. d. books which was published in the late eighteenth century books in the late eighteenth century books which were published books, which is published, in the eighteenth century

For the following three problems, think through the sentences for a good revision. A new sentence beginning is provided. Your new sentence should be well written and should have basically the same meaning as the original sentence. 4. The hikers were at the bottom of the canyon, and they discovered an abandoned mineshaft. with

Rewrite, beginning

After the hikers were... The next words will be

a. b. c. d.

at the at the at the at the

bottom 'ofthe canyon, and they discovered an abandoned mlneshaft. bottom of the canyon, they discovered an abandoned mineshaft. bottom of the canyon they discovered an abandoned mineshaft. bottom of the canyon when they discovered an abandoned mineshaft.

5.

Good money managers controltheir present expenses, and they invest surplus dollarsto meet their future needs.

Rewrite the sentence using because
The best choice will be

a.

Good money managers, because they control their present expenses, they invest surplus dollars to meet their future.needs.

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b. c. d.

Because good money managers control their present expenses, they invest surplus dollars to meet their needs. Because good money managers control their present expenses they invest

surplusdollarsto meet their needs.

"

Goodmoney managers control their"present expenses, because they invest surplus dollars to meet their future needs.

6.

In a large city, you may have massive trafficjams on your daily commute to work. Rewrite this sentence omitting J£!mL a. b. c. d. "Ina large city, a person may have massive trafficjams on your daily commuteto work. In a large city, a resident may have massive trafficjams on his daily commute to work. In a large city, massive trafficjams may be part of the daily commute to work. In a large city, massive trafficjams may be part of the everyday commute on the way to work.

In the next three problems, select the best version of the underlined part of the sentence. The first choice is the same as the original. If you think the original sentence is best, choose the first one.

7.

Pantlna. the cab Dulledawav iust as Judy arrived. a. b. c. d. Panting, the cab pulled away The cab pulled away panting Panting, Judy "arrived Just as Judy was panting

8.

. We could watch the stars sittina on the balconv. a. b. c. d. the stars sitting on the balcony sitting on the balcony, the stars on the balcony, the stars sitting Sitting on the balcony,

9.

If a person wants to succeed In school, thev have to studv. a. b. c. d. they have to study. he or she has to study. they has to study. he or she have to study.

For the following three problems, think through the sentences for a good revision. A new sentence beginning is provided. Your new sentence should be well written and should have basically the same meaning as the original sentence. 10. We ordered lobster since it was our anniversary. with

Rewrite, beginning

Since it was our anniversarv...

--

4

The new sentence

should read

a. b. c. d. 11.

Since it was our anniversary; w~ordered lobster. Since it was our anoiversary, we ordered lobster. Since it was our anniversary we ordered lobster. Since it was our anniversary, and we ordered lobster.

Tornadoes are winds which rotate In a counterclockwisedirection and look like a funnel at the bottom of a cloud, as anyone who is familiarwith Oklahomaweather knows.
Rewrite, beginning with Anvone who is ... Your new sentence will Include

a. b. c. d.
12.

knowingtornadoes and knows tornadoes has knowledgeof tornadoes knowsthat tornadoes....

Our supervisor, Betty White, handles all of the personnel problems that arise because she is an extremely diplomatic person in working with people. Rewrite, beginning with Beina extremelv diclomatlc in workina with ceoDle. The next words would

a. c. d.

all of the personnel problems....

b.

our supervisor,BettyWhite,....

and that .... problems arising with personnel....

In the next three problems, select the best version of the underlined part of the sentence. The first choice is the same as the original. If you think the original sentence is best, choose the first one.

13.

use of

a.
b.

c. d.
14.

Chief Harriganwas invited to our safety meeting, he can demonstrate the correct use of fire extinguishers. ChiefHarriganwas invited to our safety meeting, therefore, he can demonstrate the correct use of fire extinguishers.. Chief Harriganwas Invited to our safety meeting; therefore to demonstrate the correct use of fire extinguishers. Chief Harriganwas invited to our safety meeting so that he can demonstrate the correct use of fire extinguishers.

Coming in from Fourth Street" the Student Union is seen bv students who are arriving on camDUS.

a. b. c.

Student Unionis seen by students who are arriving on campus. students who are arriving on campus see.... the students having seen the Student Union....

--

--

5

d.
15.

the Student Unionis being seen

....

Because modern machinery can function unattended, the unemployment rate may increase, this could Dossiblv cause the Dovertv rate to be hiaher.

a. b. c. d.

this could possiblycause the poverty rate to be higher. possibly causing a higher poverty rate. the possible raising of the poverty rate willbe the result this causes the poverty rate to increase.

For the following four problems, think through the sentences fpr a good revision. A new sentence beginning is provIded. Your new sentence should be well written and should have basically the same meaning as the original sentence. 16. Due to the fact it was raining on the scheduled day of the picnic, the drama club had to cancel and reschedule a new date for the event. with

Rewrite, beginning

The drama club had to... The next words should be

a. b. c. d.
17.

due to the fact it was raining on the scheduled day of the picnic, cancel and reschedule a new date for the event. reschedule the picnicbecause of rain. cancel the picnicand reschedule it because of rain reschedule a new date for the picnicbecause it was canceled due to rain.

While it was raining, we decided to play cards. with

Rewrite, beginning

We decided to clav ... The next words should be

a. b. c. d. 18.

cards whileit was raining cards, whileit was raining. cards; whileit was raining. cards; but whileit was raining.

Whilewe were in Illinois,we visited General Grant's home.
with

Rewrite, beginning

We toured General Grant's ... The next words should be

a. b.
c. d.

home, it is in Illinois. home, and it is in Illinois. home; In Illinois. home visiting in Illinois.

--

---

6 19. Tornadoes are made up of winds with speeds of 30 or 40 miles an hour or higher, and

they cause the most deaths.
with

.

Rewrite, beginning
hiaher. ...

r The next words should be

a. b. c. d.

and they cause the most deaths. causing the most deaths. the tornadoes causing the most deaths. they cause the most deaths.

In the next problem, select the best version of the underlined part of the sentence. The first choice Is the same as the original. If you think the original sentence is best, choose the first one. 20. If you want to create a beautiful room, having a large sum of money is not nearly so important to the finished setting as is the knowfedae of basic decoratinQ.

a. b. c. d.

as Is the knowledgeof basic decorating. as knowingthe basics of decorating. but the knowledgeof basic decorating. like the knowledgeof basic decorating.

--

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7
ENGLISH REVIEW ANSWER SHEET

1.

c.
d.

Parallel form is needed for expressing similar ideas. Repeating "how to" with each action accomplishesthis. When referring to a"person or people, use the relative pronoun "who." Sincethe clause beginning with "who" is essential to the meaning of the sentence, a comma is unnecessary. The reader needs to know"who"Judy is dating. Use "were" for subject-verb agreem~nt. "Which"is plural because it refers to "books."
Introductory dependent clauses need a comma to set them off from the main clause. Sentences beginning with "after, when, if as, before, because, etc." usually need a comma after the introductory dependent clause. Sometimes sentences contain ideas that are unequal. If one Idea explains the other, it Is put in a subordinate (lesser) position. This Idea should be expressed In a subordinate clause. A dependent clause at the beginning of a sentence must be followed by a comma.

2. 3. 4. 5.

c.
b.

b.

6. 7. 8. 9.

c.
c. d.

Avoid using ambiguous references to "you." Also,construct sentences for clarity. People don't have trafficjams; cars do.
A misplaced modifier Is a word or word group that is Improperly separated from the word it modifies making the sentence sound awkward, ridiculous, or confusing. An introductory verbal must modify the subject. Modifiers should be close to the word they modify; otherwise, they are misplaced (see #7). A pronoun must agree In number with the antecedent (word it modifies). "Person" Is singular; "they" Is plural and this causes a shift In number. To avoid sexist language, both "he" and "she" are used to refer to "person" since "person" is not gender-specific.

b.

10.
11.

b. d.

When a dependent clause Introduces a sentence, a comma is needed after the clause. The new sentence upgrades the dependent clause"as anyone...knows"to an independent clause "Anyone...knows." The new sentence includes "knowsthat tornadoes are"-subordlnating the main Idea, "Tornadoesare winds " The dependent clause has been reduced to an introductoryverbal phrase modifying the subject. This sentence contains the error of a comma splice (two Independent clauses separated by a comma only). Onewayto correctthis is to subordinatea clause.
When the dependent clause Is at the end of a sentence, a comma Is usually not necessary.

12. 13.

b.

d.

14.

b.
b.

An introductory verbal phrase must modify the subject of the sentence.

15.

The last two clauses contain a comma splice. To correct this, the last clause can be reduced to a verbal phrase modifying"increase." Avoidunnecessary words which can jumble the flowof the sentence.

16.

b.

--

--

--

-

-

-

-

--

17.

a. b. d.
b.

8

When an Independent clause is followedby a dependent clause, a comma is usually unnecessary. Two Independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, or, for, nor, yet) need ~ comma after the first clause. When a dependent clause introduces the sentence, a comma is needed after the clause. For clarity, use parallel wording: "having a large sum of money...knowingthe basics of decorating."

18. 19.
20.

ENGLISH REVIEW ANALYSIS If you missed 1,20 2,9 3 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19 6 7,8 13, 15 14 16 18 Study Parallel Form Pronoun Reference Subject

- Verb Agreement-

. Dependent Clauses, Subordinating Ideas .
and Sentence Structure

Clarity Misplaced Modifiers Comma Splices Verbal Phrases (Introductory) Wordiness Punctuating Compound Sentences

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----

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-

PRACTICE TEST

Arithmetic

1. Subtract:
A) 4.498

8.02

3.696 B) 2.894

-

.

C) 4.324

D) 11.716 D) 20%

2. 40 Is what percent of 800? A) 5% B) 0.05% C)

15%

3. Divide 1.0698 / 0.001 A) 0.0010698 B) 1069.8
4. A car traveled did it get? A) 8

C) 10,069.8

D) 106.98

200 mi. on 121/:t gal. of gas. How many miles per gallon B) 16 C) 18 . D) 162/3

5. Add and simplify: l..- + ~ + .!...10 8 20 47 A) B) Noneof these 40 6. Subtract:
A) 2.!2. 24 7 . 8

C) 67 40

D) 179 40

5- -4-

5 6 C) I..!... 24 D) 9..!... 24

B) 124

7. On a recent day the stock of Datatech opened at \$391/4 and rose \$23/4 in the course of the day. What was the closing price?
A) \$361/2 B} \$38 C) \$42 D) \$41

8.

Multiply:

4.!.

2

. .!. 5
B) 14 5 2 C) 22.!.. 2
9 D) 10

A) 3

10

9. Divide and simplify: 15 + 3
A)

! 2

B) 35

C) 45 2

2 D) 45

10. Divide 6 )2455. Write a mixed numeral for the answer. A)411! 6 B)49.!. 6 C)51~D)409.!.. 6 6

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---

- -

11. A wheel on a bicycle makes 711/4 revolutions per minute. for 40 minutes, how many revolutions does It make? C) None of these D) 2850 A) 2840IA B) 12%2

If it rotates

12. Courtney ran the 100-meter relay in 21.4 seconds, and later ran the same distance In 16.7 seconds. By how much did she improve her time? A) 4.7 seconds B) 38.1 seconds C) 5.7 seconds D) Noneof these 13. Solve: 38.36 + x = 88.334 B) 84.498 A) None of these 14. Find decimal notation: B) 71 A) 0.071 15. What is 60.5% of 80? B) 484 A) 0.13 0.71% C) 0.71 C) 4.84 C) 49.974 D) 0.0071 D) 48.4 D) 126.694 .

16. In one year, the population of Elm Town increased from 900 to 981. What was the percent of increase? A) 9% B) 1.09% C) 0.917% D) 8.257% 17. This circle graph shows how each tuition dollar Is spent by the Oaks School.

Benefits 0.20 Wages 0.40

How much of each dollar is left after expenses for wages have been paid? A) \$0.70 B) Noneof these C) \$0.55 D) \$0.75

18. Solve: 12.2 = P - 8.6
A) 20.8 19. Solve: A) B) -104.92 C) 3.6 D) None of these

3 I -x= 4 2
B)

~ 8

~ 3

C) None of these

20. When 10 is subtracted from two times a certain number, the result is twenty-eight (28). What is the number? A) 17 B) 19 C) Noneof these D) 22

-

21. A pharmacist has 100 ml of a solution of alcohol and water; alcohol. How many milliliters are alcohol? A) 20 ml B) 2000 mJ C) 5 mJ D) 95 mJ 22. A student's A) \$700 college tuition is \$6300. B) \$5400 C) \$37,800 A loan was obtained D) \$900
.

5°10 is

for

~ of the

tuition. How much was the loan?
23. The regular price of a suit Is \$120. It is on sale at 19°/0 off. What is the discount? A) \$19.00 B) \$101.00 C) \$97.20 D) \$22.80

24. Approximate .J15 to three decimal places. A) 225 B) 7.500 C) 3.873 D) 3.742
25. What is the cost of 5 CD's at \$16 each and 7 videotapes A) \$80 B) \$248 C) \$228 D) \$168 at \$24 each?

--

Answers: 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. C 8. D 9. A 10.D l1.D 12.A 13.C 14.D 15.D 16.A 17.B 18.A 19.B 20.B 21.C 22.B 23.D 24.C 25.B

Fractions
Terms Numerator: which tells howmany parts you have (the number on top) -t --1Denominator: which tells how many parts in the whole (the numberon the bottom)-t 4

Example:

is 3 parts have a dot out of 4 Properfraction: the top numberis less than the bottomnumber. 1 7 9

~ ~

3
=4
-

Ex.- -

.3'10'19 -

Improperfraction: the top numberis equal to or is largerthan the bottomnumber. 398
. 2' 4' 8 Mixed Numbe~: a whole number is written next to a proper fTaction. 3 2 1 Ex: 1- 2- 104' 5' .2 Common Denominator: is a number that can be divided evenly by all of the denominators in the problem Ex:

Ex. -

-

3 9 4 12 2 8 - -t 12 -7 3 12 1 6 - -t 12 -7 2 12

- -t 12 -t -

The common denominator for these ftactions will be 12. It also happens to be least common denominator.

.

Reducing Fractions to Lowest Tenns

Example: 48 8 6 - - -- 64 8 8

Step 1: Find a number that-goes evenly into the numera{Qrand the denominator of the fi"a!:tion. With

the fTaction the left,the number that will go in evenly is 8. to

.

623 -- --824

Step 2: Check to see whether another number goes evenly into both the ~umerator and denominator. Stop when there are no more numbers that can go into the ftaction. In the example, the fraction can be reduced further by dividing it by 2.

OS/24/99

1:7

Arithmetic

Changing Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions Example: Change 2 ~ to an improperfraction. 4
Step 1: Multiply the denominator by the whole number.

2x4=8
Step 2: Add the result to the numerator.

8+3=11 11 4 Step 3: Place the total over the denominator.

. Example

Adding and Subtracting Fractions With Different Bottom Numbers 3 2

1:

-+-=
4 3

~ X ~= ~ 4 3 12
-x -=2 3 4 4 8 12 5 12

0

3

3_

Step 1: Needto findthecommon
denominatorfor all ftactions.

Example2: '4 - 163 4 _ 12 4 x '4 - 16 3 x-- 21_
16 1 16

0

9 8 17 -+-=-=1-* 12 12 12

Step.2: Then go ahead and add or subtract the ftactions.

3 -12 - -- -9 16 16 16

*Rememberto change improper fractionsto a mixednumber. M~ltiplying Fractions 3 5 15 -x -= 4 6 24 15 ----- 3 5 24 3 8
Multiply the numerators across. Then multiply the denominators across. Make sure the product is in lowest terms.

Multiplying with Mixed Numbers 2 2

Example:2-x 1-= 3 5

0

2-= -

2

8

3 3 2 7 1- =5 5
8 7 56 11

Step 1: Change every mixed ftaction to an improper fraction.

-x-=-=33 5 15
051Z4/99

Step 2: Then multiply across.
Step 3: Then change the improper fraction to a mixed number in lowest terms.
2:7 Arithmetic:

15

- --

-

-- - -

Dividing Fractions 1 I
Example: '4 + "2=

D

The fraction that is right of the division sign will need to be turned upside down by writing the numerator in the denominator and the denominator in the nur:nerator. Then follow the rules for multiplying fractions. I 2 2 -x-=-+-="4 1 4 Practice: 1. Change 4.!. to an improper fraction. 6 2 2 1 2

. 42 2. Change - to a mixednumber. 16 5.9!.!. 13 1 -22 6.10 7 8 3 -27

5 2 +23

3.5

4.5!

2 2 +33

10.3i

. 5

+

5~=
6

D

25 Answers: 1) 6

2) 2

8

3) 8.i. 4) 91. 15 . 6

5) 7

26

6) 8 25 7) 147 8) 9.!..!. 9) 2. 56 63 21' 77

10) 114 175

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3:7

Arith~tic

-

--

-

DECIMALS
Addinf! and Subtraction Decimals Add: 28.5 + 44.47 + 3075.6 28.50 44.47 + 3075.60 314H.;I
Subtract: 380.53 - 75

Step"]: Line up the deCimalpoints. Step 2: Then add or subtract.

380.53

- 75.00
305.53

Multi1>lyinf! ecimals D Multiply 1.89x 5.03 =
x 1.89 5.03 567 94500 95067

_
" " "

Step 1: Multiply the decimalsas you would do with whole

Step 2: Then COW1t number of spaces of each factor being multiplied. Decimal the places are the number of spaces to the right of the decimal point, There is 2 in the top factor and two in the bottom factor, so the decimal is placed 4 spaces fTomthe right. Step 3: Show the total number of places

~ your answer.

Dividinf! a Decimal Example:

by a"Whole Number

.037 73)2.701 219 511 511

Place the decimal point "directly above its position in the problem. Then divide the same way as you divide whole numbers.

o
Dividinf! a Decimal by a Decimal Num ber Move the decimalpoint of the divisor (outsidethe bracket) as far right as Example: 4.374+ .03 =

_

you can go. Then move the decimal point in the dividend (inside the

~

.03)4374 2 spaces

~
"

3)437.4 bracket)thesamenumberofplacesasthedivisor.

Place the decimal point directly above its position in the problem. Then divide the same way as divide whole numbers.
"

145 .8 3 )437 .4 1 13 12 17 ~ 24 24

-0

"

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4:7

Arithmetic

Practice: J. 18.1 x .04

2. .97 x 5.6

3. 123+ 2.6 + 9.04 =D

4. 83~0097+ 124.9 + 9.043 =

D

5. .07 - .002 =

6. 96 - .3992 =

7. 4)27.36

8. 0.2601+ 9

9. 7.055 + 0.83

10. 2.03)4.466

Answers: 1) 0.724 2) 5.432 3) 134.64 4) 216.9527 5) 0.068 6) 95.6008 7) 6.84 8) 0.0289 9) 8.5 10) 2.2

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5:7

Arithmdic

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PERCENTS
Percents are used to describe a part of something. Percents are used to figure out sales or the amount of interest someone will pay on a loan. When converting a percent to its fr:action form, it wilJ always have a denominator of 100.

Chanl!inl!Decimals to Percents or Percents to DeCimals The importantkey is where to move the decimalpoint. If changing from decimalto percent, you would need to movethe decimalpoint two places to the right and add the percent sign. Example;0.35 = 35% 0.8 = 80% To changetrom percentto decimal, need to movethe decimal point two places to the left and dropthe percent sIgn. Example: 30% = .3 "
0.9% = .009

ConvertiOI!Fraction to Percent Form Divide the bottomnumber of the fractionintothe top number and move the point two places to the right. 3 Example: 4
.75 4)3.00 28 20. 20

= 35 = 75%

o
-orMultiply the fraction by 100% 3 25 Example: 4

yx~
1 Percent to Fraction Example: 85% 85 ----5 17

3

100%

= 75% = 75%
1

100

5

20

Write the percent as a fraction with 100 as the

.

denominator. Then reduce the traction to lowestterms.

Percent ora Number 1) What is 25% of \$6,500. n = 25% x \$6,500
n = .25 x 6500 n = \$1,625
OS/24/99

-or-

2) Change the percent to a fTactj~n 1 n = _ (6500 ) '4 '

n=~ 6,500 4 n =\$1,625
6:7 Arithmetic

Findin~ What Percent One Number Is of Another There are key words to rememberthatwjIJhelp you solve the problemit is asking you. The word 'of in the sentence meansto multiply. The word 'is. means it is equal to. Example: 9 is what percent of 45
-1-1-

9 = 45a 4545 9 -=a 45 9 9 -+-=a 45 9 1

9= a

(x) 45

The variable 'a' is being multiplied by 45. Need to divide by 45.

-=a 5 0.20= a 20%= a

Therefore, 20% of 45 is 9.

Findin~ a Number When a Percent ont is Given Example: 20% of what number is 16?
-1-

.2 .a = 16 20 a = 16 100 1 16 -a=5 1 1 16 5 x "5a = T x 5 a=16x5 a= 80
Changethe percentto :fractionfonn.

Needto multiply bothsidesoftheequation 5. by

Practice: Write the fonowing in percent fonn. 62

1. 0.12

2. 8

3.5

4. 0.233

5. 1.15

6. What is 11 % of \$3,OOO?

7. 60 is what percent of 12,000?

8. 28 is 40 % of what number?

Answers:

1) 12% 2) 75% 7) 0.5% 8) 70

3) 40%

4) 23.3%

5) 115%

6) \$330

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7:7

Arithmetic .

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